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Motivation Chapter 11 Introduction


Title: Notes #1 Motivation Chapter 12 Author: Educational Technology Center Last modified by: DSD Created Date: 11/8/2004 6:05:26 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivation Chapter 11 Introduction

MotivationChapter 11 Introduction
  • Self Reference Effect
  • What motivates you?
  • What motivates your mom/dad/pet? (choose)

I. What is Motivation?
  • A need or desire (want that energizes and directs
  • 1. Need A physiological push from the
    inside out.
  • primary reinforcer
  • a. Examples?
  • 2. Want A cognitive, cultural, or
    psychological pull from the outside in.
  • secondary reinforcer
  • a. Examples?
  • 3. Instinct Four elements to an instinct
  • a. Complex behavior
  • b. Rigidly patterned
  • c. Throughout a species
  • 4. Incentives -- Positive or Negative
    ENVIRONMENTAL stimuli that either lure (pull)
    or repel (push) us.
  • Needs and wants used with a purpose of

Perspectives and Motivation- Biological and
  • A. Clark Hull - Drive-Reduction Theory
  • the idea that a physiological need creates an
    aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an
    organism to satisfy the need

II. Perspectives and Motivation
  • 1. Drive-Reduction Theory (homeostatic model)
  • a. Pushed by need to reduce an internal drive.
  • Sometimes the PUSH comes from an
    association we make (learned need).
  • I have an internal NEED to eat. This DRIVES me
    to find food. I fulfill my motivation and I eat.
    My hunger is REDUCED. (physiological)
  • I have a learned NEED to make money. I am
    driven to find a job. I find a job. My DRIVE is
    REDUCED. (behavioral)
  • b. By reducing our drives, we maintain
    homeostasis, or a state of physiological
    and psychological balance.
  • c. Homeostasis is maintained by our internal
    set point .our personal thermostat for
    physiological needs.
  • Thirst Hunger. Temperature Sex Drive

  • 2. Optimal Arousal
  • Rather than reducing a physiological need or
    tension state, some motivated behaviors increase
  • Yerkes-Dodson Law
  • There is an optimal level of arousal for the best
    performance of any task the more complex the
    task, the lower the level of arousal that can be
    tolerated before performance deteriorates.
  • Easy task needs high arousal
  • Best performance moderate level of arousal

Perspective and Motivation (cont.)
  • 2. Optimal Arousal Theory
  • a. Sometimes we are not motivated to
    REDUCE, but to INCREASE arousal. We do
    something for the sake of doing it.
  • I have a WANT to run. I am motivated to run my
    first 5K.
  • I want to run further next time. I run a 10 K.
  • I want to run more. I run a marathon.
  • Running reinforced MORE running.
    (behavioral/learned response)
  • Airplane Jump
  • Baby exploring its surroundings/Sensorimotor

B. Humanistic Perspective (raise hand)
  • 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • You and your group/partner are about to be
    marooned on an unexplored island for an
    indefinite period of time. List 10 things you
    would take with you INCLUDING people. Only ONE
    item per line. You are going with the clothes
    you currently have on, unless you put others on
    your list.

Maslows Hierarchy/Humanism (cont.)
C. Psychoanalytic Motivation (thumb)
  • 1. Freuds view of basic motivations
  • a. We are motivated early by self
    preservation and sex first. b. Later,
    we are motivated by aggression, wishes and
  • c. Sometimes, our wishes conflict with our
    fears, leading to UNCONSCIOUS
    conflict. d. Motivations have an unconscious
  • I vow to never be in a relationship with an
    alcoholic or abuser,
  • but I continuously finds find myself in such
  • I am NOT hungry. I FEAR being fat. I WISH not
    to be stressed.
  • I find myself eating a whole box of cookies. I
    feel shame or guilt.

Hunger Motivation
  • The Motivation to Eat
  • Physiology and Psychology

Motivation to Eat - Hunger
  • We need to eat for basic survival
  • We want to eat foods that dont ensure our
  • reinforcement/comfort/culture
  • We find food both intrinsically (push) motivating
    and extrinsically (pull) motivating

Was Maslow Correct?
  • Ancel Keys Minnesota Starvation Experiment
  • Baseline Calories 3200
  • per day for 3 months
  • 3000 Calories of activity per day
  • Reduced to 1800 calories per day for 3 months
  • Lost all other motivation

Washburn and Cannon The Push to eat
  • 1. They attempted to find the PHYSIOLOGICAL
    motivation of hunger.
  • 2. They looked for the root of hunger PANGS in
    the STOMACH.
  • 3. What did they find?
  • Balloon our stomach does pang when empty,
    but we feel hunger long before then

The Physiology of Hunger
  • 1. SEROTONIN increases as we eat which calms us.
  •   a. What drug manipulated this
  • Fen Fen
  • 2. Glucose Levels and Hunger
  •   a. As glucose DECREASES hunger INCREASES.
  •   b. When hunger INCREASES the HYPOTHALAMUS
    reacts. (pleasure, drives)

Physiology of Hunger Continued
  • c. The LATERAL hypothalamus brings on the
    feelings of hunger.
  •   d. I LoVe to EAT
  • Lateral Stimulated EAT
  • O
  • Ventromedial Stimulated STOP
  • E .ATING
  • e. Lateral Hypothalamus
  • When cut, hunger decreased, skinny rat
  •   Ventromedial Hypothalamus
  • When cut, hunger increased, 2X their size or

Physiology of Hunger Continued
  • Brain and Set Point
  • These two structures wire you to maintain
  •   f. Define your set point Weight thermostat
    set to restore lost fuel and remove excess
    stores of fat
  •   g. Hypothalamic Centers are there to MAINTAIN
    this set point by increasing and decreasing
    HUNGER or altering your METABOLIC rate.
  • 3. Define metabolic rate Base resting rate of
    energy expenditure. Increase energy, increase
    calories burned.
  •   a. Physiology describes the biological PUSH to

Psychology of Hunger
  • Internal Eater
  • External Eater
  • Maintains Set Point
  • Listens to hypothalamus and body when eating
  • Starts when hungry
  • Stops when full
  • Pulled by external cues to eat
  • Culture
  • Reinforcements/Rewards
  • Emotion
  • Stress
  • Sensation (smell/sight)
  • Ignores Set Point
  • May over or under eat

Achievement Motivation
  • The motivation to accomplish, master, control,
    and attain high standards.

  • Hunger and Sex
  • Achievement
  • Hunger and sex are both INTERNAL and EXTERNAL
  • We learn to be motivated by these (pull)
  • We are physiologically motivated by these (push)
  • Achievement, on the other hand, is purely
  • We learn to want (pulled) to achieve through our
    experiences. We are never physiologically driven
    (pushed) to achieve.
  • It also qualifies as a type of OPTIMAL AROUSAL
  • Achievement breeds MORE desire/want to achieve

Sources of Achievement Motivation
  • Emotional Roots - associate achievement with
    positive emotions (conditioning/behavioral)
  • take the EXTRINSIC and make it INTRINSIC
  • Cognitive Roots - help person to attribute
    (mentally) achievement with ones own efforts and
    high expectations
  • take the EXTRINSIC and make it INTRINSIC

Sources of Achievement Motivation
  • Parental Influences - help children to make the
    associations and attributions EARLY and
    consistently over time think acquisition and
  •   Birth Order (Adler?) -
  • first children have a higher need for
  • later children (second onward) have a higher
    need for social interaction and are more likely
    to support non-traditional ideas

Sources of Achievement Motivation
  • Intrinsic Motivation vs. Extrinsic Motivation
  •   Which is MORE motivating?
  • BOTH Walter Mischel Stanford Marshmallow
  • 1. Extrinsic in shaping/acquisition (at first)
  • Teach to use effort/delay gratification
  • Teach to control impulsivity
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  • 2. Intrinsic in maintaining long-term
  •   Self-discipline is higher predictor of

Achievement Motivation in the Work Place
  • Industrial/Organizational Psychology and

Work Place Motivation
  • How the emotional, cognitive, and parental roots
    of fostering INTRINSIC motivation apply?
  • Provide a sense of
  • recognition (cognitive)
  • affiliation (emotion)
  • accomplishment (extrinsic/intrinsic)

Work Place Motivation
  • How to foster all three?
  • Set specific and challenging goals with CLEAR
    objectives. (accomplishment)
  • Provide feedback throughout the process
    (recognition and affiliation)

Leadership Style to build all three
  • Task Leader
  • Social Leader
  • Goal-oriented
  • Organized
  • Focus on goals
  • Set Standards clearly
  • DIRECTIVE (men)
  • Tend to think THEORY X
  • Workers are X (extrinsically) motivated
  • Workers error-prone
  • Mediates conflict
  • Supportive
  • Build teamwork
  • Group-oriented
  • DEMOCRATIC (women)
  • Tend to think Theory Y
  • Workers are intrinsically motivated
  • Workers strive to be the best

Your Teachers?
  • Theory X or Theory Y?
  • Social or Task?