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Introduction to Radiology

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Title: Introduction to Radiology


1
Introduction to Radiology
2
Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology I343 DSD
  • Course Credits 3 hours 1 hr Lecture per week, 2
    hrs Practical per week
  • Prerequisite for 443 DSD / Oral and
    Maxillofacial Radiology II

3
Course Description
  • Dental radiology is a branch of dentistry for
    diagnostic, treatment planning and following-up
    purposes. Complete examination of the oral cavity
    needs both clinical and radiographic
    investigations, therefore this course of dental
    radiology offers the way of examining the hidden
    parts of teeth and their supporting structures.
    This course is considered as an introductory
    course that includes lectures, demonstrations and
    practical applications on the previously given
    lectures. It is consisted of a series of weekly
    lectures and practical extending over two terms.

4
The use of x-rays is an essential part of
clinical dentistry. As a result, radiographs are
often referred to as the clinician main
diagnostic aid. The range of knowledge of dental
radiography and radiology required can be divided
conveniently into four main sections
  • 1- Basic physics and equipment the production of
    x-rays, their properties and interaction which
    results in the formation of the radiographic
    image.
  • 2- Radiography the techniques involved in
    producing the various radiographic images as well
    as the x-ray films and other radiographic
    requirements as well as film processing.
  • 3- Radiation protection the protection of
    patients and dental staff from the harmful
    effects of x-rays.
  • 4-Radiology the interpretation of the
    radiographic images.

5
  • This course is primarily concerned with the first
    three topics namely physics, radiography and
    protection. Only part of film interpretation for
    simple lesions as caries, periodontal and
    periapical diseases will be covered. However, the
    more comprehensive cases and differential
    diagnosis will be covered in the third year
    course.

6
At the end of this course, the students will be
able to
  • Know how x-rays are produced, identify the
    component parts of the x-ray machine and its
    accessories and list and describe the possible
    interactions of x-rays with matter.
  • List and describe the different types of
    intra-oral and extra-oral x-ray films used in
    dentistry including their sizes, speeds as well
    as how to store them properly.
  • Identify the quality of x-ray image regarding the
    radiographic density, contrast, sharpness,
    magnification and distortion. Also, knows what is
    required to produce an ideal radiographic image.
  • List, discuss and practice the step-by-step
    procedures for both manual and automatic
    processing.
  • Make complete intra-oral radiographic survey
    CMS on patients, process, mount then, detect
    and retake the unsatisfactory radiographs.
  • Identify the radiographic anatomical landmarks as
    seen in radiographs, distinguish between
    normalities and normal variations. Also, to
    differentiate between those landmarks and some
    pathological lesions.
  • List and discuss the common causes of
    unsatisfactory radiographs, their causes and how
    to avoid them.
  • Discuss the harmful effects of radiation, both
    the short and long-term effects, whether they are
    somatic or genetic.
  • Protects his patients, the dental staff and
    people in the immediate environment from the
    harmful effects of radiation.
  • Detect, identify and describe the radiographic
    appearance of dental caries, periodontal and
    periapical pathosis. Also, to identify
    radiographically the existence of various dental
    anomalies and regressive changes that may affect
    teeth as well as various forms of trauma to the
    teeth.

7
Course Contents
  • Introduction Lecture
  • Radiation Physics (I, II)
  • Radiation Biology
  • Radiation Protection
  • Dental X-ray Equipment and Films
  • Dental X-ray Image Characteristics
  • Processing of X-ray Film
  • Intra-oral Radiographic Techniques (I, II, III)
  • Normal Radiographic Anatomy
  • Common Causes of Unsatisfactory Radiographs
  • Interpretation of Dental Caries and the
    Assessment of Restorations
  • Interpretation of Periapical Tissues and Pathosis
  • Interpretation of Periodontal Tissues and
    Periodontal Disease

8
References
  • Oral Radiology Principles and Interpretation. 5th
    Edition. By White and Pharoh.
  • Dental Radiography, Principles and Techniques.
    2nd Edition. By Joen Haring and Laura Jansen.
  • Essentials of Dental Radiography and
    Radiobiology. 3rd Edition. By Eric Whaites.

9
EvaluationGrades will be based on
  • Continuous Assessment (Quizzes, Homework,
    Assignment) 20 marks
  • Mid-Year Exam 20 marks
  • Practical 20 marks
  • Final Exam (Written) 40 marks

10
Main Diagnostic Aid
  • Clinical Examination Radiographs
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment

11
Knowledge of dental radiography radiology
  1. Basic physics equipment the production of
    X-ray, their properties interactions which
    result in the formation of the radiographic image
  2. Radiation protection the protection of patients
    dental staff from the harmful effects of X-ray
  3. Radiography the techniques involved in producing
    the various radiographic images
  4. Radiology the interpretation of these
    radiographic images

12
Basic Terms
  • Radiation A form of energy carried by waves or a
    stream of particles
  • X-radiation A high-energy radiation produced by
    the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal
    target in an X-ray tube
  • X-ray A beam of energy that has the power to
    penetrate substances record image shadows on
    photographic film
  • Radiology A branch of medical science that deals
    with the use of x-ray, radioactive substances,
    other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis
    treatment of disease

13
Basic Terms
  • Radiograph A picture (visible photographic
    record) on film produced by the passage of X-ray
    through an object or body
  • Dental Radiograph A photographic image produced
    on film by the passage of X-ray through teeth
    related structures
  • Radiography The art science of making
    radiographs by the exposure of film to X-ray
  • Dental Radiography The making of radiographs of
    the teeth adjacent structures by the exposure
    of film to X-ray
  • Dental radiographer Any person who positions,
    exposes, processes dental X-ray film

14
Uses of Dental Radiographs
  • To detect lesions, diseases conditions of the
    teeth surrounding structures that cannot be
    identified clinically
  • To confirm or classify suspected disease
  • To localize lesions or foreign objects
  • To provide information during dental procedures
  • To evaluate growth development
  • To illustrate changes secondary to caries,
    periodontal disease, trauma
  • To document the condition of a patient at a
    specific point in time

15
Discover of X-radiation
  • Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
  • A German physicist
  • November 8, 1895

16
Discover of X-radiation
  • Roentgen was searching for invisible light
    (cathode rays) by experimenting with a Crookes
    vacuum discharge tube

17
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18
Roentgens experimental equipment in1895B
Rühm korff induction coil,  C - photographic
plate,T - Hittorf-Crookes evacuated tube 
19
Discover of X-radiation
  • Roentgen proceeded to make the first radiograph
    of
  • human body he placed his wifes hand on a
    photographic
  • plate exposed it to the unknown ray for 15
    minutes

20
Discover of X-radiation
  • Roentgen named his discovery X-ray, the X
    referring to the unknown nature properties of
    such ray
  • Roentgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize ever
    awarded in Physics (1901)
  • After years of Roentgen discovery,
  • X-ray roentgen ray, radiology
    roentgenology, radiographs
    roentgenographs

21
Pioneers in Dental X-radiation In 1896
  • German dentist, Otto Walkhoff, made the first
    dental radiograph he submitted himself to 25
    minutes of x-ray exposure
  • W.J. Morton, a New York physician, made the first
    dental radiograph in the United States using a
    skull

22
Pioneers in Dental X-radiation In 1896
  • C. Edmund Kells, New Orleans dentist, exposed the
    first dental radiograph in the United States
    using a living person
  • During his many experiments, Kells exposed his
    hands to numerous x-rays every day for years.
    This overexposure to x-radiation caused the
    development of numerous cancers of his hand

23
Pioneers in Dental X-radiation
  • William H. Rollins, a Boston dentist, developed
    the 1st dental x-ray unit. While experimenting
    with radiation, Dr. Rollins suffered a burn to
    his hand
  • This initiated an interest in radiation
    protection and later the publication of the 1st
    paper on the dangers associated with radiation

24
PARTS AND COMPONENTS OF THE DENTAL X-RAY MACHINE
  • General. The standard structural parts of the
    dental x-ray machine include a control panel
    (usually mounted behind a protective shield) a
    tube head, which houses the dental x-ray tube
    and a flexible extension arm from which the tube
    head is suspended.
  • The Control Panel. The components of the control
    panel are switches, dials, gauges, and lights.
    Basically, each control panel has the same
    function, the arrangement and location of these
    components will differ, depending upon the make,
    model, and year of construction of the dental
    x-ray unit. An operator's manual is issued with
    each unit. The operator should study it until he
    is familiar with its operational capability.
  • The Extension Arm. The tube head is attached to
    the metal extension arm by means of a yoke that
    can revolve 360 degrees horizontally where it is
    connected. The construction of the yoke also
    provides vertical movement as well.
  • The Tube Head. Inside the metal tube housing is
    the x-ray tube. This tube emits radiation in the
    form of photons or x-rays. X-ray photons expose
    the film. In addition to exposing the film, it
    also exposes the patient to radiation. Unless
    certain protective measures are taken, the x-ray
    technician may also be exposed

25
THREE STEP PROCESS OF X-RAY PRODUCTION
  • The First Step. The first step in x-ray
    production is to turn on the machine. (If there
    is doubt on the part of the x-ray technician
    concerning the operation of the unit, reference
    should be made to the operator's manual.) When
    the unit is turned on, the filament of the
    cathode is heated by electrical current, causing
    it to emit electrons

26
THREE STEP PROCESS OF X-RAY PRODUCTION
Electrons speeding toward the anode (tungsten
target)
  • The Second Step. For the second step of this
    three-step process, high voltage is passed across
    the x-ray tube. When this is done, the electrons
    or electron cloud from the filament are drawn
    across the opening toward the anode. The anode is
    made of tungsten and is sometimes called the
    tungsten target. Figure depicts the electrons
    speeding toward the anode (tungsten target).
  • The Third Step. The third and final step in this
    three-step process is the collision of electrons
    with the anode (tungsten target). This rapid
    deceleration of electrons produces x-rays, also
    referred to as photons. Figure represents
    electrons striking the anode (tungsten target)
    and producing x-ray photons.

27
RADIATION PROTECTION
  • General. Filtration and collimation of the x-ray
    beam are very important safety measures. The
    filter and collimator (diaphragm) block the
    majority of the unwanted x-ray photons. The
    diagram will identify the location of these two
    devices.
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