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Functional Properties of Carbohydrate

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Title: Functional Properties of Carbohydrate Author: Dudsadee Last modified by: Enz Created Date: 8/30/2001 4:25:33 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Functional Properties of Carbohydrate


1
Functional Properties of Carbohydrate
  • Dudsadee Uttapap

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CHO in commercial products
Sorbitol, cellulose gum, xanthan gum, sucralose
Sorbitol, Carrageeenan, cellulose gum
4
CHO in commercial products
Xanthan
5
CHO in commercial products
carboxymethyl cellulose (cellulose gum)
6
Sucrose vs Sucralose
Sucralose
selective chlorination of sucrose
Sucrose
sucralose is 600 times sweeter than sugar and
does not metabolize to produce energy
7
CHO in commercial products
Sorbitol
8
Carrageenan Monomer D-galactose
(anhydro/sulfate) Bonding ?-1,4/?-1,3
9
kappa
iota
lambda
10
CHO in commercial products
with International Patented Prebio ProteQ
Combination consist of GOS / FOS in patented
ratio
11
CHO in commercial products
Prebiotic
12
CHO in commercial products
Hyaluronic acid
hyaluronic acid is utilized in many products,
such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food
13
CHO in commercial products
Tablet
Binder, Disintegrant, Sweetening Coating Agent
Starch and Pregelatinized Starch,
Microcrystalline Cellulose, Guar Gum, Sodium
Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Fructose, Mannitol, and
Xylitol , Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose,
Maltodextrin
14
ATP energy currency
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Monoosaccharide
Carbon Aldose Ketose
3C glyceraldehyde dihydroxyacetone
4C erythrose, threose erythrulose
5C arabinose, lyxose, ribose, xylose ribulose, xylulose
6C allose, altrose, galactose, glucose, gulose, idose, mannose, talose fructose, psicose, sorbose, tagatose
17
Glucose vs Fructose
Fructose
Glucose
18
Relative sweetness
19
Carbohydrate functions
Energy sources (glucose/glycogen)
Structural elements cell wall (plants,
bacteria) connective tissues adhesion between
cells
20
Dermatan sulfate
composed of L-iduronate (many are sulfated)
GalNAc-4-sulfate linkages is ? (1, 3)
21
The most abundant heteropolysaccharides in the
body are the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These
molecules are long unbranched polysaccharides
containing a repeating disaccharide unit. The
disaccharide units contain either of two modified
sugars--- N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) or
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and a uronic acid
such as glucuronate or iduronate. GAGs are highly
negatively charged molecules, with extended
conformation that imparts high viscosity to the
solution. GAGs are located primarily on the
surface of cells or in the extracellular matrix
(ECM). Along with the high viscosity of GAGs
comes low compressibility, which makes these
molecules ideal for a lubricating fluid in the
joints. At the same time, their rigidity provides
structural integrity to cells and provides
passageways between cells, allowing for cell
migration. The specific GAGs of physiological
significance are hyaluronic acid, dermatan
sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, heparin, heparan
sulfate, and keratan sulfate.
22
Characteristics of GAGs
Characteristics of GAGs
GAG Localization Comments
Hyaluronate synovial fluid, vitreous humor,ECM of loose connective tissue large polymers, shock absorbing
Chondroitin sulfate cartilage, bone, heart valves most abundant GAG
Heparan sulfate basement membranes,components of cell surfaces contains higher acetylated glucosamine than heparin
Heparin component of intracellular granules of mast cellslining the arteries of the lungs, liver and skin more sulfated than heparan sulfates
Dermatan sulfate skin, blood vessels, heart valves  
Keratan sulfate cornea, bone, cartilage aggregated with chondroitin sulfates

23
Plant cell wall
24
The Gram positive cell wall
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Peptidoglycan
two sugars are N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) and
N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM).
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Derivatives of Glucose
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Oligosaccharide
-starch oligosaccharide maltose,
stachyose -cellulose cellobiose -sucrose,
lactose, trehalose -cyclodextrin
(6C,7C,8C) -fructooligosaccharide
(GF2,GF3,GF4) -coupling sugar (Gn-G-F)
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Glycosidic linkage/acetal lingkage
36
Cyclodextrin
Monomer Glucose Bonding ?-1,4
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Fructan
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Fructans are probably the most abundant storage
carbohydrate in plants next to starch and
sucrose.  Fructans are linear or branched
polymers of mostly ß-fructosyl-fructose
linkages.  Unlike sucrose they are synthesized
and stored in vacuoles and can accumulate in the
stems, bulbs and tubers of a number of plants
39
Fructooligosaccharides are a fruit derived sugar.
These promote the grown of bifidobacteria in the
gut. Bifidobacteria produce a natural antibiotic
against E.Coli 0157H7 AND stroptococcus. There
are fewer bifidobacteria in the elderly (who also
tend to eat less fruit). So, it is the elderly
who mostly die from this deadly E.Coli infection.
40
Polysaccharide
Homopolymer/Heteropolymer
41
Sources
Microbial xanthan, gellan, dextran Seaweed
carrageenan, agar, alginate Plant gum arabic,
guar gum, pectin, cellulose, starch,
konjac Animal chitin
42
Starch
Amylose
43
Amylopectin
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Cellulose Monomer glucose Bonding ?-1,4
Carboxymethyl cellulose
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?-Glucan
Monomer Glucose Bonding ?-1,4/?-1,3
The ß-1,3 glucan, callose, also similar to
cellulose, is an important polymeric component of
sieve plates of phloem tubes.  Callose is also
produced during wound healing of damaged plant
tissues
48
Chitin Monomer acetylglucosamine Bonding
?-1,4
49
Agarose Monomer D-galactose/3,6-anhydro-L-galact
ose Bonding ?-1,3/?-1,4
50
Konjac (glucomannan) Monomer glucose,
mannose Bonding ?-1,4
51
Alginate
G
M
G, M
Monomer ?-mannuronic acid (M) ?-L-guluronic
acid (G) Bonding ?-1,4/?-1,4
52
Pectin Monomer D-galacturonic acid,
L-rhamnose Others D-galactose, D-xylose,
D-arabinose short side chain) Bonding ?-1,4
53
Pectin-Alginate image
54
Carrageenan Monomer D-galactose
(anhydro/sulfate) Bonding ?-1,4/?-1,3
55
kappa
iota
lambda
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Xanthan Monomer backbone glucose (as
cellulose) side chain
mannose/glucuronic acid Bonding
?-1,4/?-1,2/?-1,3
58
Dextran
Dextran is an a-D-1,6-glucose-linked glucan with
side-chains 1-3 linked to the backbone units of
the Dextran biopolymer. The degree of branching
is approximately 5. The branches are mostly 1-2
glucose units long. Dextran can be obtained from
fermentation of sucrose-containing media by
Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512F.
59
Seed Gum
Locust bean gum Monomer galactose, mannose
(galactomannan) Bonding ?-1,4/?-1,6 (branch)
60
Guar gum Monomer galactose, mannose
(galactomannan) Bonding ?-1,6/?-1,4
61
Tamatind gum, the heavily substitured natural
cellulosic
Exhibits a very low level of mixed gelling
interaction with other polysaccharides.
62
Plant exudate
Gum karaya
Gum ghatti
Gum Tragacanth
Gum arabic
63
Gum Arabic
-complex heteropolysaccharide -low viscosity
64
Functional properties of carbohydrate
Food products Nonfood products
Structural-function relationship
Molecular size Molecular arrangement Chemical
composition Functional group
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Micelle formation
Three-dimensional gel network
67
Agar Gel Forming Mechanism
68
B association of polygalacturonic acid sequences
through chelation of Ca ions according to
the egg-box model
C chelation formala
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Pectin gel forming mechanism
70
Pectin
71
High methoxy pectin
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Low methoxy pectin
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Olestra is synthesized using a sucrose molecule,
which can support up to eight fatty acid chains
arranged radially like an octopus, and is too
large to move through the intestinal wall.
Olestra has the same taste and mouthfeel as fat,
but since it does not contain glycerol and the
fatty acid tails can not be removed from the
sucrose molecule for digestion, it passes through
the digestive system without being absorbed and
adds no calories or nutritive value to the diet.
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78
Silverlon Calcium Alginate Wound Dressings
Product Description Silverlon CA Advanced
Antimicrobial Alginate Dressing, is a sterile,
non-woven pad composed of a High M (manuronic
acid) alginate and a silver nylon contact layer.
The silver ions provides an antimicrobial barrier
which protects the dressing from bacterial
contamination. The dressing absorbs exudates,
maintains a moist wound environment and allows
for intact removal.
79
Dissolve on your tongue instantly just one strip
will freshen-up your breath in seconds. Leave
you with a clean mouth feeling. Contain no sugar
or calories.
INGREDIENTSCoolMint Pullulan, Menthol,
Flavours, Aspartame, Acesulfame Potassium, Copper
Gluconate, Polysorbate 80, Carrageenan, Glyceryl
Oleate, Cineole (Eucalyptol), Methyl Salicylate,
Thymol, Locust Bean Gum, Propylene Glycol,
Xanthan Gum, Fast Green FCF.
80
Tablet Excipients
Excipients are inactive, non-medicinal
ingredients that are used by all manufacturers of
tableted products to impart desirable
characteristics important for manufacture,
convenience of use, and product efficacy.  Most
are inert powdered materials that are blended
with the active ingredients prior to tableting. 
Excipients may be classified as follows according
to their general function.
81
Binders are added to hold a tablet together
after it has been compressed.  Without binders,
tablets would break down into their component
powders during packaging, shipping, and routine
handling. Disintegrants are used to ensure
that, when a tablet is ingested, it breaks down
quickly in the stomach.  Rapid disintegration is
a necessary first step in ensuring that the
active ingredients are bioavailable and readily
absorbed.
82
Lubricants are required during manufacture to
ensure that the tableting powder (i.e. the raw
ingredient blend) does not stick to the pressing
equipment.  Lubricants improve the flow of powder
mixes through the presses, and they help finished
tablets release from the equipment with a minimum
of friction and breakage. Sweetening and
Flavoring Agents are commonly added to chewable
tablet formulations to improve taste, texture and
overall palatability.
83
Coating Agents are used to impart a finished look
and a smooth surface to tablets, and to mask any
unpleasant flavors that the tablet ingredients
may have.  Coating agents are applied after
tablet pressing in a separate operation.
Emulsifying agents are widely used as
dispersing, suspending and clarifying agents.
They are used to stabilize blends of liquids that
are not mutually soluble and improve the
bioavailability of some lipid-soluble compounds.
84
Starch and Pregelatinized Starch are used
primarily as binders to improve tablet durability
and integrity. Both are derived from corn.
Pregelatinized starch is partially hydrolyzed and
dried to make it flow better during tableting. It
also has superior binding characteristics. Starch
and pregelatinized starch are also used as
disintegrants. After ingestion, these starch
granules swell in the fluid environment of the
stomach and force the tablet to break apart.
Microcrystalline Cellulose serves multiple
functions in tablet formulas. It is an excellent
binder and disintegrant. It is derived from plant
fiber.
85
Modified Food Starch (Dextrin) functions as a
stabilizer and a binder. It may also help to
improve tablet solubility and texture. It is
produced from starch. Guar Gum functions as a
strong binder. It helps to keep the tablets from
disintegrating during packaging, storage and
handling. It is derived from the seed kernel of
the guar plant.
86
Croscarmellose Sodium (Sodium Carboxymethyl
Cellulose) is called a "super disintegrant"
because it is very effective even at very low
concentrations at promoting the breakdown of
tablets following ingestion. It is manufactured
from cellulose (plant fiber) which has been
processed to have a high affinity for water.
Dextrose a simple sugar is used in some formulas
as binder and disintegrant.
87
Fructose, Mannitol, and Xylitol are used in
chewable tablets as sweetening agents to mask the
unpleasant taste of vitamins and minerals and to
improve texture. These natural sweeteners are
extracted and purified from plant sources,
particularly from fruits. In addition, these
ingredients have good binding properties and aid
in the tablet formation and integrity.
Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose is constituent of
the film-coating agent used on most USANA
tablets. As its name implies, this excipient is
derived from cellulose or plant fiber. It helps
protect the tablet integrity and aids in the ease
of swallowing the tablets.
88
Maltodextrin is another constituent of the
film-coating agent on most USANA tablets. It
helps protect the tablet integrity and aids in
the ease of swallowing the tablets. It is derived
from the partial hydrolysis of starch.
89
As a group, sugar alcohols are not as sweet as
sucrose, and they have less food energy than
Source Antonio Zamora, "Carbohydrates" Source Antonio Zamora, "Carbohydrates" Source Antonio Zamora, "Carbohydrates" Source Antonio Zamora, "Carbohydrates"
Name Sweetness relative to sucrose Food energy(kcal/g) Sweetness perfood energy, relative to sucrose
Arabitol 0.7 0.2 14
Erythritol 0.812 0.213 15
Glycerol 0.6 4.3 0.56
HSH 0.40.9 3.0 0.521.2
Isomalt 0.5 2.0 1.0
Lactitol 0.4 2.0 0.8
Maltitol 0.9 2.1 1.7
Mannitol 0.5 1.6 1.2
Sorbitol 0.6 2.6 0.92
Xylitol 1.0 2.4 1.6
Compare withSucrose 1.0 4.0 1.0
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