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PROFESSIONALISM

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Title: REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES Author: BUNNY Last modified by: Dipa Created Date: 4/10/2010 1:32:42 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PROFESSIONALISM


1
PROFESSIONALISM
  • No man ever reached to excellence in any one art
    or profession without having passed through the
    slow and painful process of study and
    preparation.
  • -Horace

2
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • THE ESTROUS CYCLE

3
NORMAL ESTOUS CYCLE THE BITCH
  • Estrous Cycle Defined as the time from the
    beginning of one heat period to the beginning of
    the next.
  • Onset of puberty 6-24mths Avg. 9-10mths
  • Follicular phase (proestrus and estrus) or the
    Luteal phase (diestrus and anestrus).

4
ESTROUS CYCLE
  • Proestrus leading to estrus (Avg 9-10 days)
  • Estrus MATING (Avg 9-10 days)
  • Metestrus 2 phases in diestrus
  • Diestrus Pregnancy is established (Avg 57-58
    days)
  • Anestrus time when no reproductive event (Avg
    2-5 months)
  • PAGE 374 (Figure 14-1)

5
HORMONE
6
HORMONE CHANGES
Estradiol concentration increases as ovarian
follicles mature and the uterus enlarges
7
METETRUS
8
VAGINAL CYTOLOGY
A saline moistened cotton swab is inserted
through the vulvar lips into the vagina. The
swab is angled craniodorsally to avoid the
clitoral fossa. A clean otoscope may be used to
guide the swab and to provide a light source for
visual guidance. Once the swab is located cranial
to the urethral orifice, the swab is rotated
slightly to exfoliate and collect the cells.
9
VAGINAL CYTOLOGY
The cells are transferred to a clean glass slide
by rolling the swab along the surface of the
slide. Intact cells are obtained during transfer
by rolling the swab. In contrast, back and forth
smearing of the swab to transfer the cells will
cause sever cellular distortion and rupture.
Once the cells have been transferred, the slides
are air dried, stained with Romanowsky or new
methylene blue stains, and examined
microscopically
10
VAGINAL CYTOLOGY
Romanowsky stains (Wright, Giemsa, Leishman,
Diff-Quik), new methylene blue, toluidine blue,
trichome stains (Papanicolaou, Shorr, Sano) and
hematoxylin and eosin (HE). 1 Personal
experience, preference, cost, and ease of use
usually determine the choice of stain. In any
event, the stain should be economical, easily
stored, and produce consistent staining that is
adequate for cytologic needs
11
Cycle Stage Length Hormonal changes Predominant Cell Types Erythrocytes Neutrophils Behavior of the Bitch Clinical Signs
Proestrus 9 days Estrogen Early mixed population of cells Late large intermediate and superficial cells Early present Late Early present Late decreased Attractive to the male, but wont stand for mating Vulvar edema and swelling, bloody discharge
Estrus 9 days LH (surge) Estrogen Progesterone 90 superficial cells Bacteria usually present Absent Accepts male and will stand Less edema, discharge becomes clearer
Diestrus 60 days Progesterone Abrupt change in relative of epithelial cells. Superficial cells decrease by 20 Few to none Ceases to accept male Little discharge, edema decreased
Anestrus Depends on whether pregnant or not. 70-80 days for CL to regress and 130 days to repair endometrium. Progesterone Parabasal and Intermediate cells Few if any Few if present No outward signs Scanty, tenacious secretions
12
Typical morphological features of the vaginal
mucosa and endometrium in anestrus (A),
proestrus (P), estrus (E), and early diestrus
(D). HE. Original magnification 200X.
13
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14
NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE PROESTRUS
  • PROESTRUS the period when the bitch is sexually
    attractive, but rejects the males advances
  • Physical signs of proestrus
  • Serosanguinous vaginal discharge
  • Vulvar swelling
  • Vaginal edema
  • Internal physical signs
  • Lengthening and hyperemia of the uterine horns
  • Enlargement of the cervix
  • Thickening of the vaginal wall

15
PROESTRUS
vulvar edema, hyperemia, and a serosanguineous
discharge
http//www.vetmed.wisc.edu/data/coursematerial/bos
u/CR-lecture1and2.pdf
16
PROESTRUS
  • Hormonal signs of proestrus
  • Increasing serum concentrations of
  • estradiol (estrogen)
  • estrogen is responsible for the physical
  • signs of proestrus
  • Estrogen is being produced by the maturing
    follicles in the ovary (under the influence of
    Follicle Stimulating Hormone or FSH)
  • As proestrus progresses, the estrogen levels
    begin to peak and initiate the onset of estrus.

17
PROESTRUS
  • Cytologic signs of proestrus
  • Vaginal Cytology
  • Parabasal cells and intermediate cells
    predominate wbcs and rbcs present
  • Duration of proestrus 3-17 days Avg. 9 days

18
Proestrus
erythrocytes account for most of the cells
observed on vaginal smears
Early proestrus with a mixture of nondegenerate
neutrophils parabasal, intermediate, and
superficial epithelial cells, erythrocytes, and
mucus (Wright-Leishman stain).
Late proestrus with erythrocytes, scattered
superficial cells, and absence of neutrophils
(Wright-Leishman stain).
19
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE ESTRUS
  • ESTRUS The period of acceptance of the male
  • Physical signs of estrus
  • The swollen vulva is less turgid
  • The vulvar discharge is usually less bloody
  • The bitch allows mating
  • standing heat
  • flagging behavior (tail deviated to the side)

20
Canine Mating
21
Canine Mating cont.
22
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23
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24
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25
ESTRUS
  • Hormonal signs of estrus
  • Serum estrogen peaks in late proestrus and early
    estrus. The estrogen peak initiates a surge of
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • LH results in ovulation (rupture) of the mature
    follicle and release of the oocyte. LH also
    stimulates the cells left behind in the empty
    follicle to multiply into the corpus luteum (See
    metestrus)
  • This stage of the reproductive cycle is
    influenced mainly by estrogens
  • serum progesterone levels begin to increase
    toward the end of estrus (and beginning of
    metestrus)
  • Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum
    which is forming from the empty follicle (see
    metestrus)
  • Progesterone is the hormone that maintains
    pregnancy

26
ESTRUS
  • Cytologic signs of estrus
  • Vaginal cytology
  • Superficial and superficial anuclear squamous
    cells predominate (aka cornified cells) rbcs
    usally present, wbcs usually absent
  • Duration of estrus 3-21 days Avg. 9 days

This stage of the reproductive cycle is difficult
to determine cytologically because distinguish
features are only present microscopically at the
beginning and the end of estrus
27
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28
ESTRUS VAGINAL CYTOLOGY
CORNIFIED/ SUPERFICIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS (largest
cell)
Estrus characterized by superficial cells that
are keratinized, largely anucleate, and have
angular, folded cell margins (Wright-Leishman
stain).
29
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30
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE METESTRUS
  • METESTRUS The period after ovulation when the
    corpus luteum develops.
  • Internal signs of metestrus
  • Lining of the uterus is thick and juicy in
    preparation for implantation of a fertilized ovum
  • Loss of the cornified epithelial lining that
    developed in the vagina during proestrus and
    estrus

31
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE DIESTRUS
  • DIESTRUS the period when the corpus luteum has
    reached maximum size and effectiveness. Begins
    with the bitchs refusal to mate
  • Physical signs of diestrus
  • None except the cessation of signs of estrus
  • Hormonal signs of diestrus
  • Serum progesterone levels continue to increase
    and peak during diestrus
  • In a pregnant bitches, there is a rapid
    pre-partum drop in progesterone 24 hours before
    partuition 35-40 ng/ml
  • CL maintained by prolactin
  • In non-pregnant animals, the decline may be more
    gradual

32
DIESTRUS
  • Cytologic signs of diestrus
  • Vaginal cytology
  • A sudden decrease in the number of superficial
    cells and a reappearance of intermediate and
    parabasal cells, rbcs disappear completely and
    wbcs.
  • Duration of diestrus 2mths
  • Dogs and cats are unique in that their corpora
    lutea appear to have preprogrammed life spans.

33
DIESTRUS VAGINAL CYTOLOGY
PARABASAL CELLS
INTERMEDIATE CELLS
34
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35
DIESTRUS
  • PSEUDOPREGNANCY (pseudocyesis)
  • A prolonged diestrus
  • Animal may show signs of pregnancy
  • Nesting behavior
  • Mammary enlargement
  • Lactation in extreme cases
  • Clinical signs fade with time

36
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE ANESTRUS
  • ANESTRUS Follows diestrus and ends with the
    onset of proestrus criteria vary
  • First time plasma progesterone reaches a level
    below 3 nmol/L
  • The moment that the influence of progesterone on
    the endometrium is no longer evident.
  • Cytologic signs of anestrus
  • Samples are almost acellular
  • The cells present are parabasal cells and small
    intermediate cells.
  • Duration of anestrus Avg. 4.5mths.

37
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38
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39
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE THE QUEEN
  • Onset of puberty 6-9mths
  • Female cats are seasonally polyestrous
  • Cycle controlled by the photoperiod and body
    weight
  • 12-14 hours of light and 2.5kgs
  • In the absence of ovulation or pregnancy,
    repeated estrous cycles occur every 10-14 days

40
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE PROESTRUS in the queen
  • PROESTRUS The period of follicular development,
    but refusal to mate
  • Physical signs of proestrus
  • Owner may notice increased affection
  • No vulvar swelling or vaginal discharge in cats
  • Hormonal signs of proestrus
  • Characterized by increasing serum estrogen
    concentrations
  • Cytologic signs of proestrus
  • Epithelial cells become cornified
  • Duration of proestrus 1-2 days

41
THE NORMAL ESTROUS CYCLE ESTRUS in the queen
  • ESTRUS The period of sexual receptivity and
    follicle maturation
  • Physical signs of estrus
  • Queen allows copulation
  • Extreme affection (head rubbing, vocalization,
    crouching of the thoracic limbs with rigid
    extension of the pelvic limbs, lordosis, lateral
    deviation of the tail)
  • Hormonal signs of estrus
  • Peak serum concentrations of estrogen
  • Cytologic signs of estrus
  • Maximum vaginal epithelium cornification
  • Duration of estrus 7-9 days

42
ESTRUS
  • Cats are known to be induced ovulators
  • Ovulation of the mature follicle occurs as a
    result of stimulation of the vagina and cervix
    during mating

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vl6AzSmkoX_gfeature
fvw
43
Erection and Mating
44
Mating
  • Queens call or vocalize (low moaning sound)
  • Owners may think a sign of illness
  • During mating
  • Tom bites neck female
  • With erection penis faces forward
  • Only lasts 30 seconds to 5 minutes
  • As male dismounts female gives a loud copulatory
    call and Tom retreats
  • Mating occurs 6 - 7 times until queen declines
  • May occur for up to 4 days

45
Cat Mating
46
FRIENDSHIP
  • Friendship is like peeing on yourself Everyone
    can see it, but only you get the warm feeling
    that it brings.

47
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • PREGNANCY AND BIRTH

48
PREGNANCY
  • PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS
  • Palpation (days 21-30) walnuts
  • Hormone assay
  • Ultrasonography 18-20
  • days past the LH peak
  • Radiography (day 45 after
  • LH peak)

distinct gestational sacs
average 1.5-3.5 cm between days 28-32 of pregnancy
49
PREGNANCY
buy 16-40 tests (depending on how many you run at
once) for 240 (one year shelf life). If you
only test dogs occasionally, then the price is
pretty high.....how about ultrasound. Witness
Relaxin 5 Tests/box Room temperature storage
10 minute running time Cost 78/5 tests
50
Ultrasound
  • 25 days
  • 49
  • 55
  • Optimum 33 45 days
  • 200 beats/min

51
Pregnancy-related event Number of days after ovulation Number of days after fertile mating
Onset of estrus -6 to 3
First of multiple matings -7 to 5 -12 to 0
Fertile mating -5 to 5 0
Ovulation 0 -5 to 5
Fertilization 2 to 5 0 to 7
Vaginal cornification reduced 5 to 7 0 to 12
Embryo attachment to uterus 14 to 16 9 to 21
Vesicles visible with ultrasound 15 to 17 10 to 22
Palpable 1 centimeter swellings 20 to 22 15 to 27
Fetal heartbeat visible (ultrasound) 22 to 23 17 to 28
Uterine swelling visible on X-ray 28 to 30 23 to 35
Palpability of swellings reduced 30 to 32 25 to 37
Earliest X-ray pregnancy diagnosis 43 to 45 39 to 50
Fetal pelvis visible on X-ray 51 to 55 46 to 60
Fetal teeth visible on X-ray 56 to 61 51 to 66
Whelping 62 to 64 57 to 69
52
Pregnant?
53
PREGNANCY RADIOGRAPHS
54
PREGNANCYRADIOGRAPHS
http//www.dogbreedinfo.com/whelpingphotos.htm
55
PREGNANCY
  • GESTATION the period of pregnancy
  • DOGS 59-68
  • CATS 56-69
  • THREE STAGES OF LABOR
  • 1STuterine contractions
  • 2nddelivery of the newborn
  • 3rddelivery of the placenta
  • Typically, newborns and placentas are delivered
    alternately

56
PREGNANCY
  • SIGNS OF IMPENDING PARTUITION
  • Nesting behavior12-24 hours before
  • Inappetance
  • Panting, shivering
  • Drop in rectal temperature 24-48 hours before
    partuition (caused by abrupt decrease in
    progesterone) lt98

57
PREGNANCY
  • LABOR, STAGE I intermittent uterine contractions
    with no sign of abdominal straining
  • Restlessness, panting, nesting may continue
    through stage I
  • Cervix dilates
  • Avg 4 hrs (can last up to 36 hours)

58
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59
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60
STAGE I
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHd8Bo1qc54Afeature
    related

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vptc6RMBiiPwfeature
related
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vsN0W_ePUsUcNR1
61
PREGNANCY
  • LABOR, STAGE II delivery of the newborn
  • Rectal temp begins to rise to normal or slightly
    above
  • Passing of fetal fluids
  • Expulsive uterine contractions accompanied by
    abdominal contractions (3-6 hours but, may be as
    long as 24 hours total)
  • 1st fetus usually delivered within 4 hours
  • Bitch will break the amniotic membrane, lick the
    neonate intensely, and sever the umbilical cord
  • 20 minutes to 1 hour per puppy but, no more than
    2 hours should elapse between each puppy born.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vzvkf0VDUv6c
62
PREGNANCY
  • LABOR, STAGE II WARNING SIGNS
  • The bitch should be examined by a vet for the
    following reasons
  • Greenish discharge, but no pup is born within 2-4
    hrs
  • Fetal fluid passed more than 2-3 hrs previously,
    but nothing more has happened
  • If she has had weak, irregular straining for more
    than 2-4 hours
  • If she has had strong, regular straining for more
    than 20-30 minutes, but no pup born
  • More than 2-4 hours have passed since the birth
    of the last puppy and more remain
  • If she has been in stage II for more than 12
    hours

63
PREGNANCY
  • LABOR, STAGE II
  • Interval between births
  • Usually 5-120 minutes
  • Partuition should never be allowed to last more
    than 24 hours

64
PREGNANCY
  • LABOR, STAGE III expulsion of the placenta
  • pup-placenta-pup-placenta or pup-pup-placenta-plac
    enta
  • Usually follows within 15 minutes of each fetus
  • Bitch may eat the placentas, but sometimes can be
    associated with vomiting and diarrhea
  • Lochia greenish postpartum discharge of fetal
    fluids and placental remains will be seen for up
    to 3 weeks or more

65
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS

66
PEOPLE
  • Everyone has a photographic memory, its just
    that some people dont have film.

67
Dystocia Caution
  • 1) Labor does not begin when expected
  • 2) Stage 2 labor lasts 1 hour without delivery
  • 3) 1-2 hours have elapsed between deliveries
  • 4) The dam or neonates show signs of distress,
    including stillbirth
  • 5) Green-black discharge without immediate
    delivery
  • 6) A significant hemorrhagic vaginal discharge
  • Delivery should occur within 12 to 24 hours of
    the onset of first-stage labor.

68
PREGNANCY
  • DYSTOCIA Difficult birth or the inability to
    expel the fetus through the birth canal without
    assistance
  • Incidence 5 bitches 3-5.8 queens
  • Causes
  • Maternal (Common)
  • Uterine inertia (weak contractions)
  • Fetal
  • Oversize
  • Death
  • Abnormal position
  • Diagnosis
  • Digital palpation of vagina
  • Radiographs
  • ultrasound

Chihuahua
69
PREGNANCY DYSTOCIA
  • TREATMENT
  • Manual manipulation a fetus lodged in the
    vaginal canal can be manually dislodged.
  • For uterine inertia oxytocin injections result
    in contraction of the uterine muscles also,
    calcium preparations can be given
  • C-section

70
PREGNANCY INAPPROPRIATE MATERNAL BEHAVIOR
  • DAM SHOULD
  • Allow nursing
  • Grooming
  • Stimulate CV,RS function
  • Stimulates elimination and removal of waste
    material
  • retrieving
  • Protecting
  • DAM SHOULD NOT
  • Attack, kill, or cannibalize her young
  • Be overly protective, restless, or aggressive

71
PREGNANCY LACTATION DISORDERS
  • Agalactia lack of milk production
  • Causes include
  • Stress, malnutrition, premature partuition, or
    infection
  • Galactostasis milk stasis, which can result in
    mastitis
  • Mastitis a septic inflammation of the mammary
    gland
  • Clinical signs
  • Pain, discolored milk, fever, reluctance to allow
    nursing, abscessed glands

72
PREGNANCY LACTATION DISORDERS
  • Treatment for mastitis
  • Antibiotics
  • Warm compresses
  • Do not allow nursing from affected glands

73
OTHER REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS
  • PYOMETRA Literally pus in the uterus
  • High levels of progesterone cause several changes
    in the uterus better site for microbes
  • hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the endometrial
    glands of the uterus secondary to Cystic
    endometrial hyperplasia
  • Decreased myometrial contractions
  • Predisoposes the uterus to bacterial infection
  • Most common bacteria isolated is E.coli

74
PYOMETRA
  • CLINICAL SIGNS
  • Vulvar discharge
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration
  • PU/PD
  • Azotemia
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • Radiology
  • Ultrasound
  • Bloodwork
  • Ieukocytosis, neutrophilia with a left shift
    (closed pyometra)

75
PYOMETRA
This is a potentially life-threatening condition
76
PYOMETRA
An open pyometra is when the Cervix is open and
allows drainage Of the pus also be seen with
administration of estradiol cypionate (uterine
cells make more receptors to progesterone) open
pyometra or aplastic anemia
Preferred treatment is ovariohysterectomy As well
as antibiotics and fluid therapy
77
PYOMETRA IN A RAT
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porary Internet Files\Low\Content.IE5\C9I4F8D5\P10
021B1.jpg
78
VAGINITIS
  • Definition an inflammatory process, not
    necessarily infectious.
  • Prepuberal bitch (aka puppy vaginitis)
  • VS.
  • Adult vaginitis

79
VAGINITIS
  • PUPPY VAGINITIS
  • Causes
  • Inverted vulva
  • Hormonal fluctuations
  • Clinical signs
  • Purulent vulvar discharge
  • /- licking the vulva
  • Treatments
  • systemic antibiotics
  • topical douching
  • Signs will return when treatment is discontinued
  • Condition resolves naturally after the first heat
    cycle

80
VAGINITIS
Inverted vulva
81
VAGINITIS
  • ADULT VAGINITIS
  • Causes
  • Anatomical abnormalities
  • Canine herpesvirus
  • Clinical signs
  • purulent vulvar discharge
  • /- licking the vulva
  • peri-vulvar skin irritation or infection
  • Perceived urinary incontinence

82
VAGINAL HYPERPLASIA/PROLAPSE
  • Hyperplasia/prolapse
  • Occurs under the influence of estrogen
  • Results in edematous vaginal tissue that
    protrudes from the vulva
  • Treatment
  • Ovariohysterectomy resolves the condition
    permanently and is the tx of choice
  • Will usually resolve spontaneously but will recur
    with subsequent estrous cycles

83
VAGINAL HYPERPLASIA/PROLAPSE
84
MAMMARY TUMORS
  • Usually tumors of older intact females
  • 50 of all tumors in female dogs
  • 3rd most common tumor in cats
  • Risk dramatically reduces with ovariohysterectomy
    (lt1 if spayed before 1st heat)
  • 50 of canine tumors are benign
  • Only 10-20 of feline tumors are benign

85
MAMMARY TUMORS
Malignant tumors are usually fast
growing, Invasive and ulcerated. Benign tumors
are Often small and feel like a pea.
Surgical removal is advised for all Mammary
tumors. Biopsy is required To differentiate
benign from malignant tumors
86
OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY
  • Surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus

http//www.lbah.com/canine/spay.html
87
PEOPLE
  • I love long walks, especially when theyre taken
    by someone who annoys me.

88
PROSTATIC DISEASES
  • PROSTATE Sex gland in the dog and cat
  • Located just caudal to the bladder, encircling
    the proximal urethra at the neck of the bladder
  • Purpose is to produce a fluid as transport and
    support medium for sperm during ejaculation

89
PROSTATIC DISEASE
90
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
  • Caused by altered androgen/estrogen ratio
  • Mild or no clinical signs
  • Tenesmus
  • Enlarged prostate but not painful
  • TX
  • Castration results in a 70 decrease in size
    within 14 days

91
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
92
PROSTATITIS
  • Bacterial prostatitis may be acute or chronic and
    it affects sexually mature dogs
  • Clinical signs
  • Lethargy
  • Anorexia
  • Diagnosis
  • Urinalysis hematuria, increased white blood
    cells, presence of bacteria
  • Treatment
  • Antibiotics
  • Castration
  • Prostatitis can lead to abscessation

93
NEOPLASIA of the male genital tract
  • Prostatic neoplasia is uncommon, but all
    prostatic neoplasms are malignant
  • Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT)
  • Occurs only in the canine
  • Spreads during sexual contact
  • Tumors found on the penis, prepuce, and scrotum
  • Cauliflower-like
  • Treatment
  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgical removal of small localized masses

94
TVT
These tumors are friable and bleed easily
95
CRYPTORCHIDISM
  • One or both testicles have been retained in the
    abdomen or inguinal canal
  • Often the retained testicle is still functional
  • Dog can still produce testoterone, show sexual
    desire and breed
  • A testicular tumor known as sertoli cell tumor is
    more common in retained testicles
  • These animal should not be bred

96
CRYPTORCHIDISM
Two normal testicles
Unilateral cryptorchid
Treatment is castration testicle Should be
removed from the Abdomen or pushed down from The
inguinal canal
97
CASTRATION
http//www.lbah.com/canine/dog_neuter.html
98
Common questions - canine
99
References
  • Alleice Summers, Common Diseases of Companion
    Animals
  • http//www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/Beimborn/index.ph
    p
  • http//veterinarycalendar.dvm360.com/avhc/article/
    articleDetail.jsp?id727396pageID1skdate
  • http//www.vetmed.lsu.edu/eiltslotus/Theriogenolog
    y-5361/the_normal_canine.htm

100
References
  • http//extension.missouri.edu/p/G9923
  • http//www.tc.umn.edu/rootk001/repro_pharm_articl
    e.pdf
  • www.vin.com
  • www.vetmed.wisc.edu/data/coursematerial/bosu/CR-le
    cture1and2.pdf
  • www.ansci.wisc.edu/jjp1/as434/powerpoint/fa07/lec2
    6_07.ppt

101
References
  • www.tc.umn.edu/rootk001/repro_pharm_article.pdf
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