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Wesley, M. C. (2007, June) APA style refresher.

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... in Jenkins (2001) study opposed ... In-text citations on pp. 117-122 & 207-214 Reference lists chapter 5 ... Texas Business Review, 23, 465-498. Reference List ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wesley, M. C. (2007, June) APA style refresher.


1
Wesley, M. C. (2007, June) APA style refresher.
?No comma per APA
June 2007
2
Several Common Problems
  • 1. Numbers and Percentages
  • 2. Punctuation and Capital Letters
  • 3. Spelling, Italics, Abbreviations
  • 4. Seriation
  • 5. Tables and Figures

3
Several Common Problems (cond.)
  • 6. Heading Levels (Three)
  • 7. Miscellaneous
  • 8. Citation Basics
  • 9. Reference List Basics

4
On Numbers (APA 3.42-3.45)
  • Remember Normally, numbers 10 and higher are
    written as numerals. Nine and lower are written
    out.
  • But there are many exceptions where they appear
    as numerals, toomainly (a) elements of time and
    (b) participants in a study.

5
  • All eight boys threw rocks at a carp. Meanwhile,
    14 cat- fish nipped at Senator Kerrys arm.
    Crazy, but true!
  • I like saw you know like 150 people I like
    totally knew at Britneys show. There were like 2
    million people there. She played like 20 songs
    and it lasted like 3 hours. It was so like
    totally awesome.
  • Every 2 or 3 years my lovely bride and I spend a
    weekend in Huntsville, AL, remembering the
    romantic times we had denouncing civil rights
    legislation.
  • One hundred twelve clients with bipolar disorder
    and 75 with pyromania filled out a 5-point
    Likert-type scale.

6
  • In general, use arabic--not roman--numerals.
  • In chapter 2, the author describes the history
    of the world, with an emphasis on ground beef.
    Although the exciting history of meat loaf could
    be a dissertation in itself (see Appendix F), a
    timeline is presented in Figure 3 that summarizes
    the highpointsor low points if youre a cow ?.
    Indeed, the issue of viewpoint is further
    explored in Research Question 3. (Refer to p.
    space976.)

7
  • WAIT I MISSED THAT LAST ONE. WHAT WAS THAT AGAIN?
  • Blah blah blah blah (p.space 976)

8
  • Percentages (APA 3.42d) are straightforward.
  • Use a numeral and percentage sign unless at the
    start of a sentence or if youre quoting directly
    from a source that used a different style manual.
  • Sixteen percent favor lethal injection.
  • Another 12 favor Banquet pot pies, and 2
    marked Hemlock.

9
Okay, Lets Review
  • Normally, numbers 10 and higher are written as
    numerals. Nine and lower are written out.
  • But there are many exceptions where they appear
    as numerals, toomainly (a) elements of time and
    (b) participants in a study.
  • Use arabic numerals. Use a sign.

10
Okay, Lets Review
  • I have two/2 children. My daughter, Sophia, is
    seventeen/17, and my son, Isaac, is thirteen/13.
  • Theres a ten percent /10 percent / 10 chance of
    rain today.

11
Commas
Insert a serial comma in a series of three or
more nouns or noun phrases before the words and
or or Moe, Larry, and Curly
Comma?
12
  • Example 1
  • Hello, hello, and hello.
  • Example 2
  • Bacon, lettuce, or tomato.
  • Example 3
  • Bacon, Robbins, and Penn (2004) starred in Mystic
    River.
  • So remember, folks Use a serial comma.

13
  • Wait. I missed that one.
  • What was that again?
  • USE A SERIAL COMMA. OKAY?

14
On Abbreviations
  • Italicize statistical abbreviations
  • Uppercase N means population lowercase n means
    subsample
  • Use etc., e.g., and i.e. only inside parentheses
  • e.g., means ________________
  • i.e., means ________________

For Example
That is
15
Spelling
  • Check the tables in chapter 3 for rules on
    hyphenation. In general, words with prefixes such
    as non, semi, pre, post, anti, multi, and inter
    are not hyphenated pretest, posttest,
    antibiotic, antisocial, nonprofit, semipro,
    multiphased, subsample. But self-esteem,
    self-concept.
  • Possessives of proper nouns ending in s get s
    added
  • Rogerss, Wilkss lambda, Joness bottle of rum.

16
Italics (not underlines)
  • APA says use italics. Psych students especially
    Stick to italics. Period.
  • Check the table in chapter 3 for rules on
    italics. Italicize book and journal titles and
    words used as key terms on first reference
  • I just re-read the Grapes of Wrath. The term
    psychopharmocological always brings me back to my
    salad days at Penn State.

17
Table 4 Comparison of Boys and Girls by Height
and Weight
Note. From Analysis of Seventh Graders
Hormones, by W. Steeves, 2001, Journal of
Despair, 98, p. 11. Reprinted with permission.
18
Pressure from Home
Pressure from Work
Dangerous Levels of Medications
  • Figure 13. Causes of stress and its effects among
    graduate students. But is this really necessary?
    According to whom?
  • By the way, number tables and figures
    consecutively, that is, Table 1, Table 2, Table
    3 Figure 1, Figure 2. . . .

19
Seriation (Lists)
  • Vertical lists, go
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • In the paragraph, use (a), (b), (c). . . .

20
tab 1.tabIn a vertical list like this one, tab
the 1. over, and tab again. 2. Double space. As
in the last sentence, go back to the left
margin. 3. Use a ., not a ) or ().
21
  • but Limbaugh and Amin (2000) blamed the following
    for disruptive behavior among adolescents
  • 1. Not saying the Pledge of Allegiance at school
    in the morning.
  • 2. Irresponsible parents.
  • 3. The elimination of paddling.

22
  • Blah blah Kerry (2004), who said it was (a)
    the right thing to do, (b) a mistake, and (c)
    the right thing to do but a mistake.
  • But Blah blah the Georgia senator, who
    encouraged banning (a) atheism (b) pinkos,
    especially pinko demagogues and (c) coed
    dancing.

23
Headings (APA 3.31)
  • Keep your reader from getting lost.
  • A series of road signs.
  • Some choices depending on how many levels you
    have.
  • All levels belong in the table of contents, which
    on most word processing programs is generated
    automatically.

24
  • Heres how youd do three levels
  • Next Level L1
  • Next Level L3
  • Next level. L4

25
Heres how youd do three levels Twentieth-Centur
y Theorists L1 Abraham Maslow L3
Self-actualization. L4 This concept arose
during the theorists days at a deli counter on
Murray Avenue in the Squirrel Hill area of
26
Table of Contents Twentieth-Century Theorists
L1.14 Abraham Maslow L3 14
Maslows InfluenceL4.16 Justin
Timberlake L318 Justin on Quantum
Physics..25
27
Twentieth-Century Theorists L1 Blah blah blah
these are really swell guys that Ill be
discussing. Abraham Maslow (1954) L3 Blah blah
svelt Maslow (1954) blah blah ya da da da da da
self-actualization blah blah hungry but blah blah
think sex is more important.
Self-actualization . L4 Self-actualization blah
blah papers written by graduate students blah
blah but did he ever play baseball or
football? Justin Timberlake L3 Blah blah blah
Timberlake (2004) blah blah ya da da da da da
talented and intelligent blah blah famous
performance at the Super Bowl blah blah. Justin
on quantum physics. The erudite performer (2004)
blah blah whose secret work at the NSF was only
recently revealed blah blah. . . .
28
Spacing
  • Normally, double space. I accept single-spaced
    reference lists, block quotes, table titles and
    figure captions, and other places where
    readability is improved.
  • I prefer one space after a colon and period, but
    two spaces are accepted.

29
Miscellaneous
  • Data and media are plural.
  • Use respectful and inclusive language.
  • No first person.
  • American not British English.
  • Avoid contractions.

30
POP QUIZ
  • My sister has three/3 children
  • The plane was two/2 hours late.
  • Im going to eat lunch, take a nap and spend the
    whole evening writing a course paper.
  • I am going to eat lunch, take a nap, and spend
    the whole evening writing a course paper.
  • I may be 50/fifty but I dont feel older than
    49/forty-nine.
  • Im not old, I am a nontraditional/
    non-traditional student.

31
VERB TENSES
  • First rule The verb tense must make sense.
  • Corporations lack the trust Americans had in them
    a decade ago.
  • The U.S. manned space program has experienced
    setbacks / experienced a major setback. . . .
  • There are growing concerns about the shortage of
    water in the American West.
  • The crime rate fell during the 1990s.

32
VERB TENSES
  • Second rule Report the literature in past tense.
  • Freud (1917/1980) explained not explains that
    sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.
  • Deming (1982) argued that blah blah.
  • Bennis (1980) believed not believes
  • Pumpernickel (2000) found that
  • Moribund (2001) wrote that
  • Talisman (2004) demonstrated/indicated/opined

33
VERB TENSES
  • Third rule Report the literature in past tense,
    but it has to make sense.
  • Parker (1935) claimed that boys do not make
    passes at girls who wear glasses.
  • Bausch and Lomb (2002) studied male heterosexual
    college students (N100) at Princeton and found
    that 75 of the students made passes at girls who
    wore glasses.

34
Review Number 1
30. (10 and higher, plus element of time
anyway.) Four, not 4. Use italics here. Use a
serial comma. p.space432. Single
space. Richardss per APA self-image nonmarried
  • In a study conducted some thirty years ago,
    Yenta, Bupkus, Pupik, and Kvetch (1974)
    identified 4 reasons for growing incidence of
    hirsute visibility, the tendency for hairy men
    to go shirtless at the beach. Yet ODell,
    OReilley and OConnor (1981) found that a
    majority of women found hairy men to be
    inspiring and thought-provoking (p. 432).
    Richards (1992) study of Belgian women suggested
    that hairy, married European women had better
    self images than non-married women.

35
Lets Review Number 2
  • Nearly sixty percent of the respondents (N120)
    in Jenkins (2001) study opposed the death
    penalty, on the following grounds, in descending
    order (1) moral or religious conflict, (2)
    expense and (3) sentencing injustices. Yet 80
    (n160) of the same sample said terrorists
    deserved the death penalty. The data in stage II
    of Jenkins study supports this contradiction as
    well. As shown in table 3, its mostly your
    liberals who are the biggest hypocrites on this
    matter.

36
In-Text Citations The Hows
  • You must supply page numbers for direct quotes
    from print sources or number for electronic
    ones.
  • You must use quotation marks if quoting a source
    directly (unless block quote).
  • Per APA 3.39, you are not required to provide
    page numbers for paraphrases, but authors are
    encouraged to do so.
  • Use secondary sources carefully.

37
The Hows
  • Follow the conventions of the style manual.
  • In-text citations on pp. 117-122 207-214
  • Reference lists chapter 5 (5th ed.)
  • http//www.apastyle.org.

38
APA style uses author-date citations only. The
authors (or in their absence, the title of the
work) appears first, followed by the year of
publication, and often a page number at the end
of a sentence. Thron (2003) found that elves
live at the South Pole as well as at the North
Pole. Other research (Maurer, 1943) suggested
that elves live in Bentonville, AR, home of
merchandising giant Wal-Mart, quietly being sued
for discriminatory hiring practices.

39
APA style uses author-date citations
only. When citing multiple authors in
parentheses, use an ampersand. A northeastern
liberal has as much chance of winning a national
election as does Captain Kangaroo (Kelsey,
Valen, Dubiel, 2004, p. 211). Kelsey,
Valen, and Dubiel (2004) found that nuance is
overrated (p. 211).

40
  • WAIT I MISSED THAT LAST ONE. WHAT WAS THAT AGAIN?
  • (In parentheses, use )
  • Note You gotta pay attention to stuff like
    punctuation, italics, and capital letters.

41
Practice Text 1
  • Steinbrink, J. E., Cook, J. W. (2003). Media
    literacy skills and the war on terrorism.
    Clearing House, 76(6), 284-288.

42
The post-September 11 discussion in the U.S.
media, based on fear of additional terror, showed
an overwhelming preoccupation with nationalistic
images and icons. The medias us versus them
discourse is based on patriotic motifs (U.S.
flags everywhere) human-interest stories about
the 9/11 victims that reinforce nationalism and
narratives that demonize them, such as reports
about Taliban brutality and Palestinian suicide
bombers. The net result of this
media-manufactured nationalism (Burney, 2002) has
been the cultivation of supreme loyalty as
described by the slogan war against terrorism.
Taken collectively, the media in the United
States overwhelmingly support a form of
egocentric nationalism and have been silenced
into acquiescence because dissent is interpreted
as non-nationalistic and unpatriotic.

43
  1. The post 9-11 discussion in the U.S. press, based
    on fear of additional terror, demonstrated an
    overwhelming preoccupation with nationalistic
    images. The medias us- vs.-them discourse
    is based on patriotic themes ( flags
    everywhere) human-interest stories about the
    9/11 victims that reinforce nationalism and
    stories that demonize them, such as reports
    about the Talibans brutality and Palestinian
    suicide bombers. The result of this
    media-created nationalism (Burney, 2002) has been
    the cultivation of supreme loyalty as described
    by the slogan war against terrorism. Taken
    collectively, the media in the United States
    overwhelmingly supports a form of egocentric
    nationalism and have been silenced
    because disagreement is interpreted as
    unpatriotic.

PLAGIARISM
44
2. The post 9-11 discussion in the U.S. press,
based on fear of more terror, demonstrated an
overwhelming preoccupation with nationalistic
images. The medias us- vs.-them discourse
is based on patriotic themes ( flags
everywhere) human-interest stories about the
9/11 victims that reinforce nationalism and
stories that demonize them, such as reports
about Saddams brutality and Palestinian suicide
bombers. The result of this media-created
nationalism (Burney, 2002) has been the
cultivation of supreme loyalty as described by
the slogan war against terrorism. Taken
collectively, the media in the United States
overwhelmingly supports a form of egocentric
nationalism and have been quieted
because disagreement is interpreted as
unpatriotic (Steinbrink Cook, 2003).

PLAGIARISM
45
3. According to Steinbrink and Cook (2003), the
post 9-11 discussion in the U.S. press, based on
fear of more terror, demonstrated an overwhelming
preoccupation with nationalistic images. The
medias us- vs.-them discourse is based on
patriotic themes ( flags everywhere)
human-interest stories about the 9/11 victims
that reinforce nationalism and stories that
demonize them, such as reports about Saddams
brutality and Palestinian suicide bombers. The
result of this media-created nationalism
(Burney, 2002) has been the cultivation of
supreme loyalty as described by the slogan war
against terrorism. Taken collectively, the media
in the United States overwhelmingly supports a
form of egocentric nationalism and have been
quieted because disagreement is
interpreted as unpatriotic (p. 285).

Still plagiarizedAlmost everythings still right
out of the original and there are no quotation
marks and you didnt read Burney.
46
  • WAIT I MISSED THAT LAST ONE. WHAT WAS THAT AGAIN?
  • Citing a source isnt enough. If its a direct
    quote or close to it, you must paraphrase or use
    quotation marks.

47
Crummy solution 1a. According to Steinbrink and
Cook (2003), The post-September 11 discussion in
the U.S. media, based on fear of additional
terror, showed an overwhelming preoccupation with
nationalistic images and icons (p. 285). The
authors wrote that the news media created an us
versus them monologue based on patriotic
motifs (U.S. flags everywhere) human-interest
stories about the 9/11 victims that reinforce
nationalism and narratives that demonize our
enemies (p. 285). Thus, the media in the United
States overwhelmingly support a form of
egocentric nationalism and have been silenced
into acquiescence because dissent is interpreted
as non-nationalistic and unpatriotic (p. 285).

?
?
48
Crummy solution 1b. According to Steinbrink and
Cook (2003), The post-September 11 discussion in
the U.S. media, based on fear of additional
terror, showed an overwhelming preoccupation with
nationalistic images and icons (p. 285),
resulting in a media-manufactured nationalism
(Burney, as cited in Steinbrink Cook, p. 285).
The authors wrote that the news media created an
us versus them monologue based on patriotic
motifs (U.S. flags everywhere) human-interest
stories about the 9/11 victims that reinforce
nationalism and narratives that demonize our
enemies (p. 285). Thus, the media in the United
States overwhelmingly support a form of
egocentric nationalism and have been silenced
into acquiescence because dissent is interpreted
as non-nationalistic and unpatriotic (p. 285).

49
  • Crummy Solution 2 Block Quote
  • Direct quotes 40 words or more.
  • Indent five spaces on the left same margin on
    the right. single space preferred by some.
  • Usually no need for opening or closing ellipses.
  • Final punctuation comes before the parenthetical
    element.
  • . . . and unpatriotic. (p. 285)

? No punctuation
?
50
Steinbrink and Cook (2003) wrote that the
post-September 11 discussion in the U.S. media,
based on fear of additional terror, showed an
overwhelming preoccupation with nationalistic
images and icons. The medias us versus them
discourse is based on patriotic motifs (U.S.
flags everywhere) human-interest stories about
the 9/11 victims that reinforce nationalism and
narratives that demonize them, such as reports
about Taliban brutality and Palestinian suicide
bombers. (p. 285)

? No punctuation
?
51
  • Solution 3 Paraphrase
  • If you didnt read it, either ignore it or go
    back and read it.
  • Put it in your own words. Write it without
    looking at the original. Better than
    wordsmithing, consider what the passage is really
    about. Think critically. How important is the
    specific paragraph?

52
  • Original
  • Paraphrase
  • News coverage of 9-11 and the events that
    followed focused on patriotic images and created
    a good-guys/ bad guys dichotomy (Steinbrink
    Cook, 2003, p. 285). The authors argued that
    because the press helped create through such
    imagery a xenophobic climate, anyone who
    dissented was seen as unpatriotic.

The post-September 11 discussion in the U.S.
media, based on fear of additional terror, showed
an overwhelming preoccupation with nationalistic
images and icons. The media's us versus them"
discourse is based on patriotic motifs (U.S.
flags everywhere) human-interest stories about
the 9/11 victims that reinforce nationalism and
narratives that demonize "them," such as reports
about Taliban brutality and Palestinian suicide
bombers. The net result of this
media-manufactured nationalism (Burney, 2002) has
been the cultivation of supreme loyalty as
described by the slogan "war against terrorism."
Taken collectively, the media in the United
States overwhelmingly support a form of
egocentric nationalism and have been silenced
into acquiescence because dissent is interpreted
as non-nationalistic and unpatriotic.
53
Electronic Citations
  • Start with APAs basic forms.
  • If its electronic, cite it as such.
  • Be creative about page numbers.
  • Include the date that you retrieved a
    nonpermanent electronic source.
  • http//www.apastyle.org

54
In-text citation of Web page
  • Show retrieval date for nonpermanent Web sources.
    Electronic sources
  • para. or or p. 2 of 6.
  • Best? Method section, 3.

55
Reference List Format
  • Use hanging indents like this. Single spacing is
    preferred. Double space between each item.
  • Pay attention to what goes in what order.
  • Pay attention to what is capitalized and what
    isnt.
  • Pay attention to what is italicized and what
    isnt.
  • Pay attention to the punctuation.

56
Reference List Format Journal
  • Ken Lay and Jeffrey Skilling.
  • October, 1996.
  • Volume 23, Issue 4.
  • The Importance of Ethical Decision Making.
  • Texas Business Review
  • pp. 465-498
  • Lay, K., Skilling, J. (1996). The importance of
    ethical decision making. Texas Business Review,
    23, 465-498.

57
Reference List Format Book
  • Dan Quayle and Nelson Rockefeller.
  • 1998.
  • Great 20th Century Vice Presidents
  • St. Paul, Minnesota
  • Mondale Press.
  • Quayle, D., Rockefeller, N. (1998). Great 20th
    century vice presidents. St. Paul, MN Mondale
    Press.

58
Reference List Format Electronic
  • If a .pdf file
  • Lay, K., Skilling, J. (1998). The importance of
    ethical decision making Electronic version.
    Texas Business Review, 23, 465-498.
  • If some Web document
  • Lay, K., Skilling, J. (1998). The importance of
    ethical decision making. Retrieved July 12, 2004,
    from www.texasheroes.com/enron.html.

59
  • Thats the kind of stuff that the software can
    help you with.
  • End Notes Plus
  • ProCite
  • Reference Point
  • And there are others.

60
References Close Up
Journal articles in sentence case, like
this. Journal Title and Volume in Italics,
Sentence Case Like This. Book titles italics,
sentence case. Separate authors with a comma and
an ampersand. Volume no. in italics Issue in
parens, no space State abbreviation unless biggie.
  • Bush legacy Hard work.
  • Journal of the Credibility Gap, 8(2), 23-41.
  • Of mice and men.
  • Pogoff, K. L., Richman, M. (1997).
  • Public Policy, 27(5), 56-67.
  • Bartow, FL Broken Clutch Press.
  • but
  • Chicago University of Chicago Press.

61
Review Key Points on Citations
  1. You must use quotation marks if quoting directly.
  2. You must indicate the page number or paragraph
    number of a direct quote.
  3. You cant pretend to have read something
    firsthand you didnt.
  4. Paraphrase, or better yet, read and write
    critically.

62
WAIT! I ALMOST FORGOT!
  • Its et al. Not et.al, et. al, etal, et.al
  • Its et al., followed by a comma.
  • Ya di overrated (Roethlisburger et al., 2005)
  • 2. Check the manual for when you can use et al.

63
WAIT! I ALMOST FORGOT!
  • 3. If youre listing groups of authors, they go
    in alphabetical order
  • Ya di ya di ya di da (Bonds, Van Slyke, Bonilla,
    Bell, 1990 Mazeroski Groat, 1960 Stargell,
    Alou, Clemente, 1970)

64
  • Questions?
  • wesleym_at_lindsey.edu
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