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Introduction to Zoology; EVOLUTION

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Title: Introduction to Zoology; EVOLUTION


1
Introduction to Zoology EVOLUTION
Classification REVIEW
2
SCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGY
3
Scientific Terminology
  • Hypothesis A prediction of the outcome of an
    experiment
  • Written If______________, then _____________,
    because____________.

4
Testing Hypotheses
  • Observation
  • Something you take in with your senses
  • Experiment
  • Perform CONTROLLED experiments to test repeated
    observations
  • Controlled means youre changing one variable
    at a time
  • If continued to be accepted.

5
Scientific Theory
  • Principle
  • Tested many times
  • Explains many different phenomena
  • Makes predictions
  • Falsifiable people are constantly trying to
    prove wrong and correct bad science

6
Theory vs Scientific Theory
  • Theory (as used outside of science)
  • Guess
  • Speculation
  • Has not been tested

7
Law vs Theory
  • Law
  • Observation that has been repeated numerous times
  • Law of gravity
  • Does not explain the observation
  • The what
  • Theory
  • Explains why or how something in nature happens
  • The why or how

8
Which is most important to a scientist?
  • Fact
  • Hypothesis
  • Law
  • Theory

9
Theory is the most important
  • Theory
  • Explains laws, hypotheses and facts
  • Law
  • States what happens
  • Hypothesis
  • Untested theory
  • Fact
  • Observation

10
Major Scientific Theories
  • Germ Theory of Disease
  • Germs cause infectious disease
  • Atomic Theory
  • Matter is made if tiny atoms
  • Gene Theory (Chromosomal Theory)
  • Genes on chromosomes determine heredity
  • Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells

11
THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION THROUGH NATURAL SELCTION
12
Theory of Evolution
  • Populations of organisms change over time
  • Changes result in new species that share a common
    ancestor.

13
Evolution is both a fact and a theory
  • Fact
  • Evolution is documented in the fossil record and
    has been observed in our lifetime.
  • Theory
  • How evolution happens

14
Theory of Evolution
  • Scientists no longer ask if evolution occurs.
    They study how evolution occurs.
  • Evolution is the major theory that guides
    research in Zoology

15
Evolution ? lots of misconceptions
  • Change over time
  • Not a straight line
  • No direction to change ? not getting better
    each time
  • Things in a population change at different rates,
    at different times in different ways
  • Therefore, not every organism in a population
    changes or evolves

16
Evolution Acts Upon
  • Variation
  • Members of a population vary from one another
  • WHY?
  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Mutations
  • No partner needed
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Recombination each
  • generation
  • Mutations
  • Partner needed

17
Struggle for Life
  • Organisms regularly compete to obtain food, space
    other necessities for life also to avoid
    predators
  • There is an OVERPRODUCTION of organisms ? high
    birth rates lower death rates
  • Shortage of needs (limited resources) force
    COMPETITION

18
Fitness
  • A key factor in the struggle for life is how well
    suited an organism is to its environment
  • Fitness is a measure of an organisms ability to
    survive and reproduce
  • This is a result of
  • adaptations

19
Adaptations
  • Inherited characteristics that increase an
    organisms chance of survival
  • Can be anatomical/structural, behavioral
    physiological

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Adaptations
  • Successful adaptations lead to organisms being
    MORE suited to the environment, which allows for
    a better fitness, which creates a larger
    percentage of their DNA being passed on ? BETTER
    CHANCES AT SURVIVAL!
  • Generation after generation individuals continue
    to compete each with its advantages
    disadvantages

24
Survival of the Fittest
  • Over time this competition allows certain
    adaptations to prosper over other adaptations
  • This leads to the survival of the fittest ?
    individuals that are better suited (adaptations
    that enable fitness) survive reproduce most
    successfully
  • NATURAL SELECTION

25
Natural Selection
  • This is the THEORY, evolution is a fact
    (observable)
  • Without human control or direction
  • Results in changes in a population over MANY
    generations
  • Over LONG periods of time
  • Produces organisms with different structures,
    occupying different niches occupying different
    habitats

26
Descent with Modification
  • aka change over time
  • Through natural selection, each living species
    has descended with changes from other species
    over a long period of time
  • Implies that all living organisms are related and
    that there is a common ancestor
  • Tree of life links all things together

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SUMMARY
  • There is a natural variation in a population.
    When this variation provides differences in
    adaptations that effect fitness, those organisms
    with adaptations that are favored will be able to
    reproduce more. When this occurs over many
    generations change can be seen in the species.

31
CLASSIFICATION
32
Aristotle 384 BC
  • Classified organisms as either plants or animals

33
Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778
  • Swedish Botanist
  • Systema Naturae, 10ed
  • 1758
  • Classification system
  • Taxonomic groups of related organisms
  • Binomial nomenclature
  • two names
  • Genus species
  • Capitalized, Italics

34
Taxonomic Groups
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Species
  • Species are groups of actually or potentially
    interbreeding populations, which are
    reproductively isolated from other such groups.
  • When they reproduce, create FERTILE offspring

Ernst Mayr
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Archaea
39
Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
KINGDOM Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
CELL TYPE Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote
CELL STRUCTURES Cell walls with peptidoglycan Cell walls without peptidoglycan Cell walls of cellulose in some some have chloroplasts Cell walls of chitin Cell walls of cellulose chloroplasts No cell walls or chloroplasts
NUMBER OF CELLS Unicellular Unicellular Most unicellular some colonial some multicellular Most multicellular some unicellular Multicellular Multicellular
MODE OF NUTRITION Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Heterotroph
EXAMPLES Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Methanogens, halophiles Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Mushrooms, yeasts Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals
40
Kingdom Monera or Eubacteria
  • Single celled
  • Prokaryotic
  • Make or absorb food
  • Cell wall
  • peptidoglycan

41
Kingdom Archaea
  • Single celled
  • Prokaryotic
  • Make or absorb food
  • DNA
  • Similar to Eukaryotic
  • Cell wall
  • Pseudopeptidoglycan
  • or protein only

42
Kingdom Protista
  • Single celled
  • Eukaryotic
  • Ingest or produce food
  • Kind of the junk drawer of classification

43
Kingdom Fungi
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • Cell wall
  • Chitin
  • Absorb food

44
Kingdom Plantae
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • Cell wall
  • Cellulose
  • Produce food
  • photosynthesis

45
Kingdom Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • No cell wall
  • Ingest food
  • Motile

46
Terminology
  • Classification
  • Assigning organisms to different categories
    (taxa) based on their relationship
  • Taxonomy
  • The science of naming organisms
  • Systematics
  • Determining evolutionary relationships of
    organisms

47
CLADOGRAMs / PHYLOGENIC TREES
48
Evolutionary Tree / Cladogram
  • Evolutionary relationship of a group of
    organisms
  • Each clad (group) share something in common
  • Ancestral traits are the oldest
  • Derived traits evolved later
  • Nested hierarchially

49
Cladogram for Transportation
  • Wheels are the most ancestral
  • Wings are the most derived

50
Characteristics for Constructing Cladogram
  • Tail is the most ancestral
  • Four limbs is the oldest derived trait
  • Fur is a later derived trait
  • Loss of tail is the most derived trait

51
Tiger
Lizard
Fish
52
Synapomorphy
  • A derived character shared by two or more groups.
  • Fur is a synapomorphy for the various groups of
    mammals.
  • Synapomorphies are used to determine evolutionary
    relationships

53
Automorphy
  • A character only featured by one taxon
  • Example bird feathers

54
Symplesiomorphy
  • Character shared by a number of groups
  • Inherited from ancestors older than the last
    common ancestor.
  • Symplesiomorphies are not helpful in determining
    evolutionary relationships

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Accepted Cladogram for Animals
57
Homologous Characters
  • Similarity in features of different groups
    because of their descent from a common ancestor

58
Analagous Characters
  • Similarity in characteristics in different groups
    caused by factors OTHER THAN their distant common
    ancestry

59
Monophyletic
  • A group of all the descendants of a common
    ancestor
  • The common ancestor is in the group
  • Example Mammalia
  • Ancestor was a mammal like reptile

60
Paraphyletic
  • A group of descendants of a common ancestor
  • Common ancestor is in the group
  • Not all descendants are included
  • Example Reptiles
  • Does not include birds and mammals

61
Polyphyletic
  • A group that has some similarities
  • Common ancestor is in not in the group
  • Not all descendants are included
  • Example Flying vertebrates
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