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Chapter 14: Energy: Some Basics


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Title: Chapter 14: Energy: Some Basics

Chapter 14 Energy Some Basics
  • Outlook for Energy
  • Energy Basics
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Energy Sources and Consumption
  • Energy Conservation, Increased Efficiency and
  • Sustainable Energy Policy

Outlook for Energy
  • Energy Crisis in Greece and Rome
  • Greeks and Romans used wood to heat their homes
  • As local supplies ran out had to bring it in from
    farther away
  • Eventually both societies learned to build houses
    south facing
  • Allows sun to heat house in winter
  • Sustainable
  • Laws protected a persons right to solar energy

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Outlook for Energy
  • Energy situation facing the US today is similar
    to that faced by Greeks and Romans
  • Wood use peaked in 1880s
  • Coal use peaked in 1920
  • Reaching the peak of oil and gas use
  • The decisions we make today will affect energy
    use for generations

Energy Basics
  • Force
  • Exert force by pushing or pulling
  • Strength of force can be measured by how much it
    accelerates an object
  • Ex pushing a car uphill

Energy Basics
  • Physics terms
  • Work - exerting force over a distance
  • Work is the product of a force times a distance
  • Energy - ability to do work
  • When the car is on the hill, it has potential
  • Energy can be converted from one kind to another
  • First law of thermodynamics- total energy must be

Conservation of Energy Illustration
  • Tire swing
  • Highest position - all energy is stored potential
  • Lowest position - all energy is kinetic energy
  • Energy of motion
  • With each swing friction slows the swing - heat
  • Eventually all energy is converted to heat and
    the swing stops

Energy Basics
  • Energy quality
  • The ability of the energy to do work
  • Higher quality of the energy more easily
    converted to work
  • Lower energy quality more difficult to convert
    to work
  • Second law of thermodynamics
  • Energy always tends to go from a more usable
    (higher-quality) form to a less usable
    (lower-quality) form
  • When you use energy, you lower its quality

Energy Efficiency
  • Two fundamental types of energy efficiencies
  • Derived from the first and second laws of
  • First-law efficiency
  • Second-law efficiency
  • First-law efficiency
  • Deals with the amount of energy without any
    consideration of the quality or availability of
    the energy

Energy Efficiency
  • Second-law efficiency
  • Refers to how well matched the energy end use is
    with the quality of the energy source
  • Low values indicate where improvements in energy
    technology and planning may save significant
    amounts of high-quality energy

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Energy Efficiencies
  • Electricity generating plants have nearly the
    same first-law and second-law efficiencies
  • Generating plants are examples of heat engines
  • Produces work from heat
  • Most electricity generated in the world comes
    from heat engines
  • Use nuclear fuel, coal, gas, or other fuels

Energy Sources and Consumption
  • Industrialized countries
  • Small percentage of the total population
  • Large user of total energy produced
  • Ex United States
  • Only 5 of the worlds population
  • Uses 25 of the total energy consumed

Fossil Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources
  • 90 of the energy consumed in the US comes from
    fossil fuels
  • Petroleum, natural gas, and coal
  • They are essentially nonrenewable
  • Other sources of energy
  • Alternative energy sources
  • Geothermal, nuclear, hydropower, and solar
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Solar and wind
  • Not depleted by consumption

Energy Consumption in the US Today
  • US dependent on the three major fossil fuels
  • Coal
  • Natural gas
  • Petroleum
  • From 1950 to late-1970s, energy consumption
  • From 30 exajoules to 80 exajoules

Energy Consumption in the US Today
  • Since about 1980, energy consumption has
    increased by only about 25 exajoules
  • Suggests that policies to improve energy
    conservation through efficiency improvements have
    been at least partially successful
  • Energy losses are associated with
  • Production of electricity and transportation
  • Use of heat engines
  • Energy loss in 2009 was equal to energy usage in

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Energy article read
  • Read article and highlight important topics
    regarding energy consumption
  • Summarize article in 10 sentence and be ready to
    share with a neighbor.

Energy Consumption in the US Today
  • Look at the generalized energy flow of the US for
    a particular year (next few slides)
  • We imported considerably more oil than we
  • Consumption distributed in three sectors
  • Residential/commercial
  • Industrial
  • Transportation
  • We remain dangerously vulnerable to changing
    world conditions affecting the production of oil

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Energy crisis poster
  • Create and Develop an informational poster
    diagramming the energy crisis in the united
    states be sure to include some ideas from the
    article and your own research.
  • Make sure it attracts the eyes and makes it known
    the trouble we are having with energy.

Energy Conservation, Increased Efficiency and
  • Conservation of energy
  • Using less energy
  • Adjusting our energy needs and uses to minimize
    the amount of high-quality energy necessary for a
    given task
  • Increased energy efficiency
  • Designing equipment to yield more energy output
    from a given amount of input energy (first-law
  • Better matches between energy source and end use
    (second-law efficiency)

Energy Conservation, Increased Efficiency and
  • Cogeneration
  • Processes designed to capture and use waste heat
    (no thermal pollution)
  • Captured waste heat increases overall efficiency
    of a typical power plant from 33 to 75
  • Could provided 10 of the power capacity of
    the US

Building Design
  • Many ways to increase energy efficiency and
    conservation in residential buildings
  • Design and construct homes that minimize the
    energy consumption
  • Design buildings to take advantage of passive
    solar potential
  • For older homes insulation, caulking, weather
    stripping, installation of window coverings,
    storm windows, and regular maintenance

Industrial Energy
  • Industrial production of goods continues to grow
  • US industry consumes 1/3 of the energy produced
  • More industries are using co-generation and more
    energy-efficient machinery

Automobile design
  • Early 1970s,
  • Ave US automobile 14 mpg
  • By 1996
  • Ave 28 mpg (highway)
  • 19961999
  • Fuel consumption rates did not improve much
  • 2004
  • Many vehicles sold were SUVs and light trucks
    with fuel consumption of 1020 mpg
  • SUVs fell into loophole in fuel efficiency
  • SUVs purchases in 2006

Automobile design
  • Today, some hybrid (gasoline-electric) vehicles
    exceeds 90 mpg on the highway and 60 mpg in the
  • Improvement has several causes
  • Increased efficiency and resulting conservation
    of fuel
  • Cars that are smaller engines constructed of
    lighter materials
  • Combo of a fuel-burning engine and an electric
  • Plug-in hybrids

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Values, Choices, and Energy Conservation
  • Ways of modifying behavior to conserve energy
    include the following
  • bike, walk, or take a bus or train to work
  • Carpools
  • Hybrid cars (gasolineelectric)
  • Turn off lights when leaving rooms
  • Take shorter showers
  • Turn down the thermostat
  • Use energy-efficient compact florescent
  • Purchase energy-efficient appliances

Values, Choices, and Energy Conservation
  • Seal drafts in buildings
  • Better insulate your home
  • Wash clothes in cold water whenever possible
  • Purchase local foods to reduce energy in
  • Use power strips and turning them off when not in

Energy Policy
  • Business-As-Usual Approach (our current approach)
  • Philosophy
  • Find more fossil fuel
  • Build larger power plants
  • Use energy as freely as we always have
  • Requires no new thinking
  • Requires no realignment of political, economic or
    social conditions
  • Does not anticipate reductions in oil production

Energy for Tomorrow
  • Existing patterns of energy use will change based
  • Changes in population densities
  • Intensive conservation measures
  • 2050 energy consumption of US may be 160
  • What will the energy source be?
  • Will we follow business-as-usual or turn to
    alternative sources?

Energy Policy for the 21st century
  • Promote conventional energy sources
  • But reduce our reliance on foreign sources
  • Encourage alternative energy
  • Wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen and biofuels
  • Provide for energy infrastructure
  • Promote conservation measures
  • Higher product efficiency standards, less waste
    energy, tax credits
  • Evaluate the pros and cons of nuclear power
  • Promote research into all energy sources

Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management
  • No single energy source can provide all the
    energy required.
  • Range of options that vary from region to region
    will have to be employed
  • Fossil fuels
  • Alternative, renewable sources

Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management
  • Basic goal is to move toward sustainable energy
  • Implemented at the local level
  • Would have the following characteristics
  • Provide reliable sources of energy
  • Not cause destruction or serious harm to our
    global, regional, or local environments
  • Help ensure that future generations inherit a
    quality environment with a fair share of the
    Earths resources

Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management
  • A good plan should do the following
  • Provide for sustainable energy development
  • Provide for aggressive energy efficiency and
  • Provide for the diversity and integration of
    energy sources
  • Provide for a balance between economic health and
    environmental quality
  • Use second-law efficiencies as an energy policy

Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management
  • The global pattern of ever-increasing energy
    consumption led by the US cannot be sustained w/o
    a new energy paradigm
  • Includes changes in human values rather than a
    breakthrough in technology
  • Examples
  • Choosing to own fuel-efficient automobiles
  • Living in more energy-efficient homes