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The Muslim World - Achievements

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Title: Recommending a Strategy Author: LCPS Last modified by: LCPS Created Date: 3/5/2009 6:24:10 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Muslim World - Achievements


1
The Muslim World - Achievements
2
Objectives
  • Student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic
    civilization from about 600 to 1000 C.E. by
  • Citing cultural and scientific contributions and
    achievements of Islamic civilization
  • Essential Questions
  • How did Islamic civilization preserve and extend
    ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian learning?
  • What were some contributions of Islamic
    civilization?

3
Rise of Muslim Urban Centers
  • Damascus
  • Located in modern day Syria
  • Known for its fine cloth called damask and for
    outstanding steel and armor
  • Cultural center of Islamic learning
  • Cordoba
  • Located in modern-day Spain
  • Umayyad capital
  • Population of over 500,000
  • Mix of Muslims, Christians, and Jews created a
    cosmopolitan atmosphere
  • Center of Muslim culture
  • 70 libraries, 700 mosques, and 27 free schools

4
  • Damascus
  • Cordoba

5
City Building and Architecture
  • Cairo
  • Located in modern-day Egypt
  • The Fatimid capital
  • City of Baghdad
  • Abbasid capital
  • Selected in 762 C.E. along the Tigris river
  • 100,000 architects, workers, etc. to build the
    city
  • At its peak a population of over 1 million
  • Unique circular design call the round city
  • Three protective walls ringed the city
  • Caliphs palace located in inner most circle
    along with grand mosque

6
Social Structure
  • Muslim society was made up of four social classes
  • Upper class
  • Born Muslim
  • Paid least amount of taxes
  • Second class
  • Converts to Islam
  • Paid a higher tax that upper class, but lower
    than bottom two classes
  • Protected people
  • Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians
  • Slaves
  • Prisoners of war, non-Muslims
  • Performed household work or fought in military
  • Role of women
  • As believers, men and women are equal according
    to the Quran
  • Men are the managers of womens affairs and
    righteous women are therefore obedient
  • Sharia law gave women specific legal rights
    concerning marriage, family, and property
  • More rights than European women of the time
    period
  • Could have access to education
  • Main responsibility was to raise children

7
Muslim Scholarship
  • Advancement of scholarship
  • Practical concerns
  • Relied on math and astronomy to calculate prayers
    times and the direction of Mecca
  • Deep curiosity
  • Quest for truth that dated back to Muhammad
  • Emphasis on study and scholarship
  • Protection of European knowledge
  • Muslim leaders and scholars helped to preserve
    and expand ancient knowledge from Europe, Persia,
    and India
  • Houses of Wisdom
  • First library/academy opened in early 800s in
    Baghdad
  • Translated works into Arabic
  • 1ST universities
  • Arabic language
  • Became the language of learning and scholarship

8
Medical Advances/ Science and technology
  • al-Razi
  • Greatest physician of the Muslim world
  • Wrote encyclopedia called the Comprehensive book
  • Believed patients would recover better if they
    were exposed to clean air
  • Hospital experiment
  • Astronomy
  • Compasses used to locate the direction of Mecca
  • Figured out the exact times for prayer and length
    of Ramadan
  • Study of Optics
  • Used to develop telescopes and microscopes
  • Geography
  • Calculated Earths circumference within 9 miles
    of its correct value
  • Produced a world atlas with dozens of maps
  • Compass

9
Mathematics/ Science
  • Two major ideas introduced by Muslim Scholars
  • Reliance on scientific observation and
    experimentation
  • Mathematics as the basis of all knowledge
  • Spread Indian concept of zero
  • used Arabic numerals
  • Al- Khwarizmi
  • Born in Baghdad in late 700s C.E.
  • Studied Indian sources rather than Greek
  • Wrote textbook explaining Algebra
  • Al-jabr

10
Philosophy
  • Translated the works of the Greek philosophers
    into Arabic
  • Ibn Rushd
  • Tried to harmonize Greek writings of Aristotle
    and Plato with Islam
  • Was attacked by some religious thinkers
  • Argued both beliefs had the same goal- to find
    truth
  • Ibn Sina
  • Most famous philosopher
  • All knowledge from God, had proof that the soul
    was immortal

11
Muslim Literature
  • Strong tradition of literature in Arabia before
    arrival of Islam
  • Bedouin poets
  • Quran is the standard for all Arabic literature
    and poetry
  • Poetry sang praises of Muhammad and of Islam
  • The Sufis known for their poetry
  • Focused on mystical experiences with God
  • Popular literature
  • The Thousand and One Nights
  • Collection of fairy tales, parables, and legends

12
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13
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14
Muslim Art and Architecture
  • Arab rich artistic traditions were enhanced by
    Islam
  • Islam forbade depiction of living things
  • based on the idea that only Allah can create life
  • Led to development of Calligraphy
  • Art of beautiful handwriting
  • Architecture
  • Greatest cultural blending
  • Blend of Byzantine, Persian, and European
    influences
  • Mosques
  • Usually had a minaret (tower) and a prayer room
    inside
  • Variety of design styles that reflected the
    diversity of Muslim lands

15
Architecture
  • Dome of the Rock
  • The Great Mosque in Mecca

16
Muslim Cultural Achievements Muslim Scientific Achievements
Architecture Arabic numerals
Mosaics Algebra
Arabic Alphabet Medicine
Universities Expansion of geographic knowledge
Translation of ancient texts to Arabic
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