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Africa

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Africa Chapter 1: Physical Geography Pg. 10 - 33 1 Guiding Questions Geography What are the main physical features of Africa? Economics What factors influence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Africa


1
Africa
  • Chapter 1 Physical Geography
  • Pg. 10 - 33

1
2
Guiding Questions
  • Geography What are the main physical features
    of Africa?
  • Economics What factors influence the ways in
    which Africans make a living?

2
3
Section 1
  • Land and Water
  • Pages 10 - 15

3
4
Africas Regions and Landforms
4
5
The Four Regions
5
6
The Plateau Continent
  • Much of Africa is made of Plateaus
  • Very high in elevation
  • Height above sea level

6
7
Mountains
  • All four regions have mountains
  • Highest Mts. In East Africa
  • Mt. Kilimanjaro
  • Tanzania
  • Tallest Mt. 19,341 feet
  • Taller than 385 Holly Shelters

7
8
The Great Rift Valley
  • Located in East Africa
  • On the edge of Mt. Kilimanjaro
  • Formed millions of years ago Continents pulled
    apart
  • Rift deep trench
  • 4000 miles long
  • Most major lakes located here

8
9
Africas Rivers
9
10
Nile River
  • Longest River in the world
  • 4000 miles long
  • Twice as long as the Mississippi R.
  • 2600 miles from Wilmington to LA
  • Tributaries rivers and streams that flow into a
    larger river.
  • Nile Tributaries
  • White Nile
  • Blue Nile
  • Nile flows north to the Mediterranean Sea

10
11
Farming Along the Nile
  • Thousands of years
  • Floods deposited silt
  • Silt make soil fertile
  • Rich in the substances that plants need to grow
  • 1960s Aswan High Dam
  • Controlled flooding
  • Created Lake Nasser
  • Water from the dam helps
  • Crops grow in the desert
  • Produce electricity

11
12
Congo River
  • 2900 miles long
  • Second longest in Africa
  • Still more miles than Wilmington to LA
  • Fed by hundreds of tributaries
  • Economy
  • Farmers grow yams and cassava
  • Many types of fish are caught

12
13
Niger River
  • Starts in Guinea along western coast
  • 3rd longest
  • 2600 miles still longer than Wilmington to LA

13
14
Zambezi River
  • Located in Southern Africa
  • Forms boarder for 6 countries
  • Angola
  • Zambia
  • Namibia
  • Botswana
  • Zimbabwe
  • Mozambique
  • 2200 miles long
  • Victoria Falls
  • Beautiful waterfalls
  • Major tourist destination

14
15
Section 2
  • Climate and Vegetation
  • Pages 16-23

15
16
What Influences Climate?
16
17
Distance From the Equator
  • Equator runs right through Africa
  • Most of Africa has a tropical climate
  • Season in Africa are mismatched

17
18
Role of Elevation
  • Elevation height above sea level
  • Higher elevation cooler temperature
  • Elevations affect on climate
  • Ethiopia High plateau
  • Mild temps and good rainfall
  • Farmers grow lots of crops
  • Somalia Low elevation
  • Dry and hot
  • Farmers only grow near river or oasis

18
19
Unpredictable Rainfall
  • West Coast
  • Wind brings moisture from ocean
  • Average 100 inches of rain per year
  • Sahara and Namib deserts
  • No rain for YEARS
  • Farmers in dry regions plant multiple crops
  • Hope one will grow

19
20
Vegetation Regions of Africa
  • Near the Equator Rain forests
  • On either side of rain forest Savanna
  • Region of tall grasses and scattered trees
  • On either side of Savanna Desert
  • Sahara in the N
  • Namib and Kalahari in the S

20
21
Tropical Rain Forests
  • West and Central Africa
  • Covers almost 20 or 1/5 of continent
  • Rain supports lots of life in RF
  • Cacao grows here
  • Plant to make chocolate
  • Logging threatens the rain forest

21
22
Tropical Savannas
  • Most common in Africa
  • Large herd animals Think Lion King
  • Two seasons

22
23
Deserts in Africa
  • Sahara Desert
  • Most of North Africa
  • Almost as big as US
  • Southern edge Sahel
  • Hot and dry
  • 4-8 inches of rain per year
  • Namib and Kalahari in S. Africa

23
24
Desert Living
  • Nomads people with no permanent home
  • Mostly herders
  • Travel to find food and water
  • Camels
  • Store fat in their hump
  • Can survive for days w/ no food or water

24
25
Climate and Health
25
26
Section 3 Resources and Land Use
  • Pages 26-30

26
27
Agricultural Resources
  • Most Africans farm
  • Some have fertile land
  • Some have poor soil or little rain
  • Some lack land and tools

27
28
Agricultural Resources Contd
28
29
Natural Resources
  • Economy System for producing, distributing,
    consuming, and owning goods and services.
  • Farming is important to Africa
  • Mining is just as important

29
30
Mining
30
31
Improving Economic Health
  • Specialized Economy
  • Dependant on one thing
  • Africa Farming

31
32
Strengthening Economies
  • Africa wants to diversify add variety
  • Diverse economy is best
  • One piece can fail
  • Everything else can succeed

32
33
Where does the Money Go?
  • Foreign companies
  • Mine Africa
  • Take the profits
  • Few factories
  • Africa does not produce much
  • No production no money

33
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