The Human Story - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Human Story PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6e37f6-YmQzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Human Story

Description:

Title: Australopithecus afarensis Lucy & Luigi Author: Trial User Last modified by: cosmith Created Date: 11/29/2004 1:09:25 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:0
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 3 January 2020
Slides: 69
Provided by: Tria578
Learn more at: http://www1.nsd131.org
Category:
Tags: canine | diseases | human | skin | story

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Human Story


1
The Human Story
  • Where We Came From
  • How We Evolved

2
There is no straight line in the greater than
four million-year-old journey of the family
called HOMINIDAE.
3
From Ape to Hominid
  • Proto-Hominids (Opportunistic bipeds)
  • Sahelanthropus tchandensis / Orrorin tugeninsis
  • Transitional Opportunistic-into-Habitual Bipeds
  • Ardipithecus ramidus / Australopithecus anamensis
  • First True Habitual Upright Bipeds
  • Australopithecus afarensis / A. africanus / A.
    garhi
  • Australopithecus robustus / A. boisei

4
Identifying the first hominids
  • In L.C.A., look for anatomical features shared by
    humans and living great apes
  • Starting from there, 1st hominids must have
    evolved at least one feature that we see only in
    modern humans
  • Scientists focus on
  • Anatomy related to bipedalism

Large brain size, hard evidence for culture,
language, etc., come much later.
5
Evidence of Bipedalism
  • Placement of foramen magnum
  • Shape of spine
  • Shape of pelvic girdle
  • Bicondylar angle (knock-kneed)
  • Parallel toes (no divergent big toe)
  • Two fixed arches in foot
  • Side to side / front to back

6
ORIGINS OF BIPEDALISM
  • Or
  • WHY WE WALK ON TWO LEGS

Download and read these articles The Origins of
Habitual Upright Bipedalism The Origins of
Obligate Bipedalism in Hominins The Whats and
Whys of Habitual Upright Bipedalism
7
If you asked a roomful of anthropologists why we
walk on two legs - not get the same answer from
any two of them. Specialists cite everything
from changing landscapes to needing to keep cool
to heightening sexual attraction - generally
agreeing only on one point that everyone else's
hypothesis is wrong. Lets take a look at some
of these hypotheses.
8
Six Major Hypotheses
Grabbing A Bite
Hauling Food
A New World
Keeping Cool
Attracting Mates
Weapons and Tools
ALL these models may have played a role in the
emergence of habitual upright bipedalism
9
From Ape to Hominid
  • Proto-Hominids (Opportunistic bipeds)
  • Sahelanthropus techandensis / Orrorin tugeninsis
  • Transitional Opportunistic-into-Habitual Bipeds
  • Ardipithecus ramidus / Australopithecus anamensis
  • First True Habitual Bipeds
  • Australopithecus afarensis / A. africanus / A.
    garhi
  • Australopithecus robustus / A. boisei

10
Proto-Hominids
  • Molecular biology strongly suggests
  • Last common ancestor of chimps humans lived 5-8
    m.y.a.
  • Two recent finds warrant our attention
  • Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  • Orrorin tugenensis

11
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  • 6 - 7 m.y.a.
  • Brain size 1/4th of ours
  • No post-cranial bones
  • Dont know if habitual biped
  • Lived in variety of habitats
  • Likely ate mainly fruit, with smaller amounts of
    other foods.

Download and read The Earliest Possible Hominids
12
Orrorin tugenensis
  • 6 m.y.a.
  • Remains fragmentary
  • Canines / premolars extremely ape-like BUT with
    thick tooth enamel (like hominids)
  • Maybe bipedal
  • Inferior side of femoral neck (1 on picture) is
    thick (like hominids)

13
Ardipithecus ramidus Transitional
Opportunistic-into-Habitual Biped
  • 5.8 - 4.4 m.y.a.
  • Possibly bipedal (but not like us)
  • Small bodied (64-100 lbs) small brained (300-350
    cc)
  • Combo of hominid-like chimp-like traits
  • Diet unknown (relatively thin tooth enamel)
  • Well-watered, forested environment
  • Discovery Channel Website About "Ardi"

14
Australopithecus anamensis
  • 4.2 - 3.9 m.y.a.
  • Fragmentary remains
  • Teeth and jaws similar to fossil apes
  • May be earliest incontrovertible evidence of
    bipedalism
  • Strongly resembles Austr. afarensis
  • Streamside forests

15
Australopithecus afarensis
Small-brained, bipedal human ancestors. The
benchmark by which anatomy of all other early
hominids is interpreted.
  • 4 - 3 mya
  • East Africa
  • Fully bipedal
  • Mix of human-like ape-like traits
  • Forests, open woodlands
  • Sexually dimorphic

16
Lucy 1st afarensis found Her discovery
revolutionized ways of thinking about early
hominids.
  • Hadar, Ethiopia
  • About 38 tall 55 lbs
  • Long arms / short legs
  • Mid-20s when died
  • Teeth small unspecialized, indicating a mixed,
    omnivorous diet of mostly soft foods (fruits)

Left to right Lucys bones, reconstructed Lucy,
modern human
17
A. afarensis skull morphology
Male
Female (Lucy)
  • Cranial capacity 350 -500 cc (2/3rds - 1 water
    bottle
  • Small sagittal crest in males
  • Slightly projecting upper canine teeth in males
  • Parallel rows of cheek teeth (like apes)

18
afarensis body morphology Ground or tree-dweller?
  • Slightly curved hand foot bones
  • Relatively long and powerful arms
  • Bowl-shaped pelvis
  • Knock-kneed (knee joint angled inward)
  • Heel bone heavily built (like ours)
  • Foot may have had high, fixed arches (Laetoli?)

19
A. afarensis footprints
  • Laetoli, Tanzania home to a footprint trail 3.5
    m.y. old
  • Probably a trackway of A. afarensis

20
Selam 3 yr old baby girl Au. afarensis
  • Ethiopia (Hadar)
  • Lived 3.3 m.y.ago
  • Ape-like scapula
  • Human-like knees
  • Finger bones partially curved
  • Heel bone well-developed
  • Endocast shows delayed brain growth (like us)
  • Chimp-like hyoid bone

21
Australopithecus africanus
  • 3.5 - 2.0 m.y.a.
  • Mainly S. Africa
  • Mixture of habitats
  • Fruit, salads, insects, small easily captured
    prey
  • Brain size 1/3rd ours
  • Relationship to other hominids? Unknown

This species slightly different from A.
afarensis slightly taller, less facial
prognathism, slightly larger brain. Also lived in
drier habitats (especially dry scrublands and
perhaps open grasslands), and thus may have
exploited different resources.
22
Australopithecine Foraging Behavior
Foraging (the systematic search for food and
other provisions) was THE lifeway of all hominids
from the earliest australopithecines until about
10,000 years ago (the start of agricultural modes
of subsistence.
Foraging by australopithecines and early species
of Homo most likely consisted of collecting
roots, berries, seeds, nuts, salad greens,
insects, etc. Around 2 m.y.a meat, obtained by
scavenging, became part of the foraging way of
life. Eventually fish and shellfish would be
added.
23
The Robust Australopithecines Dietary specialists?
  • One of most fascinating branches of human family
    tree
  • Reveal radically different way of being hominid
  • About 2.5 m.y.a they diverged from our own
    lineage - existed down to about 1 m.y.a.
  • Came to be defined by an adaptation to eating
    hard foods like nuts, seeds, and roots

24
Robust Austraopithecine Morphology
  • 2.5 - 1 m.y.a.
  • South and East Africa
  • 3 species - united by suite of features related
    to eating tough foods
  • Extremely large molars / premolars
  • Dished face
  • Extremely large chewing muscles
  • Wide-flaring cheekbones
  • Pronounced pinching-in behind the eye orbits
  • Prominent sagittal crest

25
Robust australopithecine behavior
Digging sticks used by modern chimpanzees. While
such tools have not been found with robust
australopithecine fossils, it is possible they
used such tools
  • Omnivores, but relied on hard to chew foods
    (nuts, roots, seeds)
  • Probably used tools (bones/horns showing
    polishing, maybe used for digging up roots)
  • Lived in (open) woodlands and savannas
  • Evolutionary dead end

26
Major adaptive shifts in hominid evolution ca. 2
m.y.a.
  • Australopithecine lineage
  • Gracile lines become extinct
  • Robust lines see an intensification of adaptation
    to hard object feeding
  • Emergence of Homo lineage
  • Several new species appear on African landscape
  • Physically / behaviorally different from earlier
    contemporary australopithecines
  • Flatter faces
  • Brain reorganized (lateralization language
    regions)
  • Unquestioned manufacture/use of stone tools
    (bone/horn/wood?)
  • Added meat to diet (scavenging)
  • Some species have brains as large as 750 cc

27
Earliest Homo species
  • Contentiousness regarding who belongs to early
    Homo
  • At least 3 (perhaps more) Homo species
  • Homo habilis 2 - 1.5 m.y.a
  • Homo rudolfensis 2 - 1.8 m.y.a
  • Homo erectus (aka H. ergaster) 1.8 - 1.0 m.y.a.

28
Early Homo Behavior
  • Stone tools 1st appear ca. 2.5 mya
  • Most often attributed to H. habilis ( maybe A.
    garhi)
  • Earliest tools (Oldowan tradition)
  • Flakes (cutting/scraping)
  • Chopper / chopping tools (smashers / bashers)
  • Hammerstones
  • Some bone/horn w/scratches (digging?)
  • Meat eating takes on increasing importance after
    2.5 m.y.a.
  • Several types of sites quarries, food processing
    locations


29
Making / Using Oldowan Tools
Hominids often traveled up to 10 km to acquire
right kind of stone from which to make tools.
30
Early Homo Scavenging Behavior
Can a hominid eat meat obtained like this and not
get sick? Perhaps if one gets there within a few
hours of a predators kill.
31
Homo erectus Out of Africa
  • Earliest in Africa 1.8 (H. ergaster)
  • Island SE Asia 1.7 m.y.a.
  • Continental Asia 1.4 m.y.a
  • Rep. of Georgia 1.7 m.y.a. (H. georgicus?)
  • Spain 800,000 y.a. (H. antecessor?)
  • Flores 90,000 y.a. (H. floresiensis?)

32
Homo erectus (Prometheus Unbound)
  • First hominids to make tools to a predetermined
    shape
  • Cognitive mapping of raw material (recognize
    potential flaws)
  • Invented new tool handaxe
  • Larger tools, required more prep than H. habilis
    choppers
  • First hominids to make task-specific tools
  • Some tools used for butchering animal carcasses
    others for working with wood still others for
    use with veggies
  • First hominids to hunt small to medium size game
  • Probably the first hominids to use, perhaps even
    control, fire
  • Hints of use at South African site between 1.5 -
    1.0 m.y.a.
  • Fire allows cooking foods (makes meat veggie
    consumption easier lengthen day into the night
    keeps predators away warmth

33
Homo erectus Morphology
  • Body Size and Shape
  • Basically modern, but more muscled and robust
  • Some individuals very tall (boy from Lake
    Turkana) 6 feet tall when an adult
  • Large brain 800 - 1200 cc (overlaps moderns at
    upper end)
  • Long, low with receding forehead large
    browridges
  • Midfacial pronathism / powerfully built jaw

34
Boy from Nariokotome Very tall hominid at 1.5 mya
  • About 8 years old when he died
  • 5 tall (6 feet _at_ maturity)
  • Legs relatively long in proportion to body as
    compared to earlier hominids
  • Well adapted to staying cool in hot, dry climates
  • Face, molar teeth, chewing muscles smaller than
    earlier hominids (softer, high-quality - perhaps
    cooked - foods)
  • Skull-to-pelvis proportions of females give
    birth to relatively immature infants
  • Implications long infancy-childhood dependency
    period good for learning

35
Homo georgicus ?? 1st Hominid to Leave Africa ??
  • Dmanisi, Georgia (Caucasus Mtns)
  • 1.7 - 1.8 m.y.a.
  • Late H. habilis or early H. erectus
  • Brain size 600-750 cc
  • Stature 1.5 m
  • Oldowan tool technology

36
THE RISE OF MODERN HUMANS
  • From
  • Homo erectus
  • To
  • Homo sapiens
  • Via
  • Homo heidelbergensis

37
The Invasion of Europe
  • Earliest occupation poorly understood
  • Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca, Spain
  • 1 million years ago
  • Primitive stone tools
  • Animal bones with cut marks
  • Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain
  • 800,000 yrs ago
  • 6 hominids share many physical similarities with
    Homo erectus
  • May represent link between H. erectus and H.
    heidelbergensis
  • Often given the name Homo antecessor
  • All hominid remains exhibit evidence of
    butchering (cutmarks, dismembering, skinning
    defleshing)
  • Oldest evidence of human cannibalism

38
Homo heidelbergensis Ancestor to Neanderthals and
Us
  • 500,000 to 300,000 years ago
  • Africa, Europe (none in Asia)
  • Brain larger than erectus
  • Skull more rounded, less robust but still with
    large brow ridges, receding foreheads no chins

H. heidelbergensis
H. erectus
39
Homo heidelbergensis First BIG GAME hunters
  • By 500 k.y.a. wooden spears used to hunt large
    game (rhinos, horses, hippos, giant elk)
  • Cut marks lie UNDERNEATH toothmarks
  • Ground minerals to produce pigments (body
    painting?) 350-400 kya

NOTE While heidelbergensis lived in Africa,
other hominid species lived elsewhere H. erectus
continued successfully in eastern and
southeastern Asia
40
La Sima de los Huesos (The Pit of Bones) A most
important H. heidelbergensis site
  • 400,000 y.a.
  • 32 individuals
  • Bodybuilder physiques
  • Pronounced muscle markings
  • Thick layers of hard bone around central marrow
    cavities
  • Not a living site
  • Burial? / Washed in?

One handaxe does not a ritual make. - crsmith
41
Homo neanderthalensis European descendants of H.
heidelbergensis
Female
Eye, skin hair color speculative
Dark haired male
Red-headed male
Young boy
42
N E A N D E R T A L
W O R L D
43
Neanderthals Ancestors Or Dead Ends?
  • Europe, southwest Asia, central Asia between
    200,000 - 30,000 years ago
  • Much controversy over
  • their fate
  • relationship to anatomically modern humans (H.
    sapiens)

No other aspect of human evolution has generated
as much public interest for so long a time as the
story of the Neanderthals.
44
Neanderthals Earlier Views
Until very recently, Neanderthals were most often
depicted as brutish, dimwitted, half man . . .
half beast.
45
Neanderthals Recent Views
46
Neanderthal Cranial Morphology
  • Cranial cap 1400 cc
  • Large midface / large nasal appeture / very big
    nose that projects forward
  • Large gap behind 3rd molar
  • Large protruding occipital bone
  • Marked neck muscle attachments on skull
  • Very large incisor teeth
  • No chin
  • Double-arched brow ridge

47
A Comparison Side by Side With A Relative
  • Brain case low vs. high
  • Nasal opening large vs. narrow
  • Collarbone long vs. shorter
  • Rib cage conical vs. cylindrical
  • Limb bones thick-walled vs. thin-walled
  • Hand bones robust vs. slender
  • Trunk short vs. long
  • Hips flaring vs. narrow
  • Joint surfaces large vs. smaller
  • Lower leg shorter vs. longer
  • Bowed limbs vs. straight limbs

48
Explanation for Neanderthal Morphology
  • Cold weather harsh climate adaptations
  • Strenuous hunting

49
Neanderthal culture
50
Neanderthal Culture Stone tools
  • Mousterian toolkit
  • Effective but simple
  • Changed little over 100,000 yrs.
  • Trimmed flint nodules
  • Strike-off lots of flakes
  • predetermined form - retouched)
  • Tool specialization
  • Skin meat preparation
  • Hunting
  • Woodworking
  • Hafting
  • Some wooden tools (including thrusting spears)
    tipped with stone points

51
Levallois Flint Knapping
  • Careful retouching of flakes taken off cores
  • Specific uses of flakes
  • Animal butchering
  • Woodworking
  • Bone antler carving
  • Working of animal hides

52
Neanderthal Culture Subsistence
  • Extremely successful hunters
  • Jabbing spears (not thrown) w/ hafted stone
    points
  • No long-distance hunting (locally available game)
  • Cave bear, Deer, Woolly rhinoceros, mammoth, wild
    cattle, reindeer, horse, wild ass, ibex, saiga
  • Neanderthal skeletons often show fractures
  • Fairly efficient gatherers
  • Berries, greens, roots - limited time frame (few
    weeks)

53
Neanderthal Culture Settlements
  • Open sites, caves, rock-shelters
  • Built structures / windbreaks
  • Controlled use of fire warmth

54
Neanderthal Social Behavior
55
Neanderthal Cannibalism Ritualistic or
Nutritional Purposes
  • Possible evidence
  • France Croatia
  • Fragmentary bones show stone-tool cut marks
    similar to those found on butchered game animals
  • Some long bones smashed to get marrow

56
Burying the Dead
  • Intentional
  • Some grave offerings stone tools, animal bones
    (flowers?)

57
Neanderthalss Fate Part I
  • By 30,000 Neanderthals gone
  • Sudden climatic change
  • Large game dying out and Neanderthals hunting
    methods not suitable?
  • Out competed by anatomically modern H. sapiens?
  • Better energy extraction methods
  • Shorter gestation periods
  • Diseases brought by a.m. H. sapiens?
  • Genetically absorbed into .am. H. sapiens without
    significant genetic contributions to modern
    populations?

58
The Fate of the Neanderthals Part II
  • Interbred with anatomically modern H. sapiens to
    produce modern Europeans?
  • Four-year-old child buried in a Portuguese
    rock-shelter 25,000 to 24,500 years ago
  • Czech Republic, male, mixture of Neanderthal and
    a.m. H. sapiens features

Recent genetic data indicates no mixing
59
Anatomically modern Homo sapiens In Our Own Image
  • Descendants of African H. heidelbergensis
  • First appear about 200,000
  • Defined morphologically, not behaviorally
  • Tall, almost vertical forehead
  • Small to minimal brow ridges
  • No retromolar gap (thus impacted wisdom teeth)
  • Cranial cap. 1350 (1000 - 2000)
  • Pointed chin (uniquely modern trait)
  • High rounded cranium widest point on sides of
    parietals

60
A Time of Crisis 140,000 years ago
  • Mega-drought
  • Much of African environment becomes desert -
    desert-like
  • Dramatic reduction of hominid pops. (600 - 1200
    breeding individuals)
  • Hominids forced into refuge areas (principally
    south African coastline)
  • Began to exploit new resources (shellfish,
    penguins, also hunting/gathering on coastal
    plains) reflects a new versatility

61
Refuge Sites
  • Pinnacle Point, So. Africa (140 - 70 kya)
  • Earliest tools made from beach cobbles later
    tools made from stone quarried 20 km away, then
    heat treated
  • Some of earliest evidence H. sapiens living off
    sea (cooked shellfish) 70,000 years ago
  • Klasies River Caves, So. Africa (130 - 60 kya)
  • 130-119 kya systematic use of marine resources
    ate shellfish, seals, penguins, hunted antelope,
    gathered plant foods (roasted in hearths built
    for the purpose)
  • Fire-blackened fragments of human skulls / other
    bones showing cut marks Cannibalism

62
Complexity of Culture
  • Blade tools increased technological abilities
  • Spearthrower (lightweight spears)
  • Small bone ivory tools
  • Fishhooks
  • Tailored skin clothing
  • Expansion into new eco-niches
  • Ubiquitous burial of the dead
  • Postmortem modification common
  • Art and symbolism
  • Cave paintings
  • Portable art (beads/ carved bone - stone - wood)

63
Symbolism Art
Geometric figures 95 kya Shell beads 70
kya Cave paintings 30 kya Earliest musical
instruments 35 kya Venus figurines 35 kya
64
Leaving Home
  • 95 kya SW Asia
  • Burial of mother/child
  • Europe 46 kya
  • SE Asia 60 kya
  • Asia 40 kya
  • Australia 60 kya
  • Americas 15-20 kya

65
Why do modern humans have different skin colors?
It may all come down to VITAMINS
66
Only Skin Deep
  • Skin color variations are adaptive traits that
    correlate closely to geography and the suns
    ultraviolet radiation, not race.
  • Skin pigmentation developed as bodys way of
    balancing its need for vitamin D and folic acid.
  • Vitamin D (calcium absorption for healthy bones)
  • Folic acid (healthy fetuses)
  • Populations closer to the equator have darker
    skin to prevent
  • folate deficiency
  • too much Vitamin D production

67
We are more alike my friends than unalike. - Maya
Angelou
68
Whole Language
About PowerShow.com