Materials in Manufacturing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Materials in Manufacturing PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6e6218-ZjY0Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Materials in Manufacturing

Description:

... materials Markets for advanced ceramics grew from less than $2 billion in ... without worrying if a material exists for their application ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:153
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: Christo468
Learn more at: http://www.gcisd-k12.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Materials in Manufacturing


1
Materials in Manufacturing
  • Chapter 11

2
  • Materials can effectively generate and capture
    students interest in science, mathematics,
    engineering, and technology.
  • -Dr. Thomas Strobe
  • University of Washington

3
Why Study Materials?
  • Materials in bulletproof vests worn by Police
  • Warm, lightweight, waterproof winter coats
  • Materials have played a significant role in field
    of engineering and education

http//www.alpineco.com/bulletproofvests.htm
4
FYI
  • Interesting points about advanced materials
  • Markets for advanced ceramics grew from less than
    2 billion in 1987 to over 20 billion in 2000
  • Materials consume up to 50 of manufactured goods
    cost
  • According to U.S. Office of Technology, a key to
    remaining competitive in the world is to train
    more scientists and technologists with a broad
    background in advanced materials

5
History of Materials Science
  • Babylonians first makers of ceramic building
    materials
  • Imprinted clay tablets used to teach trades from
    parents to offspring in 2200 B.C.
  • Time periods named after dominantly-used material

http//www.livius.org/zo-zz/zopyrus/zopyrus.html
6
Time Periods
  • 8000 B.C. - Hammered Copper
  • 7000 B.C. - Clay Pottery
  • 6000 B.C. - Silk Production
  • 5000 B.C. - Glass Making
  • 4000 B.C. - Smelted Copper (Bronze Age)
  • 1000 B.C. - Iron Age
  • 500 B.C. - Cast Iron
  • 300 B.C. - Glass Blowing
  • 105 A.D. - Paper

7
Time Periods
  • 600 - 900 - Porcelain
  • 1540 - First Foundries
  • 1774 - Crude Steel
  • 1789 - Discovery of Titanium
  • 1800 - Battery
  • 1824 - Portland Cement
  • 1850 - Reinforced Concrete
  • 1856 - Bessemer Steel-making Process
  • 1870 - Celluloid Production

8
Time Periods
  • 1871 - Periodic Table
  • 1884 - Nitrocellulose
  • 1886 - Electrolytic Reduction of Aluminum
  • 1891 - Silicon Carbide
  • 1907 - First Totally Synthetic Polymer
  • 1923 - Tungsten Carbide
  • 1930 - Fiberglass
  • 1937 - Nylon
  • 1947 - Germanium Transistor

9
Time Periods
  • 1950s - Silicon Photovoltaic Cells Transistors
  • 1958 - Ruby Laser
  • 1959 - Integrated Circuit
  • 1966 - Fiber Optics
  • 1986 - High Temperature Super Conductors
  • Data Courtesy of Dept. of Energy and Energy
    Concepts, Inc.

10
New Materials
  • New materials are designed based on need
  • Engineers can design without worrying if a
    material exists for their application

11
Characteristics of Materials
  • Strength (Stiffness)
  • Ability to resist effects of tension,
    compression, and torsion forces
  • Ductility
  • How well a material can be shaped without
    fracturing
  • Brittleness
  • When a material will break while undergoing small
    deformations

12
Characteristics of Materials
  • Hardness
  • Ability to resist indentation and wear
  • Elasticity
  • Ability to return to original shape after
    deformation
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Ability to conduct electrons/electricity
  • Thermal Conductivity
  • Ability to conduct heat

13
Classifying Materials
  • Metals
  • Ceramics
  • Polymers
  • Composites

14
Metals
  • Earliest used were native metals
  • Copper, Gold, Silver, and Meteoric Iron
  • Can be classified as Ferrous or Non-Ferrous
  • Ferrous
  • Contain 50 of iron
  • Attract magnetic materials
  • Non-Ferrous
  • Contain less than 50 iron
  • Do not attract magnetic materials
  • Higher corrosion resistance

15
Metals Mechanical Properties
  • Strong
  • Tough
  • Malleable
  • Ductile
  • Most are
  • Opaque
  • Lustrous
  • Dense
  • Good Heat and Electric Conductors
  • High Melting Point

16
Metal Facts
  • Iron and Steel are 1st and 2nd most commonly used
    metals
  • Aluminum is third
  • Lightweight
  • Can be stronger than steel

17
Ceramics
  • Derived from Greek word - keramos
  • Burned material
  • Early applications were building materials and
    containers
  • Glass, although considered a ceramic, is a
    separate part
  • Lacks crystalline organization
  • No orderly atomic structure

18
Ceramics
  • Clay products
  • Refractories
  • Used in high temperature applications
  • Made of clay
  • Abrasives
  • Extremely hard, pure, ceramic compounds or
    mixtures
  • Glasses

http//skovsantik.dk/keramikstentøj.htm
19
Polymers
  • Formed by Greek words
  • Poly - Many
  • Mer - Parts
  • Natural Materials
  • Wood, leather, cotton, wool, silk, rubber
  • Polymers processed by plants and animals
  • Proteins, Enzymes, starches, and cellulose
  • Plastics

http//www.hydropolymers.com/en/products/pvc/
20
Plastics
  • Polymers and Plastics ARE NOT the same
  • Plastics are a member of the polymer group
  • Are Synthetic Polymers
  • Thermoplastic
  • Can be reformed
  • Recyclables
  • Thermoset
  • Once set, cannot be softened by heat

21
More About Polymers
  • Are not strong
  • Good electrical insulators
  • Low melting temperatures

22
Polyethylene Terephthalate
  • PETE
  • Recycle Code - 1
  • Most comes from beverage containers
  • 99 pure, granulated recycled PETE sells half
    cost of new PETE
  • Recycled Uses
  • Fiberfill of jackets, strapping, liquid soap
    bottles, surfboards, paint brushes, tennis ball
    fuzz, and more beverage bottles

http//www.designinsite.dk/htmsider/mb0011.htm
23
High-density Polyethylene
  • HDPE
  • Recycle Code - 2
  • Well-developed process for recycling
  • Recycled Uses
  • Drain pipes, flower pots, plastic lumber, trash
    cans, automotive mud flaps, kitchen drain boards,
    beverage bottle crates, stadium seats, recycling
    bins, traffic barrier cones, golf bag liners, and
    toys

http//www.inglass.com/hdpe_bottles.htm
24
Polyvinyl Chloride or Vinyl
  • PVC or V
  • Recycle Code - 3
  • Not burned due to release of hazardous fumes
  • Dioxins and Furans
  • Recycled Uses
  • Drainage pipes, pipe fittings, floor tiles,
    bottles, doormats, hoses, mud flaps

Plastic Separating System
http//www.labs.nec.co.jp/rel/english/topics/t12.h
tml
25
Low-density Polyethylene
  • LDPE
  • Recycle Code - 4
  • Burned in incinerator-powered generators to
    produce electricity
  • Recycled Uses in where color is not important
  • Garbage can liners, grocery bags, paint buckets,
    fast food trays, lawn mower wheels, and
    automobile battery parts

http//www.pop-international.com/POP/products_plas
tic.htm
26
Polypropylene
  • PP
  • Recycle Code - 5
  • Recycled Uses
  • License plate holders, desktop accessories,
    hanging files, food service trays, flower pots,
    and trash cans

http//www.cawalker.co.uk/index.asp?id43
27
Polystyrene
  • PS
  • Recycle Code - 6
  • Most challenging to recycle
  • Styrofoam cups and packing material made
  • Some methods for recycling in place
  • Chemists still looking for more effective ways to
    recycle huge amounts

http//www.lafourmi.be/contenu/produits/decorer/de
corer_polystyrene.html
28
Composites
  • Combination of two or more constituent materials
    bonded together in an effort to provide better
    properties than those of the individual materials
  • Ubiquitous in recreational equipment
  • Used extensively in International Space Station
    and make over 10,000 pounds of each space shuttle

29
Composite History
  • Ancient Israelites and Egyptians added straw to
    bricks to hold them together
  • Incas used plant fibers to strengthen pottery
  • The Colosseum (Coliseum) and other ancient Roman
    structures were held together with cement
    containing slackened lime and pozzolana
    (hydraulic cement)
  • Slackened Lime
  • Heating lime and crumbling by adding water
  • Pozzolana
  • Volcanic ash from Mt. Vesuvius

30
What consists in a composite?
  • Reinforcement
  • Part that provides strength to composite
  • Shape of a fiber, whisker, or particulate
  • Matrix
  • Glue that holds everything together
  • Boundary in between

31
Lay Ups
  • Unidirectional and bidirectional carbon fiber,
    Kevlar, and plain-weave fiberglass used in lay
    ups
  • Composed of consecutive layers of fabric, resin,
    and sometimes a core material

32
Laid Up By Hand vs. Factory
  • Form materials on a mold and paint the them on
    the matrix of resin (epoxy)
  • My Be Difficult to Use, but inexpensive
  • Combined by two different parts
  • Resin
  • Hardner
  • Factory has materials with epoxy matrix
    pre-impregnated into
  • More expensive
  • Less mess/easy-use

33
Epoxy Matrix
  • When mixed, has a specific time to spend in
    container to be used
  • pot life
  • Also has prescribed work time based on amount of
    hardener used
  • Time available to work with materials by placing
    and forming into mold/application
  • Start of hardening process is called going off
  • When matrix goes off, little work time remains

34
Effective Lay Up Procedure
  • 1. Fabric is cut to appropriate size
  • 2. Bag, peel ply, perforated plastic, and bleeder
  • cut to appropriate sizes
  • 3. Mold is prepared with gel coat, mold release
  • and/or wax
  • 4. Correct amount of resin and hardener used
  • 5. Pot life is not compromised
  • 6. Material laid up within appropriate work time

35
Effective Lay Up Procedure
  • 7. No sections of the lay up are starved
  • (without correct amount of matrix or the
  • resin or epoxy)
  • 8. No sections are over filled with matrix
  • 9. Good seal on the vacuum bag (12-15psi)
  • 10. Peel ply is able to be removed with no
  • folds/creases
  • 11. Mold is released from fabric
  • 12. Clean up of work area completed promptly

36
Industry Support
  • ASM International (ASMI)
  • Society for materials engineers and scientists
  • Dedicated to advancing industry, technology, and
    applications of metals and materials

http//mnasm.org/asmintl.htm
37
Industry Support
  • American Ceramic Society (ACerS)
  • Dedicated to dissemination of scientific,
    commercial, and educational information about
    ceramic materials and industry
About PowerShow.com