Chapter 4 Memory Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 4 Memory Management PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6e709d-OTE0O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 4 Memory Management

Description:

Chapter 4 Memory Management – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:46
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 103
Provided by: pei52
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 4 Memory Management


1
Chapter 4 Memory Management
2
Why Memory Management?
  • Parkinsons law programs expand to fill the
    memory available to hold them
  • Programmers ideal an infinitely large,
    infinitely fast memory, nonvolatile
  • Reality memory hierarchy

Registers
Cache
Main memory
Magnetic disk
Magnetic tape
3
What Is Memory Management?
  • Memory manager the part of the OS managing the
    memory hierarchy
  • Keep track of memory parts in use/not in use
  • Allocate/de-allocate memory to processes
  • Manage swapping between main memory and disk
  • Basic memory management every program is put and
    run in main memory as whole
  • Swapping paging move processes back and forth
    between main memory and disk

4
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

5
Mono Programming
  • One program at a time
  • Share memory with OS
  • Three variations

0xFFF
User program
OS in RAM
OS in ROM
User program
Device drivers in ROM
User program
OS in RAM
0
0
0
6
Multiprogramming With Fixed Partitions
  • Scenario multiple programs at a time
  • Problem how to allocate memory?
  • Divide memory up into n partitions
  • Equal partitions vs. unequal partitions
  • Can be done manually when system is up
  • A job arrives, put it into the input queue for
    the smallest partition large enough to hold it
  • Any space in a partition not used by a job is lost

7
Example Multiprogramming With Fixed Partitions
800K
Partition 4
Partition 3
Partition 2
Partition 1
OS
700K
Multiple input queues
400K
200K
100K
0
8
Single Input Queue
800K
  • Disadvantage of multiple input queues
  • Small jobs may wait, while a queue with larger
    memory is empty
  • Solution single input queue

Partition 4
Partition 3
Partition 2
Partition 1
OS
700K
400K
200K
100K
0
9
How to Pick Jobs?
  • Pick the first job in the queue fitting an empty
    partition
  • Fast, but may waste a large partition on a small
    job
  • Pick the largest job fitting an empty partition
  • Memory efficient
  • Smallest jobs may be interactive ones, need best
    service, slow
  • Policies for efficiency and fairness
  • Have at least one small partition around
  • A job may not be skipped more than k times

10
A Naïve Model for Multiprogramming
  • Multiprogramming improves CPU utilization
  • If on average, a process computes 20 of the time
    it sitting in memory ? 5 processes can keep CPU
    busy all the time
  • Assume all processes never wait for I/O at the
    same time.
  • Not unrealistic!

11
A Probabilistic Model
  • A process spends p of its time waiting for I/O
    to complete
  • At once n processes in memory
  • CPU utilization 1 (p/100)n
  • Probability that all n processes are waiting for
    I/O (p/100)n

12
CPU Utilization
  • 1 (p/100)n

13
Memory Management for Multiprogramming
  • Relocation
  • What address the program will begin in memory
  • Protection
  • A programs access should be confined to proper
    area

14
Relocation Problem
  • Absolute address for programming
  • A procedure at 100
  • Real address
  • When the module is in partition 1 (started from
    physical address 100k), then the procedure is at
    100K100
  • Relocation problem translation between absolute
    address and real address
  • Actually modify the instructions as loading the
    program
  • Program must include a list of program words for
    addresses to be relocated

15
Protection
  • A malicious program can jump to space belonging
    to other users
  • Generate a new instruction on the fly
  • Jump to the new instruction
  • PSW (for Program Status Word) solution
  • PSW protection code 0x0100
  • Program space is confined 0x0100 0000 0x0100
    FFFF

16
Relocation/Protection Using Registers
  • Base register start of the partition
  • Every memory address generated adds the content
    of base register
  • Base register 100K, CALL 100 ? CALL 100K 100
  • Limit register length of the partition
  • Addresses are checked against the limit register
  • Disadvantage perform addition and comparison on
    every memory reference

17
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

18
In Time-sharing/Interactive Systems
  • Not enough main memory to hold all currently
    active processes
  • Intuition excess processes must be kept on disk
    and brought in to run dynamically
  • Swapping bring in each process in entirely
  • Assumption each process can be held in main
    memory, but cannot finish at a run
  • Virtual memory allow programs to run even when
    they are only partially in main memory
  • No assumption about program size

19
Swapping

B
A
OS

A
OS

C
B
A
OS

C
B

OS

C
B

D
OS

C

D
OS

C
A
D
OS
Time ?
20
Swapping V.S. Fixed Partitions
  • The number, location and size of partitions vary
    dynamically in swapping
  • Flexibility, improve memory utilization
  • Complicate allocating, deallocating and keeping
    track of memory
  • Memory compaction combine holes in memory into
    a big one
  • More efficient in allocation
  • Requires a lot of CPU time
  • Rarely used in real systems

21
How Enlarge Memory for a Process?
  • Fixed size process easy
  • Growing process
  • Expand to the adjacent hole, if there is a hole
  • Swap it out to create a large enough hole
  • If swap area on the disk is full, wait or be
    killed
  • Allocate extra space whenever a process is
    swapped in or move
  • More than one growing segments?
  • Share extra space for growing

22
Handling Growing Processes
Room for growth of B
B

Room for growth of A
A
OS
B-Stack
Room for growth
B-Data
B-Program

A-Stack
Room for growth
A-Data
A-Program
OS
23
Memory Management With Bitmaps
  • Two ways to keep track of memory usage
  • Bitmaps and free lists
  • Bitmaps
  • Memory is divided into allocation units
  • One bit per unit 0-free, 1-occupied

A A A A A B B B B B B C C C C D D D D D D E E E E

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

24
Size of Allocation Units
  • 4 bytes/unit ? 1 bit in map for 32 bits of memory
    ? bitmap takes 1/33 of memory
  • Trade-off between allocation unit and memory
    utilization
  • Smaller allocation unit ? larger the bitmap
  • Larger allocation unit ? smaller the bitmap
  • On average, half of the last unit is wasted
  • To find a hole of k units ? search the entire
    bitmap, costly!

25
Memory Management With Linked Lists
  • Each entry in the list is a hole(H)/process(P)

A A A A A B B B B B B C C C C D D D D D D E E E E

P 0 5
H 5 3
P 8 6
P 14 4
H 18 2
P 20 6
P 26 3
H 29 3 X
Length 6
Starts at 20
Process
26
Updating Linked Lists
  • Combine holes if possible

Before process X terminates
After process X terminates
A X B
A B
A X
A
X B
B
X

27
Allocate Memory for New Processes
  • First fit find the first hole fitting
    requirement
  • Break the hole into two pieces P smaller H
  • Next fit start search from the place of last fit
  • Slightly worse performance than first fit
  • Best fit take the smallest hole that is adequate
  • Slower
  • Generate tiny useless holes
  • Worst fit always take the largest hole
  • Not a very good idea

28
Using Distinct Lists
  • Distinct lists for processes and holes
  • List of holes can be sorted on size
  • Best fit becomes fast
  • Problem how to free a process?
  • Merging holes is very costly
  • Quick fit grouping holes based on size
  • Merging holes is still costly
  • Information about holes can be stored in holes

29
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

30
Why Virtual Memory?
  • If the program is too big to fit in memory
  • Split the program into pieces overlays
  • Swapping overlays in and out
  • Problem splitting programs into small pieces is
    boring
  • Virtual memory OS takes care large programs
  • Keep the parts currently used in memory
  • Put other parts on disk

31
Virtual and Physical Addresses
  • Virtual addresses are used/generated by programs
  • Physical addresses are used in execution
  • If only one program ? VA PA
  • MMU maps VA to PA

CPU package
Disk controller
CPU
MMU
Memory
Bus
32
Paging
Virtual address space
60-64K X
56-6K X
52-56K X
48-52K X
44-48K 7
40-44K X
36-40K 5
32-36K X
28-32K X
24-28K X
20-24K 3
16-20K 4
12-16K 0
8-12K 6
4-8K 1
0-4K 2
Pages
  • Virtual address space is divided into pages
  • Page frames in physical memory
  • Pages and page frames are with same size
  • Transfers between RAM and disk are always in
    units of pages

Page frames
Virtual address space
28-32K
24-28K
20-24K
16-20K
12-16K
8-12K
4-8K
0-4K
33
The Magic in MMU
34
Challenges for Page Table
  • Page table can be extremely large
  • 32 bits virtual addresses, 4kb/page?1m pages
  • Each process needs its own page table
  • Virtual to physical mapping must be fast
  • 1 page table references/instruction
  • Have to seek for hardware solutions

35
Two Simple Designs for Page Table
  • Use fast hardware registers for page table
  • Load registers at every process switching
  • Requires no memory reference during mapping
  • Expensive if the page table is large
  • Put the whole table in main memory
  • Only one register pointing to the start of table
  • Fast switching
  • 1 memory references/instruction
  • Pure memory solution is slow, pure register
    solution is expensive, so

36
Multiple Level Page Tables
  • Avoid keeping all the page tables in memory all
    the time


. . .







Bits 10 10 12
PT1 PT2 Offset
1023
. . .
. . .
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

. . .







Top level page table
Second level page table
37
Typical Page Table Entry
  • Page frame number goal of page mapping
  • Present/absent bit page in memory?
  • Protection what kinds of access permitted
  • Modified is the page is written? (If so, need to
    write back to disk later)
  • Referenced is someone using this page?
  • Caching disable read from the disk?

Present/absent
Caching disabled
Modified
Page frame number
Referenced
Protection
38
Translation Lookaside Buffers
  • Most programs tend to make a large number of
    references to a small number of pages
  • Put the heavily read fraction in registers
  • TLB/associative memory
  • Also doable using software

check
Page table
TLB
Virtual address
found
Not found
Physical address
39
Inverted Page Table
  • In 64-bit computers, 4kb/page ? 30million
    gigabytes page table!
  • Only keep one entry / page frame
  • 256M memory ? 65,536 entries. Save space!
  • Hard to do virtual-physical mapping
  • Solutions
  • Use TLB
  • Hashing virtual address

40
Warm-up
  • Memory management
  • Provide a virtual consistent memory to users
  • Memory allocation/deallocation
  • Techniques
  • Only one small process at a time easy
  • Multiple small processes fixed partitions and
    swapping
  • Multiple large processes virtual memory
  • Page table

41
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

42
Page Replacement
  • When page fault
  • Choose one page to kick out, if modified, update
    disk copy
  • Better choose an unmodified page
  • Better choose a seldom used page
  • Many similar problems in computer systems
  • Caches page replacement
  • Web page replacement in web server

43
Optimal Algorithm
  • Label each page with number of instructions will
    be executed before next reference
  • Remove the page with highest label
  • Unrealizable!

Page id First next use

108 600
109 8026

44
Remove Not Recently Used Pages
  • Reference flag R and modification flag M
  • Clear R bit periodically
  • Four classes of pages when a page fault
  • Class 0 (R0M0) not referenced, not modified
  • Class 1 (R0M1) not referenced, modified
  • Class 2 (R1M0) referenced, not modified
  • Class 3 (R1M1) referenced, modified
  • NRU removes a page at random from the lowest
    numbered nonempty class

45
First-in, First-out
  • Remove the oldest page
  • Old pages may be the commonest ones
  • Pure FIFO is rarely used

46
Second Chance Algorithm
  • Looking for an old page not recently referenced
  • Inspect the R bit before removing old pages
  • 0 throw it away
  • 1 clear R bit, move the page to the tail

0
18
18
20
A
A


A is treated like a newly loaded page
Page loaded first
Most recently loaded page
47
Clock Page Algorithm
  • Moving pages around in second chance algorithm is
    inefficient
  • Keep all page frames on a circular list
  • A hand points to the oldest one
  • A variation of second chance algorithm

48
Least Recently Used Algorithm
  • Pages heavily used in the last few instructions
    will probably be heavily used again in next few.
  • Remove page unused for the longest time
  • Maintaining a list of pages?
  • Most recently used page at the front
  • Least recently used page at the rear
  • Update the list on every memory reference
  • Very costly!

49
Efficient Implementations of LRU
  • A global counter automatically incremented after
    each instruction
  • A 64-bit counter/entry in page table
  • Local counter ? global counter when page is
    referenced
  • The page with lowest value is the least recently
    used one

50
LRU Using Matrix
  • N page frames ? nn matrix, initial all zero
  • Frame k is referenced
  • Set all bits of row k to 1
  • Set all bits of column k to 0
  • The row with lowest binary value is the least
    recently used

0 1 2 3
0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1
2 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 3
0 0 0 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
2 1 1 0 1
3 0 0 0 0
Page 2 is referenced
51
Software LRU
  • NFU Not Frequently Used
  • Each page has a counter initially zero
  • Add R bit to the counter every clock interrupt
  • The page with least counter value is removed
  • Never forget anything, hurt recently used pages
  • Improvement
  • Counters are shifted right 1 bit before the R bit
    is added in
  • The R bit is added to the leftmost

52
Example
  • The page with lowest counter value is removed
  • Choice based on limited history

Before clock tick 1
After clock tick 1
Page R bit Counter
0 0 11110000
1 1 01100000
2 1 00100000
3 0 01000000
4 0 10110000
5 0 01010000
Page R bit Counter
0 0 01111000
1 0 10110000
2 0 10010000
3 0 00100000
4 0 01011000
5 0 00101000
53
Why Page Faults
  • When a process starts, no page
  • 1st instruction ? 1st page fault
  • Visit global variables ? page fault
  • Visit stack ? page fault
  • After a while, most of the pages in memory
  • Run with relatively few page faults
  • Demand paging locality of reference

54
Working Set Thrashing
  • Working set the set of pages currently used by a
    process
  • The entire working set in main memory ? few page
    faults
  • Only part of the working set in main memory ?
    many page faults, slow
  • Trashing a program causing page faults every few
    instructions

55
Working Set Model Avoid Trashing
  • In multiprogramming systems, processes are back
    and forth between disk memory
  • Many page faults when a process is brought in
  • Worst case before the process working set is
    brought in, the process is switched out again
  • Many page faults waste much CPU time
  • Working set model
  • Keep track of working sets
  • Prepaging before run a process, allocate its
    working set

56
The Function of Working Set
  • Working set at time t, pages used by the k most
    recent memory references
  • An alternation the k most recently referenced
    pages
  • Content of working set non-sensitive to k
  • Evict pages not in the working set

w(k, t)
k
57
Maintaining Working Set
  • Prohibitively expensive!

New referenced page
Remove duplicate pages in registers
Page 1

Page k
Working set
Page fault
Remove pages not in working set
58
Approximating Working Set
  • Use last k execution time instead of last k
    references
  • Current virtual time the amount of CPU time a
    process has actually used since it started

59
Working Set Page Replacement
60
WSClock
  • Working set page replacement scans the entire
    page table per page fault, costly!
  • Improvement clock algorithm working set
    information
  • Widely used

61
Example
2014 1
2014 0
1213 1
1213 1
1980 0
1980 0
2014 1
2014 0
1213 0
1213 0
1251 1
New page
1980 0
62
Algorithm
  • Find the first page can be evicted
  • A page not in working set
  • Clean (no modification) ? use it
  • Dirty ? write back to disk (use it if no other
    choice) and keep searching
  • The hand all way round
  • Some write-backs ? find a clean page (it must be
    not in working set)
  • No write-back ? just grab a clean page or current
    page

63
Summary
Algorithm Comment
Optimal Not implementable, good as benchmark
NRU Very crude
FIFO Might throw out important pages
Second chance Big improvement over FIFO
Clock Realistic
LRU Excellent, but difficult to implement exactly
NFU Fairly crude approximation to LRU
Aging Efficient algorithm approximates LRU well
Working set Somewhat expensive to implement
WSClock Good efficient algorithm
64
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

65
More Frames ? Fewer Page Faults?
  • Intuitively correct
  • Beladys anomaly
  • Reference string 0 1 2 3 0 1 4 0 1 2 3 4
  • FIFO is used

0 1 2 3 0 1 4 0 1 2 3 4
Youngest 0 1 2 3 0 1 4 4 4 2 3 3
0 1 2 3 0 1 1 1 4 2 2
Oldest 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 1 4 4
P P P P P P P P P 9 page faults
0 1 2 3 0 1 4 0 1 2 3 4
Youngest 0 1 2 3 3 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 2 2 3 4 0 1 2 3
0 1 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2
Oldest 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1
P P P P P P P P P P 10 page faults
66
Model of Page Replacement
  • When a page is referenced, it is always moved to
    the top entry in memory
  • All pages above a just referenced page move down
    one position
  • All pages below the referenced pages stay

Reference string 0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 7 3 3 5 3 3 3 1 7 1 3 4
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 3 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 3 3 7 1 3
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 7 7
0 2 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
0 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page faults P P P P P P P P P P P
67
An Observation
Reference string 0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 7 3 3 5 3 3 3 1 7 1 3 4
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 3 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 3 3 7 1 3
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 7 7
0 2 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
0 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page faults P P P P P P P P P P P
LRU
0 1 2 3 0 1 4 0 1 2 3 4
Youngest 0 1 2 3 0 1 4 4 4 2 3 3
0 1 2 3 0 1 1 1 4 2 2
Oldest 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 1 4 4
P P P P P P P P P 9 page faults
0 1 2 3 0 1 4 0 1 2 3 4
Youngest 0 1 2 3 3 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 2 2 3 4 0 1 2 3
0 1 1 1 2 3 4 0 1 2
Oldest 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1
P P P P P P P P P P 10 page faults
FIFO
68
Stack Algorithms
  • If increase memory size by one page frame and
    re-execute the process, at every point during the
    execution, all the pages that were present in
    memory in the first run are also present in the
    second run
  • Stack algorithms do not suffer from Beladys
    anomaly

69
Distance String
  • Page reference denoted by the distance from the
    top of the stack

Reference string 0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 7 3 3 5 3 3 3 1 7 1 3 4
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 3 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 3 3 7 1 3
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 7 7
0 2 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
0 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page faults P P P P P P P P P P P
Distance string ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4 ? 4 2 3 1 5 1 2 6 1 1 4 2 3 5 3
70
Properties of Distance String
  • It depends on both the reference string and
    paging algorithm
  • Statistical properties

k pages can achieve good effect
Consistent page faults
P(d)
P(d)
k
d
d
n
n
1
1
71
Predicting Page Fault Rates
  • Scan distance string only once

Reference string 0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 3 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 7 1 3 4 1
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 7 4 7 7 3 3 5 3 3 3 1 7 1 3 4
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 3 3 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 3 3 7 1 3
0 2 1 3 5 4 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 5 7 7
0 2 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
0 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Page faults P P P P P P P P P P P
Distance string ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4 ? 4 2 3 1 5 1 2 6 1 1 4 2 3 5 3
C1 4
C2 2
C3 1
C4 4
C5 2
C6 2
C7 1
C? 8
times 1 occurs in distance string
F1 19
F2 17
F3 16
F4 12
F5 10
F6 10
F7 8
F? 8
of page faults with 5 frames C6C7C?
72
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

73
Allocating Memory for Processes
  • Multiple processes in main memory

Local page replacement
Global page replacement
Age
A0 10
A1 7
A2 5
A3 4
A4 6
A5 3
B0 9
B1 4
B2 6
B3 2
B4 5
B5 6
B6 12
C1 3
C2 5
C3 6
A0
A1
A2
A3
A6
A5
B0
B1
B2
A6
B4
B5
B6
C1
C2
C3
A0
A1
A2
A3
A6
A5
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
C1
C2
C3
Local lowest
Global lowest
74
Local/global Page Replacement
  • Local page replacement every process with a
    fixed fraction of memory
  • Thrashing even if plenty of free page frames
  • Waste memory if working set shrinks
  • Global page replacement dynamically allocate
    page frames for each process
  • Works better

75
Assign Page Frames to Processes
  • Monitor working set size by aging bits
  • Working set may change size quickly, aging bits
    are crude measure spread over multiple ticks
  • Page frame allocating algorithms
  • Periodically allocate each proc an equal share
  • Variations adjust based on program size/minimum
    size
  • Allocate based on page fault frequency (PFF)

76
Load Control
  • System thrash
  • Combined working sets gt memory size
  • Some processes need more memory, but no one needs
    less
  • Swap some processes to disk
  • Two level scheduling CPU scheduler and memory
    scheduler
  • Can be combined together
  • Consider characteristics of processes CPU bound
    or I/O bound

77
Page Size
  • Hardware page size and OS page size
  • Arguments for small page size
  • Internal fragmentation on average, half of the
    final page is empty and wasted
  • Large page ? more unused program in mem
  • Arguments for large page size
  • Small pages ? large page table and overhead

Overhead s e / p p / 2 ? p sqrt(2 s e)
78
Separate Instruction and Data Space
  • Both page spaces are paged independently
  • Each has its own page table

Instruction space
Data space
Single address space
232-1
232-1


Data



Program







Program






Data


0
0
79
Shared Pages
  • Processes sharing same program should share
    memory pages
  • Separate page table and process table
  • Two processes may use two working sets
  • Searching all page tables for shared page?
    Costly!
  • Special data structure to keep track of shared
    pages
  • Share data
  • Copy on write share clean data, keep dirty data
    private

80
Cleaning Policy
  • Writing back dirty pages when free pages are
    needed is costly!
  • Processes are blocked and have to wait
  • Keep enough clean pages for paging
  • Background paging daemon
  • Keep page content, can be reused
  • Two handed clock
  • Front hand controlled by paging daemon
  • Back hand page replacement

81
Virtual Memory Interface
  • Multiple processes share same memory
  • High bandwidth sharing
  • High-performance message-passing system
  • Distributed shared memory share memory over a
    network

82
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

83
Swap Area
  • A chunk of pages reserved on disk, same size of
    of pages of the process in memory
  • Each process has its own swap area, recorded in
    process table
  • System swap area a list of free chunks
  • Initialize swap area before a process runs
  • Copy entire process image, or
  • Load the process in memory and let it be paged
    out as needed

84
Swap Area for Growing Processes
  • Data area and stack may grow
  • Reserve separate swap areas for text (program),
    data, and stack
  • Each areas consist of more than one chunk
  • Reserve nothing in advance
  • Allocate disk space when pages swapped out
  • Deallocate when page swapped in again
  • Have to keep track of pages on disk
  • A table per process, costly!

85
Comparison of Two Methods
Paging to a static swap area
Backing up pages dynamically
86
When OS Involves Paging?
  • Process creation
  • Process execution
  • Page faults
  • Process termination

87
Paging in Process Creation
  • Determine (initial) size of program and data
  • Create page table
  • Process is running ? page table in memory
  • Create swap area
  • Record info about page table and swap area in
    process table

88
Paging During Process Running
  • Reset MMU
  • Flush TLB (translation Lookaside Buffer)
  • Copy or point to new process page table
  • Bring some or all of new process pages into
    memory

89
Paging When Page Faults
  • Read registers to identify virtual address
    causing the page fault
  • Compute page address on disk
  • Find available page frame
  • Read in the page
  • Execute the instruction again

90
Paging When Process Exit
  • Release page table, pages, disk space

91
What Happens on A Page Fault
  • Hardware traps to kernel, saves PC on stack
  • Assembly language routine saves registers and
    calls OS
  • Identify which virtual page is needed
  • Approve the virtual page, locate a free frame
  • Write-back the page frame, mark the frame, switch
  • Schedule a disk read
  • Mark the page normal
  • Back up to the faulting instruction
  • OS returns to the assembly language routine
  • Reload registers other info, return to user
    space

92
Outline
  • Basic memory management
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory
  • Page replacement algorithms
  • Modeling page replacement algorithms
  • Design issues for paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation

93
A Motivating Example
  • Many large tables in a compiler
  • Symbol table names and attributes of variables
  • Constant table integer/floating-point constants
  • Parse tree syntactic analysis
  • Stack for procedure calls within the compiler
  • Tables grow/shrink as compilation proceeds
  • How to manage space for compiler?

94
Space Management for Tables
Virtual address space
  • Moving space from large tables to small ones
  • Tedious work
  • Free programmers from managing expanding and
    contracting tables
  • Eliminate organizing program into overlays
  • Segments many completely independent address
    spaces


Call stack

Parse tree

Constant table

Source text

Symbol table
95
Segments
  • Segment a two dimensional memory
  • Each segment has a linear sequence of address (0
    to seg_max)
  • Different segments may have different length
  • Segment lengths may change during execution
  • Different segments can grow/shrink independently
  • Address segment number address within segment

96
Multiple Segments in A Process
  • Segments are logical entries
  • Simplify linking multiple components
  • Facilitate sharing among multiple processes



Symbol table



Parse tree


Source text


Call stack

Constants
97
Comparing Paging Segmentation
Consideration Paging Segmentation
Aware by programmers? NO Yes
of linear address spaces 1 Many
Total address space gt physical memory? Yes Yes
Distinguish and separately protect procedures and data? No Yes
Accommodate fluctuating tables? No Yes
Facilitate sharing among procedures? No Yes
Why is this technique? Get larger linear space than that of physical memory 1. Break programs/data into logically independent address space 2. Aid sharing and protection
98
Implementing Pure Segmentation
  • Checkerboarding / external fragmentation

Time ?
99
Segmentation With Paging
  • For large segments, only the working set should
    be kept in memory
  • Paging segments
  • Each program has a segment table
  • Segment table is itself a segment
  • If (part of) a segment is in memory, its page
    table must be in memory
  • Address segment virtual page offset
  • Segment ? page table
  • Page table virtual page ? page address
  • Page address offset ? word address

100
The Intel Pentium Case
  • Very large segments
  • LDT Local Descriptor Table
  • Each program has its own LDT
  • Describe segments local to each program
  • GDT Global Descriptor Table
  • One GDT in the whole system
  • Describe system segments, including OS

101
Converting to an Address
Offset
Selector
Base address
Limit
Other fields

32-bit linear address
102
Summary
  • Simplest case no swapping nor paging
  • Swapping
  • Virtual memory, page replacement
  • Aging and WSClock
  • Modeling paging systems
  • Implementation issues
  • Segmentation
About PowerShow.com