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Causes of the Civil War

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Title: Causes of the Civil War Author: hermansenjoel Last modified by: Karl Byrd Created Date: 12/14/2005 12:53:51 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Causes of the Civil War


1
Causes of the Civil War
  • 1850-1861

2
Compromise of 1850
  • Stalls trouble
  • Components
  • California admitted free
  • Popular sovereignty in New Mexico
  • Tougher fugitive slave law
  • Abolition of slave trade in DC

3
Vigilance Committees
  • Northern cities swear to protect freed and
    fugitive slaves.
  • Anthony Burns example
  • Violence common.

4
Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Published in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
  • Told the story of Uncle Tom, a kind slave who is
    physically and emotionally terrorized by sadistic
    overseer Simon Legree.
  • His death and the story shock Northern readers.

5
Transcontinental Railroad
  • Franklin Pierces initiative
  • Gadsen Purchase designed to add remaining
    continental territory as to build a southern
    route from coast to coast.

6
Gadsden Purchase
7
Quiz 10.2
  • Discuss the causes of violence in Kansas.
    Discuss the violence that occurred in Kansas in
    1854.

8
Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • To support a railroad, the remaining territories
    need to be organized into statehood for the
    purpose of having the railroad.
  • Native Americans need to be relocated
  • Stephen A. Douglas emerges to prominence
  • Principal of the act If South is to accept the
    Northern railroad route, they must get
    somethingwhat do they get? Popular Sovereignty
    in Kansas/Nebraska

9
Slavery in Kansas/Nebraska?
  • Douglas thought the idea absurd, it was
    geographically impossible for slavery to exist
    there? So his thought, we need a railroad, so
    who cares if they want to have slaves in a
    northern climateit will die out?
  • Result wrong. This became a fury!

10
The race is on
  • Populate Kansas as quickly as possible with free
    soilers and pro slavery forces.
  • Congressional quotes!
  • There are 1,1000 coming over from Platte, Co. to
    vote and if that aint enough we can send
    5,000-enough to kill every abolitionist in
    the territory.

11
Quotes
  • Come on Gentleman of the slave states, since
    there is no escaping your challenge,, I accept it
    on behalf of freedom. We will engage in
    competition for the virgin soil of Kansas, and
    God give victory of the side which is stronger in
    numbers as it is in right.

12
Impacts of Kansas/Nebraska Act
  • The reopening of the slavery question in the
    territories with almost immediate tragic results
    in Bleeding Kansas
  • The president's hope for reelection dashed
  • The complete realignment of the major political
    parties
  • The Democrats lost influence in the North and
    were to become the regional proslavery party of
    the South
  • The Whig Party, which had opposed the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act, died in the South and was
    weakened in the North
  • A new Republican Party emerged as an immediate
    political force, drawing in anti-Nebraska Whigs
    and Democrats.

13
Bleeding Kansas
14
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15
Bleeding Kansas Defined
  • The Raid on Lawrence, Kansas. In May 1856, a band
    of Border Ruffians crossed the border from
    Missouri and attacked the free-soil community of
    Lawrence, looting and burning a number of
    buildings. Only one person was killed (one of the
    Ruffians), but the door to violence had been
    breached.
  • The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre. A few days
    later, in retaliation for the Lawrence raid,
    abolitionist forces under the zealot John Brown
    attacked a small proslavery settlement on
    Pottawatomie Creek. On Browns orders, five men
    were executed with a scythe.

16
John Brown
17
Election of James Buchanon
  • Northern doughface. Northern (Penn) man able to
    move in Southern political circles

18
The most shocking event?
  • Charles Sumner is beaten to within an inch of his
    life for slandering a relative of Preston Brooks
    and his pro slavery views.
  • Problemthe beating occurred in the US Senate!

19
Sumner-Brooks
20
Dred Scott
  • Scott was transported from slave Missouri, to
    Wisconsin, sued for his freedom as he entered
    into free territory he must be free.

21
Impact of Dred Scott
  • North outraged
  • Slavery rendered possible everywhere, Mo.
    Compromise and Great compromise abolished.
  • Slaves now have constitutional protection thanks
    to a vile 7-2 decision led by Southerner Roger B.
    Taney
  • Dred Scott was labeled property.

22
LeCompton Constitution
  • A proslavery constitution thatwas arrived at
    illegally.
  • When passed by the pro-slavery forces illegally
    it was backed by President Buchannan! Outrage.
  • Even some southern senators insisted on a more
    democratic process.
  • Result the constitution was defeated by a 6-1
    margin! Buchannan shamed and humiliated.

23
Excerpts
  • The legislature shall have no power to pass laws
    for the emancipation of slaves without the
    consent of the owners
  • Free negroes shall not be permitted to live in
    this State under any circumstances.

24
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Senate seat in Illinois, young representative and
    lawyer Abraham Lincoln v. Stephen A. Douglas.

25
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
26
John Brown and Harpers Ferry
27
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28
Election of 1860
29
Election of 1860
  • I will say then that, I am not nor have ever
    been, in favor of bringing about in any way the
    social and political equality of the black and
    white race.

30
Secession
  • South Carolina Dec. 20, 1860
  • Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia,
    Louisiana, Texas Feb. 1, 1861
  • Confederate States of America
  • President Jefferson Davis

31
Secession
32
Order of secession
  • South Carolina (December 21, 1860),
  • Mississippi (January 9, 1861),
  • Florida (January 10, 1861),
  • Alabama (January 11, 1861),
  • Georgia (January 19, 1861),
  • Louisiana (January 26, 1861), and
  • Texas (February 1, 1861).

33
The Confederacy
34
Border States?
  • Lost
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • Arkansas
  • Preserved
  • Maryland
  • Delaware
  • Kentucky
  • Missouri

35
Challenges
  • Missouri-Border Ruffians
  • Maryland-suspension of Habeas Corpus
  • Delaware-only 2 slave
  • Kentucky-losing Kentucky is like losing the
    whole game Abraham Lincoln.

36
Antebellum Review 1848-1860
  • What are the primary causes of the Civil War?
  • What were the key events during the Antebellum
    that fostered the coming of war?
  • What could have been done during the Antebellum
    to stop the war?
  • Some have argued that the civil war had been
    coming since 1776would you agree?

37
Theatres of War
  • 1861-1865

38
Tale of the Tape
  • Northern Advantages
  • Industry
  • Executive Leadership
  • Naval superiority
  • Ability to supply armaments.
  • Number of fighting men
  • European relations
  • Stability of political system
  • Southern Advantages
  • Caliber of fighting men
  • Military leadership
  • Defensive war
  • King Cotton Diplomacy
  • Dont have to win the war?

39
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40
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41
Fort Sumter
42
Fort Sumter
  • Lincoln made two promises at his innauguration
    that are vital
  • He would be friends of the South and not invade
    or pursue unprovoked military action.
  • He had a duty to protect Federal property.

43
Bull Run (Manassas)
  • Federals named things after geographic features,
    rivers, etcConfederates after civic sites like
    railroads or cities (Manassas Junction Railroad)

44
All myths about the war dispelled
  • This is not the Mexican American War
  • Lincolns initial call for 75,000 men seems
    feeble. Issues a new call for 500,000 men. The
    war will be unlike any that we have seen.
  • It appears clear as Irving McDowell is routed by
    Pierre Gustave Toutant (PGT) Beauregard that the
    confederates will have a distinct advantage in
    military leadership.

45
Manassas
  • Casualties were light for a civil war battle,
    2000 confederates, 1600 union.
  • Southerners lauded it as one of the decisive
    battles of the world.
  • McDowell replaced with young bravado George
    McClellan who despised Lincoln and will contest
    his leadership in the election of 1864.

46
May 1862 Union Offensive
  • Siege on Richmond
  • Peninsula Campaign May, 1862. McClellan moves,
    hammered by Johnston and then Lee.
  • Lee/McClellan contrast.
  • Battle of Seven Days 30,000 lost. McClellan
    replaced with John Pope.

47
Antietam
48
Bloodiest Day in US History
  • McClellans big break.
  • 23,000 dead (several fields of battle)
  • McClellans failure proves costly.
  • Emergence of Ambrose Burnside.

49
Fredericksburg
  • One of the worst union defeats. An attack on a
    Confederate stronghold. Several day totals
    13,000 Union, 5,000 Confederate.

50
Western Theatre
  • Issues control of Border States
  • Mississippi River and its control would sever the
    confederacy.
  • Battle of Pea Ridge

51
Pea Ridge
  • Sees the inclusion of Native Americans on the
    side of the Confederacy. This key Union victory
    allowed them to remain in control of Missouri.

52
Wests Mineral Wealth
  • Both sides recognized the importance of the
    Southwest and the mineral wealth that laid
    within.
  • Confederate failures meant no empire west of
    Texas.
  • Union led by John Chivington.

53
US Grant emerges
  • Failure from Galena, Illinois.
  • He had the aggressiveness that Lincoln craved, he
    matched Lee in that regard.
  • Victories at Fort Donnellson and on the Tennessee
    River drove the confederates out of Kentucky.
  • His perseverance at Shiloh secured a Northern
    victory and facilitated a slow Southern defeat in
    the West.

54
Union Blockade
  • Severing Southern commerce was key for the Union.
  • Overestimated the importance of King Cotton.
  • Shut the confederacy out from the world,
    deprived it of supplies weakened its military and
    naval strength.
  • Egyptian cotton and a bumper crop of 1860 in the
    South ruined their visions of European
    intervention.
  • Union victories and their contempt for slavery
    dashed any hope of intervention on behalf of the
    Confederacy.

55
1863-1865
  • 5/1863 Chancellorsville
  • 7/1863 Gettysburg
  • 7/4/1863 Vicksburg
  • 9/1863 Chickamauga
  • 5/1864 Battle of the Wilderness
  • 5/1864 Spotsylvania Court House
  • 6/1864 Cold Harbor
  • 9/1864 Fall of Atlanta
  • 12/1864 Fall of Savannah
  • 4/2 1864 Fall of Richmond
  • 4/9 Appomattox Surrender

56
US Grant
  • Grants simplistic ideals. Sophisticated
    reorganization and reintegration of technology.

57
Chancellorsville
  • Despite doubling Confederate forces in
    Chancellorsville Virginia, the recently appointed
    Joseph Hooker is outwitted by Lees genius. A
    devastating northern defeat, a huge victory for
    Lee.

58
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59
The Twin Disasters
  • Vicksburg and Gettysburg were the turning points
    of the Civil War. Southern forces endured
    cataclysmic defeats in both the North and the
    South, the tide had turned.
  • They occurred one day from each other and
    signaled the end of the war.

60
Vicksburg
  • Impregnable stronghold that was sieged with a
    brilliant move by Grant. The civil wars most
    brutal reminder of Grants total war philosophy.

61
Vicksburg conclusions
  • Lee refused the call of the Eastern armies to
    save western Vicksburg. He felt an invasion of
    the North to be more important and that
    eventually the weather would hamper Grants
    efforts.
  • Grant and the Union controlled the Mississippi,
    the confederacy had been cut in two.

62
Gettysburg
63
Lees miscalculation
  • Chancellorsville gets to his head. Invades
    North.
  • Meade intercepts the force at Gettysburg, where
    Northern forces occupied the high ground atop the
    field at Little Round Top.

64
Cemetery Ridge
  • Lee ordered George Pickett and his men to charge
    the union forces, fortified atop big and little
    round tops. The result 28,000 casualties.
  • The hopeless maneuver cost Lee 1/3 of his battle
    hardened force.
  • Last offensive in the North for Lee.

65
Chickamauga and Chattanooga
66
Grants reputation grows
  • Rescues victory from the jaws of defeat at
    Chattanooga and deals a devastating blow to the
    confederacy as the victory paved the way for
    Georgia and Shermans march to the sea.

67
Grant v. Lee
  • Total War v. Strategic War
  • Astonishing casualty totals at
  • Wilderness
  • Spotsylvania Court House
  • Cold Harbor

68
The Overland Campaign
69
Wilderness
  • Lee negated Grants numbers in the trees. 18000
    casualties. Usually considered a draw, set the
    stage for other bloodshed in Spotsylvania County
    Virginia.

70
Spotsylvania Court House
  • Grant moving to Richmond, Lee moves to stop him.
    120,000-60,000. Lee inflicts staggering death
    tolls, but Grants total war is taking its toll
    on the smaller armies.

71
Cold Harbor
72
Overland Campain
  • Grants Union Army of the Potomacs quest to get
    to Richmond.
  • Staggering Union defeat that left even Grant
    bewildered at a 3-1 death toll ratio.
  • He indicated
  • "I have always regretted that the last assault at
    Cold Harbor was ever made. I might say the same
    thing of the assault of the 22d of May, 1863, at
    Vicksburg. At Cold Harbor no advantage whatever
    was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we
    sustained."

73
Shermans March to the Sea
  • Grants apocalyptic march to Richmond distracted
    Confederate forces and after union Victories at
    Chattanooga and Vicksburg, Sherman had a clear
    path to the sea..
  • Battle of Kennesaw Mountain paved the way.
  • Goalmake Georgia howl.

74
Kennesaw Mountain
  • Sherman embraces Lees concept of Total War.

75
The March to the Sea
  • Scorched Earth, Theft, Destruction, ruined
    Railroad transportation.

76
The Election of 1864
  • Republican and Democrats divided. Issues ranging
    from war handling, to emancipation, to finances,
    to character.

77
Appomattox Court House
78
Differing opinions
  • HEADQUARTERS, ARMIES OF THE U. S. 5 P. m., April
    7th, 1865 GENERAL R. E. LEE, Commanding C. S. A.
           
  • The results of the last week must convince you of
    the hopelessness of further resistance on the
    part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this
    struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as
    my duty to shift from myself the responsibility
    of any further effusion of blood by asking of you
    the surrender of that portion of the Confederate
    States army known as the Army of Northern
    Virginia.
  • U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-General
  • April 7th, 1865
  • LIEUTENANT-GENERAL U. S. GRANT, Commanding
    Armies of the U. S.
  • GENERAL I have received your note of this date.
    Though not entertaining the opinion you express
    of the hopelessness of further resistance on the
    part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I
    reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion
    of blood, and therefore, before considering your
    proposition, ask the terms you will offer on
    condition of its surrender.
  • R.E. LEE,

79
Generous Terms
  • Lee was surprised to learn that Grant allowed the
    men to return home immediately and plant a crop,
    using their horses to do so.

80
Toll
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