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Project Management Professional (PMP)

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Title: Project Management Professional (PMP)


1
Project Management Professional (PMP)
  • Certification Study Guide

2
PMI Certification Materials
  • To assist PMI candidates for completing the PMI
    certification exam administered by the Project
    Management Institute
  • Content is from A Guide To The Project
    Management Body Of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  • www.pmi.org

3
Recurring Themes
  • Historical Records need to collect and use for
    planning, estimating and risk
  • Kickoff meetings are important
  • Work Breakdown Structures
  • Do not introduce benefits that are not stated in
    requirements
  • Needs of all stakeholders should be taken into
    account during all projects
  • Team Members must be involved in project planning
  • Project Mangers must be pro-active

4
Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Project temporary endeavor undertaken to create
    a unique product or service
  • Has a definite beginning and end and interrelated
    activities
  • Programs adopt new set of objectives and continue
    to work projects cease when declared objectives
    have been attained

5
Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Projects are unique characteristics are
    progressively elaborated
  • Progressively proceeding in steps
  • Elaborated worked with care and detail
  • Scope of project should remain constant even as
    characteristics are progressively elaborated

6
Chapter 1 - Introduction
  • Project Management the application of knowledge,
    skills, tools and techniques to project
    activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder
    needs and expectations from a defined project
    balancing the following
  • Scope, time, cost, and quality
  • Stakeholders expectations
  • Requirements (needs) vs. unidentified
    requirements (expectations)

7
Chapter 1 - Introduction
  • Programs are groups of projects managed in a
    coordinated way to obtain benefits not available
    from managing the projects individually
  • Most programs have elements of ongoing operations
  • Series of repetitive or cyclical undertakings
  • Projects are often divided into subprojects for
    more manageability
  • Often contracted out to external organizations

8
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Project Phases are marked by the completion of a
    deliverable
  • Tangible, verifiable work product
  • Review of deliverables and approval/denial are
    phase exits, stage gates, or kill points
  • Phases are collected into the Project Life Cycle
  • Set of defined work procedures to establish
    management control

9
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Project Life Cycle defines
  • Technical work performed in each phase
  • Who is involved in each phase
  • Project Phases can overlap Fast Tracking
  • Common Characteristics of Project Life Cycles
  • Cost and Staffing levels are low at start and
    move higher towards the end
  • Probability of successfully completing project is
    low at beginning, higher towards the end as
    project continues
  • Stakeholder influence is high at the beginning
    and progressively lowers as project continues

10
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Stakeholders individuals and organizations who
    are actively involved in the project
  • Often have conflicting expectations and
    objectives
  • In general, differences should be resolved in
    favor of the customer individual(s) or
    organization(s) that will use the outcome of the
    project
  • Stakeholder management is a proactive task
  • Project Mangers must determine all stakeholders
    and incorporate their needs into the project

11
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Stakeholders are
  • Project Managers
  • Customers
  • Performing Organizations, owners
  • Sponsor
  • Team
  • Internal/External
  • End User
  • Society, citizens
  • Others owner, funders, supplier, contractor

12
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Organizational Systems Project based vs.
    Non-Project Based
  • Project Based derive revenues from performing
    projects for others (consultants,
    contractors),management by projects
  • Non-Project Based seldom have management
    systems designed to support project needs
    (manufacturing, financial services)

13
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Organizational Cultures and Styles
  • Entrepreneurial firms more likely to adopt highly
    participative Project Manager accept higher
    risk/reward
  • Hierarchical firms less likely to adopt
    participative Project Manager take fewer risks

14
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Organizational Structures
  • Functional (classical) marked by identifiable
    superiors. Staff grouped by specialty .
    Perceived scope of project limited by function
    (Engineering, HR). Typically have part-time
    Project Manager
  • Projectized Organization blend functional and
    projectized characteristics. Mix
    cross-department personnel with full-time Project
    Manger

15
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Project Management Skills
  • General Business Management (consistently
    producing results expected by stakeholders)
  • Leading (establishing direction, aligning
    resources, motivating)
  • Communicating (clear, unambiguous, and complete)
  • Negotiating (conferring with others to reach an
    agreement)
  • Problem Solving (definition and decision making)
  • Distinguish causes and symptoms
  • Identify viable solutions
  • Influencing Organization (understanding power and
    politics)

16
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Socioeconomic Influences
  • Standards document approved that provides
    common, repeated use, rules and guidelines
  • Compliance is not mandatory
  • Regulations document that identifies products,
    services or characteristics
  • Compliance is mandatory
  • Standards often become de facto regulations
  • Internationalization
  • Cultural Influences

17
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Organization Structure Pros and Cons
  • Projectized
  • Efficient Organization No home
  • Loyalty Lack of Professionalism
  • Effective Communication Duplication of
    functions, less efficient resource usage
  • Matrix
  • Visible Objectives not cost effective
  • PM Control More than 1 boss
  • More support More complex to control
  • Utilize scarce resources Tough resource
    allocation
  • Information distribution Competition of
    priorities
  • Coordination Policies Procedures
  • Home based Potential for conflict

18
Chapter 2 Project Management Context
  • Functional Organization
  • Specialists More emphasis on functions
  • 1 supervisor No career path in PM

19
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Project Management requires active management of
    Project Processes
  • Series of actions that achieve a result
  • Project Management Processes
  • Describing and organizing the work
  • Product-Oriented Processes
  • Specifying and creating the product

20
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Process Groups
  • Initiating processes recognizing a project or
    phase should begin
  • Planning processes devising and maintaining a
    workable plan
  • Executing processes coordinating resources to
    execute the plan
  • Controlling processes ensuring project
    objectives are met monitoring, correcting and
    measuring progress
  • Closing processes formalized acceptance

21
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Process Groups are linked by the results each
    produces
  • Process Groups are overlapping activities with
    various levels of intensity
  • Process Group interactions cross phases
    rolling wave planning
  • Provides details of work to complete current
    phase and provide preliminary description of work
    for subsequent phases
  • Individual processes have inputs, tools and
    techniques, and outputs (deliverables)

22
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Initiating and Planning Processes
  • Committing the organization to begin
  • Initiation, High-level planning, Charter
  • Amount of planning proportional to the scope of
    the project Core Planning
  • Scope Planning written statement
  • Scope Definition subdividing major deliverables
    into more manageable units
  • Activity Definition determine specific tasks
    needed to produce project deliverables
  • Activity Sequencing plotting dependencies

23
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Core Planning (continued)
  • Activity Duration Estimating determine amount
    of work needed to complete the activities
  • Schedule Development analyze activity
    sequences, duration, and resource requirements
  • Resource Planning identify what and how many
    resources are needed to perform the activities
  • Cost Estimating develop resource and total
    project costs
  • Cost Budgeting allocating project estimates to
    individual work items
  • Project Plan Development taking results from
    other planning processes into a collective
    document

24
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Planning/Facilitating Processes manage the
    interaction among the planning processes
  • Quality Planning standards that are relevant to
    the project and determining how to meet standards
  • Organizational Planning identify, document, and
    assigning project roles and responsibilities
  • Staff Acquisition obtaining the human resources
  • Communications Planning determining rules and
    reporting methods to stakeholders

25
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Planning/Facilitating Processes (continued)
  • Risk Identification determining what is likely
    to affect the project and documenting these risks
  • Risk Quantification evaluating risks and
    interactions to access the possible project
    outcomes
  • Risk Response Development defining enhancement
    steps and change control measures
  • Procurement Planning determining what to buy
    and when
  • Solicitation Planning documenting product
    requirements and identifying possible sources

26
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Planning/Facilitating Processes (continued)
  • Order of events
  • Scope Statement
  • Create Project Team
  • Work Breakdown Structure
  • WBS dictionary
  • Finalize the team
  • Network Diagram
  • Estimate Time and Cost
  • Critical Path
  • Schedule
  • Budget
  • Procurement Plan
  • Quality Plan
  • Risk Identification, quantification and response
    development
  • Change Control Plan
  • Communication Plan
  • Management Plan
  • Final Project Plan

27
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Executing Processes
  • Project Plan Execution performing the
    activities
  • Complete Tasks/Work Packages
  • Information Distribution
  • Scope Verification acceptance of project scope
  • Quality Assurance evaluating overall project
    performance on a regular basis meeting standards
  • Team Development developing team and individual
    skill sets to enhance the project
  • Progress Meetings

28
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Executing Processes (continued)
  • Information Distribution making project
    information available in a timely manner
  • Solicitation obtaining quotes, bids, proposals
    as appropriate
  • Source Selection deciding on appropriate
    suppliers
  • Contract Administration managing vendor
    relationships

29
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Controlling Processes needed to regularly
    measure project performance and to adjust project
    plan
  • Take preventive actions in anticipation of
    possible problems
  • Change Control coordinating changes across the
    entire project plan
  • Scope Change Control controlling scope creep
  • Schedule Control adjusting time and project
    schedule of activities

30
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Controlling Processes (continued)
  • Cost Control managing project budget
  • Quality Control monitoring standards and
    specific project results eliminating causes of
    unsatisfactory performance
  • Performance Reporting status, forecasting, and
    progress reporting schedule
  • Risk Response Control responding to changes in
    risk during the duration of the project

31
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Closing Processes
  • Administrative Closure generating necessary
    information to formally recognize phase or
    project completion
  • Contract Close-out completion and delivery of
    project deliverables and resolving open issues
  • Procurement Audits
  • Product Verification
  • Formal Acceptance
  • Lessons Learned
  • Update Records
  • Archive Records
  • Release Team

32
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Overall Processes
  • Influencing the organization
  • Leading
  • Problem Solving
  • Negotiating
  • Communicating
  • Meetings

33
Chapter 3 Project Management Processes
  • Project Selection Techniques
  • Comparative Approach (similar projects)
  • Benefit measurement method
  • Constrained Optimization (mathematical approach)
  • Key aspect of scope verification is customer
    acceptance
  • Only 26 of projects succeed

34
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Integration Management
  • Ensures that the project processes are properly
    coordinated
  • Tradeoffs between competing objectives and
    alternatives in order to meet stakeholder
    approval
  • Project Plan Development
  • Project Plan Execution
  • Overall Change Control
  • These processes may occur repeatedly over the
    project duration
  • Historical Records are needed to perform project
    management well, they are inputs to continuous
    improvement
  • Files
  • Lessons Learned
  • Actual Costs
  • Time Estimates
  • WBS
  • Benchmarks
  • Risks

35
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Development
  • Uses outputs from other planning processes to
    create consistent document to guide project
    execution and control
  • Iterated several times
  • Documents planning assumptions
  • Documents planning decisions that are chosen
  • Facilitates communication
  • Defines key management reviews
  • Provides a baseline to track progress measurement
    and project control

36
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Development Inputs
  • Other planning outputs primarily the planning
    process outputs (WBS, base documents, application
    area inputs)
  • Historical information verify assumptions,
    records of past project performance
  • Organizational policies quality management,
    personnel administration, Financial controls
  • Constraints factors that limit performance,
    contractual provisions, budget
  • Assumptions risk factors

37
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Tools Techniques for Plan Development
  • Project Planning Methodology any structured
    approach (software, templates, forms, start-up
    meetings
  • Stakeholder Skills Knowledge tap into plan
    development use expertise for reasonableness
  • PMIS Out of the box approach to support all
    project aspects through closure

38
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Development Outputs
  • Project Plan is a collection that changes over
    time as more information about the project
    becomes available
  • Baseline will change only in response to approved
    scope change
  • Project Plan includes some or all of the
    following
  • Project Charter
  • Project Management approach or strategy
  • Scope statement
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Budget, schedule, risks
  • Key Staff, Major Milestones
  • Change Control Plan, Management and
    Communications Plan

39
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Components (continued)
  • Cost Estimates, scheduled start dates and
    responsibility assignments
  • Performance measurement baselines
  • Major milestones and target dates
  • Required Staff
  • Risks, constraints and assumptions
  • Subsidiary management plans (scope, schedule)
  • Open Issues
  • Pending Decisions

40
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Supporting Details to the Project Plan
  • Outputs from planning processes
  • Technical documentation
  • Business requirements, specifications, and
    designs
  • Relevant standards
  • Additional information not previously known

41
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Execution
  • Primary process for carrying out the project plan
  • Most costly aspect of project management
  • Direction of organizational resources and
    interfaces

42
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Execution Inputs
  • Project Plan
  • Supporting Detail
  • Organizational Policies
  • Corrective Action anything to bring expected
    performance in line with the project plan

43
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Tools Techniques for Plan Execution
  • General Management Skills
  • Product Skills and Knowledge defined as part of
    planning, provided by staffing
  • Work Authorization System formal procedure for
    sanctioning work to ensure completion written
    or verbal authorization
  • Status review meetings regular exchanges of
    information
  • Project Management Information System
  • Organizational Procedures

44
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Project Plan Execution Outputs
  • Work results the outcome of activities
    performed is fed into the performance reporting
    process
  • Change Requests expand/shrink project scope,
    modify costs and schedule estimates

45
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Overall Change Control
  • Influencing factors that create change to ensure
    beneficial results ensure that change is
    beneficial
  • Determining that change has occurred
  • Managing actual changes as they occur
  • Evaluate impact of change
  • Meet with team to discuss alternatives
  • Meet with management to present decision
  • Change control requires
  • Maintaining integrity of performance measurement
    baselines (project plan)
  • Ensuring changes to scope are accurately recorded
  • Coordinating changes across knowledge areas
    (scheduling, risk, cost, quality, etc.)
  • Determine all factors that control change and
    pro-actively preventing the occurrence evaluate
    the impact of change

46
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Inputs to Change Control
  • Project Plan baseline performance
  • Performance Reports issue tracking, risk
    management
  • Change Requests orally or written, externally
    or internally initiates, legally mandated or
    optional

47
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Change Control Tools Techniques
  • All Changes must be evaluated before a decision
    can be reached
  • Change Control System collection of formal
    procedures, paperwork, tracking systems, approval
    levels
  • Change Control Board decision making authority
  • Configuration Management documented procedure
    to apply technical and administrative direction
  • ID and document functional and physical
    characteristics
  • Control changes to these characteristics
  • Record and report change and implementation
    status
  • Audit items and system to verify requirements

48
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Change Control Tools Techniques
  • Performance Measurement earned value, plan
    variance analysis
  • Additional Planning revised cost estimates,
    modify activity sequences, plan adjustments
  • Project Management Information System
  • Change Control System may have
  • Change Control Plan
  • Change Control Board
  • Change Control Procedures, Corrective Action
    plans
  • Performance Statistics, Reports, Change forms
  • Specification reviews, Demonstrations, Testing,
    Meetings
  • Configuration Management

49
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Change Control Outputs
  • Project Plan Updates
  • Corrective Actions
  • Lessons Learned variance causes and reasoning
    documented for historical purposes

50
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Configuration Management
  • Rigorous Change Management as it relates to scope
  • Subset of the change control system
  • Work Authorization System
  • Controls gold plating defines what task is/is
    not
  • Meetings
  • Most are inefficient keep minutes
  • Status can be determined without meeting

51
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Lessons Learned
  • Project is not complete until a Lessons Learned
    is completed
  • What have we done, how can we do it better
  • Technical Aspects of the project
  • Project Management (WBS, plans, etc.)
  • Overall Management (communications, leadership)
  • Best to have whole team complete and made
    available
  • Also called Post Mortem

52
Chapter 4 Project Integration Management
  • Integration is a result of need for communication
    within a project
  • Primary responsibility to decide what changes are
    necessary is Management
  • Project Managers must pro-actively define and
    solve problems before reporting to superiors

53
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Project Scope Management
  • Processes required to ensure that the project
    includes all, and only, work required
  • Defining what is/is not included in the project
  • Project scope work that must be done measured
    against project plan
  • Product scope features and functions included
    in the product or service measured against
    requirements

54
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Initiation process of formally recognizing that
    a new project exists, or an existing project
    continue to next phase
  • Involves feasibility study, preliminary plan, or
    equivalent analysis
  • Authorized as a result of
  • Market Demand
  • Business Need
  • Customer Request
  • Technological Advance
  • Legal Requirement

55
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Initiation Inputs
  • Product Description characteristics of the
    product/service that the project was to create
  • Less detail in early phases, more comprehensive
    in latter
  • Relationship between product/service and business
    need
  • Should support later project planning
  • Initial product description is usually provided
    by the buyer
  • Strategic Plan supportive of the organization's
    goals

56
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Initiation Inputs (continued)
  • Project Selection Criteria defined in terms of
    the product and covers range of management
    concerns (finance, market)
  • Historical Information results of previous
    project decisions and performance should be
    considered

57
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Tools Techniques for Initiation
  • Project Selection Methods
  • Benefit measurement models comparative
    approaches, scoring models, economic models
  • Murder Boards
  • Peer Review
  • Scoring Models
  • Economic Models
  • Benefits compared to costs
  • Constrained operation models programming
    mathematical
  • Linear Programming
  • Integer Programming
  • Dynamic Programming
  • Multi-objective programming

58
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Tools Techniques for Initiation
  • Project Selection Methods
  • Decision models generalized and sophisticated
    techniques
  • Expert judgment
  • Business Units with specialized skills
  • Consultant
  • Professional and Technical Associations
  • Industry Groups
  • Delphi Technique obtain expert opinions on
    technical issues, scope of work and risks
  • Keep experts identities anonymous
  • Build consensus

59
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Outputs from Initiation
  • Project Charter formally recognizes project,
    created by senior manager, includes
  • Business need/Business Case
  • Product description title
  • Signed contract
  • Project Manager Identification Authority level
  • Senior Management approval
  • Projects Goals and Objectives -
  • Constraints factors that limit project
    management teams options
  • Assumptions factors that are considered true
    for planning purposes. Involve a degree of risk

60
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Planning process of developing a written
    statement as basis for future decisions
  • Criteria to determine if the project or phase is
    successful
  • Scope Planning Inputs
  • Product description
  • Project Charter
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions

61
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Planning Tools Techniques
  • Product Analysis - - developing a better
    understanding of the product of the project
  • Cost/Benefit Analysis estimating
    tangible/intangible costs and returns of various
    project alternatives and using financial measures
    (R.O.I.) to assess desirability
  • Alternatives Identification generate different
    approaches to the project brainstorming
  • Expert Judgment

62
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Planning Outputs
  • Scope Statement documented basis for making
    project decisions and confirming understanding
    among stakeholders. Includes
  • Project justification business need, evaluating
    future trade-offs
  • Project Product summary of project description
  • Project Deliverables list of summary of
    delivery items marking completion of the project
  • Project Objectives quantifiable criteria met
    for success. Addresses cost, schedule and metrics
    unqualified objectives indicate high risk
    (customer satisfaction)

63
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Planning Outputs (continued)
  • Supporting detail includes documentation of all
    assumptions and constraints
  • Scope Management Plan how project scope is
    managed, change control procedure, expected
    stability, change identification and
    classification
  • Control what is/is not in the project prevents
    delivering extra benefits to the customer that
    were not specified/required

64
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition subdividing major deliverables
    into smaller, manageable components
  • Improve accuracy of cost, time, and resource
    estimates
  • Define a baseline for performance measurement
  • Clear responsibility assignments
  • Critical to project success reduces risk of
    higher cost, redundancy, time delays, and poor
    productivity
  • Defines what you are doing WBS is the tool

65
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition Inputs
  • Scope Statement
  • Constraints consider contractual provisions
  • Assumptions
  • Other Planning Outputs
  • Historical Information

66
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition Tools Techniques
  • Work Breakdown Structure templates from
    previous projects
  • Decomposition subdividing major deliverables
    into manageable components
  • Major elements project deliverables and project
    management approach
  • Decide cost and duration estimates are
    appropriate at level of detail
  • Constituent elements tangible verifiable
    results to enable performance management, how the
    work will be accomplished
  • Verify correctness of decomposition
  • All items necessary and sufficient?
  • Clearly and completely defined?
  • Appropriately scheduled, budgeted, assigned?

67
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition Outputs
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) a
    deliverable-oriented grouping of project
    assignments that organizes and defines the scope
    of the project
  • Each descending level represents further detail
    smaller and more manageable pieces
  • Each item is assigned a unique identifier
    collectively known as code of accounts
  • Work element descriptions included in a WBS
    dictionary (work, schedule and planning
    information)
  • Other formats
  • Contractual WBS seller provides the buyer
  • Organizational (OBS) work elements to specific
    org. units
  • Resource (RBS) work elements to individuals
  • Bill of Materials (BOM) hierarchical view of
    physical resources
  • Project (PBS) similar to WBS

68
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition Outputs
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • First Level is commonly the same at the Project
    Life Cycle (requirements, design, coding,
    testing, conversion and operation)
  • First level is completed before the project is
    broken down further
  • Each level of the WBS is a smaller segment of
    level above
  • Work toward the project deliverables
  • Break down project into tasks that
  • Are realistically and confidently estimable
  • Cannot be logically divided further
  • Can be completed quickly (under 80 hours rule of
    thumb)
  • Have a meaningful conclusion and deliverable
  • Can be completed without interruption
  • Provides foundation for all project planning and
    control

69
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition Outputs
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) - Benefits
  • Prevent work slippage
  • Project team understands how their tasks fit into
    the overall project and their impact upon the
    project
  • Facilitates communication and cooperation between
    project team and stakeholders
  • Helps prevent changes
  • Focuses team experience into what needs to be
    done results in higher quality
  • Basis and proof for estimating staff, cost and
    time
  • Gets team buy-in, role identification
  • Graphical picture of the project hierarchy
  • Identifies all tasks, project foundation

70
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • WBS phrases
  • Graphical hierarchy of the project
  • Identifies all tasks
  • Foundation of the project
  • Very important
  • Forces thought of all aspects of the project
  • Can be re-used for other projects

71
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Definition Outputs
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Dictionary
  • Designed to control what work is done and when
  • Also known as a task description
  • Puts boundary on what is included in a task and
    what is not included

72
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Verification Inputs
  • Work results partially/completed deliverables,
    costs to date
  • Product documentation description available for
    review (requirements)
  • Scope Verification Tools Techniques
  • Inspection measuring, examining, testing to
    determine if results conform to requirements
  • Scope Verification Outputs
  • Formal acceptance documentation identifying
    client and stakeholder approval, customer
    acceptance of efforts

73
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Change Control
  • Influencing factors to ensure that changes are
    beneficial
  • Determining scope change has occurred
  • Managing changes when they occur
  • Thoroughly integrated with other control processes

74
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Change Control Inputs
  • Work Breakdown Structure
  • Performance Reports- issues reported
  • Change Requests expansion/shrink of scope
    derived from
  • External events (government regulations)
  • Scope definition errors of product or project
  • Value adding change new technology
  • Scope Management Plan

75
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Change Control Tools Techniques
  • Scope Change Control System defines procedures
    how scope change can occur
  • All paperwork, tracking systems, approval levels
  • Integrated with overall change control procedures
  • Performance Measurement determine what is
    causing variances and corrective actions
  • Additional Planning

76
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Scope Change Control Outputs
  • Scope Changes fed back through planning
    processes, revised WBS
  • Corrective Actions
  • Lessons Learned cause and reasoning for
    variances documented for historical purposes

77
Chapter 5 Project Scope Management
  • Management By Objectives (MBO)
  • Philosophy that has 3 steps
  • Establish unambiguous and realistic objectives
  • Periodically evaluate if objectives are being met
  • Take corrective action
  • Project Manager must know that if project is not
    aligned or support corporate objectives, the
    project is likely to lose resources, assistance
    and attention.
  • MBO only works if management supports it

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Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Project Time Management
  • Processes required to ensure timely completion of
    the project
  • No consensus concerning differences between
    activities and tasks
  • Activities seen as composed of tasks most common
    usage
  • Other disciplines have tasks composed of
    activities

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Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Definition identifying and documenting
    specific activities to produce project
    deliverables identified in the WBS
  • Must be defined to meet the project objectives

80
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Definition Inputs
  • WBS primary input
  • Scope Statement project justification project
    objectives
  • Historical Information
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions

81
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Definition Tools Techniques
  • Decomposition outputs are expressed as
    activities rather than deliverables
  • Templates reuse from previous projects

82
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Definition Outputs
  • Activity List all to be performed extension to
    the WBS and includes description to ensure team
    members understand work to be performed
  • Supporting Detail organized as needed and
    include all assumptions and constraints
  • WBS Updates identify missing deliverables and
    clarify deliverable descriptions. WBS updates
    often called refinements more likely using new
    technologies in project

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Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing identifying and documenting
    interactive dependencies among activities.
    Support later development of a realistic schedule
  • Project Management software often used

84
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing Inputs
  • Activity List
  • Product Description product characteristics
    often affect activity sequencing
  • Mandatory Sequencing physical limitations, hard
    logic, prototypes needed inherent in nature of
    work being done
  • Discretionary Dependencies defined by project
    management team best practices or unusual
    aspects of project soft logic, preferred logic,
    preferential logic
  • External Dependencies relationship between
    project activities and non-project activities
    (company policies, procurement, etc.)
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions

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Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Network Diagrams
  • Shows how the project tasks will flow from
    beginning to end
  • Proves how long the project will take to complete
  • Takes project tasks from low levels of WBS and
    placing them into their order of completion
    (beginning to end)

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Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing Tools Techniques
  • Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
    constructing network diagram using nodes to
    represent activities and arrows to indicate
    dependencies also called Activity On Node (AON)
  • Most project management software uses
  • Includes 4 types of dependencies
  • Finish to Start from activity must finish
    before to activity can begin most commonly
    used
  • Finish to Finish from activity must finish
    before the next may finish
  • Start to Start from activity must start
    before next to activity can start
  • Start to Finish task must start before next
    activity can finish
  • Use caution with last 3 techniques - logical
    relationships often not consistently implemented
    with project management software

87
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing Tools Techniques
    (continued)
  • Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) uses arrows to
    represent activities and connecting at nodes to
    illustrate dependencies
  • Also called Activity On Arrow (AOA)
  • Only uses finish to start dependencies
  • PERT and CPM only can be drawn using AOA

88
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing Tools Techniques
    (continued)
  • Conditional diagramming methods
  • GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique)
  • System Dynamic Models
  • Allow for non-sequential activities (loops) or
    conditional branches not provided by PDM or ADM
    methods

89
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing Tools Techniques
    (continued)
  • Network Templates standardized networks can be
    used. Composed of subnets, or fragnets
  • Subnets are several nearly identical portions of
    a network (floors on a building, clinical trials,
    program modules)
  • Useful for several identical processes (clinical
    trials, programming modules).

90
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Sequencing Outputs
  • Project Network Diagram schematic display of
    project activities and relationships
    (dependencies). Should be accompanied by a
    summary narrative that describes the diagram
    approach
  • Activity List Updates

91
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Duration Estimating
  • Involves assessing number of work periods needed
    to complete identified activities
  • Requires consideration of elapsed time,
    calendars, weekends, and day of week work starts

92
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Duration Estimating Inputs
  • Activity Lists
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions
  • Resource Requirements amount of labor assigned
    to activity
  • Resource Capabilities human and material
    resources, expertise
  • Historical Information
  • Project Files, or records of previous project
    results
  • Commercial Duration Estimates useful when
    durations are not driven by actual work (approval
    periods, material resources)
  • Project Team Knowledge

93
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Duration Estimating Tools Techniques
  • Expert Judgment guided by historical
    information should be used whenever possible
    high risk without expertise avail.
  • Simulation using different sets of assumptions
    (Monte Carlo Analysis) to drive multiple
    durations
  • Analogous Estimating top down estimating
    use actual, similar, previous known durations as
    basis for future activity duration. Used when
    limited knowledge is available. Form of expert
    judgment

94
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Activity Duration Outputs
  • Activity Duration Estimates quantitative
    assessments of work periods to complete an
    activity. Should indicate a range /- of
    possible results
  • Basis of Estimates all assumptions should be
    documented
  • Activity List Updates

95
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development
  • Determining start and finish dates for project
    activities
  • Without realistic dates, project unlikely to be
    finished as scheduled
  • Schedule development process often iterates as
    more information becomes available (process
    inputs)

96
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Inputs
  • Project Network Diagram
  • Activity Duration Estimates
  • Resource Requirements
  • Resource Pool Description availability
    patterns shared resources are highly variable
  • Calendars define eligible work periods
  • Project Calendars affect all resources
  • Resource Calendars affect specific resource
    pools or individuals

97
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Inputs (continued)
  • Constraints
  • Imposed Dates may be required
  • Key events or milestones are initially
    requested and become expected during project
  • Assumptions
  • Lead and Lag Time dependencies may specify time
    in order to satisfy relationship (example 2
    weeks to receive order)

98
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
  • Mathematical Analysis calculating theoretical
    early/late finish and start dates without regard
    for resource pool limitations indicate time
    periods which activity should be scheduled given
    resource limits and other constraints
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) single early/late
    start and finish date for all activities. Based
    on specified, sequential network and single
    duration estimate. Calculates float to determine
    flexibility
  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
    probabilistic treatment of network and activity
    duration estimates
  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)-
    sequential network and weighted average duration
    to calculate project duration differs from CPM
    by using mean (expected value) instead of
    most-likely estimate in CPM

99
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
  • Critical Path Method refers to estimating based
    on one time estimate per activity
  • One time estimate per task (Most Likely)
  • Emphasis on controlling cost and leaving schedule
    flexible
  • Drawn using AOA diagrams
  • Can have dummy task
  • PERT (Program Review and Estimating Technique)
  • 3 Time estimates per activity
  • Optimistic
  • Pessimistic
  • Most Likely
  • Emphasis on meeting schedule, flexibility with
    costs
  • Drawn on AOA diagrams
  • Can have dummy tasks

100
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
  • Monte Carlo Analysis
  • Uses a computer with PERT values and network
    diagram
  • Tells
  • Probability of completing a project on any
    specific day
  • Probability of completing a project for any
    specific amount of cost
  • Probability of any task actually being on the
    critical path
  • Overall Project Risk
  • Suggests that Monte Carlo simulation will create
    a project duration that is closer to reality than
    CPM or PERT

101
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
    (continued)
  • Duration Compression look to shorten project
    schedule without affecting scope
  • Crashing cost and schedule trade-offs to
    determine greatest amount of compression for
    least incremental cost often results in higher
    costs
  • Fast Tracking performing activities in parallel
    that normally would be sequenced often results
    in re-work and usually increases risk
  • Simulation

102
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
    (continued)
  • Resource Leveling Heuristics leveling resources
    that apply to critical path activities a.k.a.
    resource constrained scheduling when
    limitation on quantity of available resources
    sometimes called Resource Based Method often
    increases project duration
  • Project Management Software

103
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
    (continued)
  • Project Mangers role
  • Provide the team with the necessary information
    to properly estimate the task
  • Complete a sanity check of the estimate
  • Formulate a reserve
  • Project Team should be involved determine task
    estimates
  • Historical Records
  • Guesses
  • Actual Costs
  • Benchmarks
  • CPM and PERT

104
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Tools Techniques
  • Critical Path Method longest path through a
    network diagram and determines the earliest
    completion of the project
  • Proves how long the project will take
  • Indicates tasks that need most monitoring
  • Almost always have no slack

105
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Outputs
  • Project Schedule includes planned start and
    finish dates for each activity remains
    preliminary until resources assignments are
    approved. Usually in following formats
  • Project Network Diagrams (with date information
    added) show logical and critical path
    activities
  • Bar or Gantt charts activity start and end
    dates, expected durations
  • Milestone Charts identifies key deliverables
    and interfaces
  • Time-scaled network diagrams blend of project
    network and bar charts

106
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Development Outputs (continued)
  • Supporting Detail all assumptions and
    constraints. May also include
  • Resource requirement by time period (resource
    histogram)
  • Alternative schedules (best/worst case)
  • Schedule reserve/risk assessments
  • Schedule Management Plan how updates are
    managed
  • Resource requirement updates leveling and
    activity impact

107
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Control
  • Influencing factors which create schedule changes
    to ensure changes are beneficial
  • Determining that schedule has changed
  • Managing actual changes as they occur
  • Inputs to Schedule Control
  • Project Schedule baseline approved, measure
    against project performance
  • Performance Reports planned dates met, issues
  • Change Requests
  • Schedule Management Plan

108
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Control Tools Techniques
  • Schedule Change Control System defines
    procedures for schedule changes, paperwork,
    approval, tracking systems
  • Performance Measurement assess magnitude of
    variations to baseline determine if corrective
    action is needed
  • Additional Planning
  • Project Management Software

109
Chapter 6 Project Time Management
  • Schedule Control Outputs
  • Schedule Updates any modifications, stakeholder
    notification
  • Revisions change scheduled start and finish dates
    generally in response to scope changes.
    Re-baselining may be needed in drastic
    situations
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