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Title: Highlights of Plant Evolution Chart:

  • Highlights of Plant Evolution Chart

  • I. Bryophytes - mosses many plants growing in a
    tight pack.
  • No waxy cuticle and do not retain developing
    embryos w/i mother plants gametangium.
  • Need water to reproduce sperm are flagellated,
    must swim through water to reach eggs
  • No vascular tissue to carry water(grow low to
    ground) and lack lignin
  • Like damp, shady places
  • Green spongy plant gametophyte (male female
    are separate plant shoots)(n)
  • Taller brown shoot with a capsule, grows out of
    gametohyte sporophyte (2n)

  • Alternation of Generations -
  • 2 generations that take turns producing
    each other
  • Gametophytes produce eggs and sperm must unite
    to form a zygote, which forms new sporophytes.
  • Sporophytes produce spores
  • Spores can develop into a new organism without
    uniting, have a tough coat to resist harsh
  • The new organism then produces gametophytes
  • Gametophyte larger more obvious plant in mosses

  • Moss- Gametophyte (left) and Archegonium (female
    gametophyte) (right)
  • (Antheridium male gametopyte.)

  • Sporophyte generation (left) and Sporangia
  • Moss is cool! E.C. for bringing in moss with
    both generations. (In late spring.)

  • II. Ferns - diverse with 12,000 species, most in
    tropics, many in temperate woodlands of U.S.
  • Evolution of vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
  • Sperm are still flagellated-must swim through a
    film of water to fertilize eggs
  • Are still seedless - have spores
  • During Carboniferous Period, ferns in swamp
    forests converted to coal - (black sedimentary
    rock made up of fossilized plant material)

  • Alternation of Generations in ferns.
  • Sporophytes are diploid and gametophytes are
  • Sporophyte is the dominant stage in ferns.
    (Gametophyte was dominant in mosses)
  • Heart shaped gametophyte prothallus

  • III. Angiosperms - flowering plants, dominate
    most regions
  • 250,000 species vs. 700 conifer species
  • Supply nearly all our food and fiber for
    textiles, some lumber
  • Refined vascular tissue - water transport more
  • Evolution of flower responsible for
    unparalleled success
  • Flowers - display male and female parts
  • Insects and animals transfer pollen from male
    part of one flower, to female part of another
    flower. Advantage? (vs. wind)________
  • Flower short stem w. modified leaves sepals,
    petals, stamens, carpels.

  • Label flower to left w. all flower terms below
  • Sepals - green, enclose flower before it opens
  • Petals - attract insects other pollinators
  • Stamen - filament (stalk) bearing a sac called
    anther. Anther is male organ in which pollen
    grains develop.
  • Carpel sticky tip called stigma, which traps
    pollen, the style (stalk) and the ovary, a
    chamber containing one or more ovules. Egg
    develops here.

  • Angiosperm life cycle is above
  • Sporophyte is the familiar plant female
    gametophyte is w/I the ovule, male gametophyte
    is the pollen.
  • Pollen lands on stigma, tube goes down to ovule,
    deposits 2 sperm nuclei w/I female gametophyte
    Double fertilization.
  • One sperm cell fertilizes egg making zygote,
    developing into embryo.
  • Second sperm cell fertilizes another female
    gametophyte cell which develops into a
    nutrient-storing tissue called endosperm.

  • Angiosperms cont
  • Embryo then has food w/I ovule
  • Ovule develops into a seed
  • Seed is enclosed W/I ovary not naked.
  • Fruit ripened ovary of flower
  • Fruit protects and helps disperse seeds
  • Animals help disperse seeds too!
  • All fruit and vegetable crops are angiosperms
  • We will re-visit flowers and fruits in Ch.28 in
  • IssuesTropical rain forests are being destroyed
    for agricultural Coniferous forests are being
    destroyed for lumber and paper. Can you help???

End of Ch. 16
Chapter 28 Flowering Plants
Most of your notes for this Chapter will be found
in your Flowering Plant Lab. However, here are
some notes in addition to your lab.
  • Angiosperms have dominated earth for 60 million
    years 250,000 million species are known today.
  • Monocots include orchids, palms, lilies, grains,
  • Dicots include shrubs, trees (except for
    conifers), ornamental plants, many food crops.
  • Know traits of each! (Lab) See left.
  • 3 Plant organs roots, stems, leaves (Lee also
  • 1. Roots Root hairs-increase surface area of
    root for absorption
  • Large taproots - store food such as starch for
    plant (Ex carrots, turnips, sugar beets, sweet

  • 2. Stems - Terminal bud is at apex of stem when
    plant stem is growing in length. Axillary buds,
    in angle formed by a leaf and stem) are dormant.
  • Terminal bud produces hormones inhibiting growth
    of axillary buds apical dominance, so plant can
    grow up to sun.
  • Axillary buds begin growing and develop into
    branches under certain conditions.
  • What is pinching back?
  • 3 kinds of Modified stems
  • Runner in a strawberry plant horizontal stem
    - new plants emerge from tip of runner asexual
  • Rhizome of an iris plant horizontal
    underground stems store food, can bud new
  • Tubers are rhizomes ending in enlarged
    structures (potatoes). Eyes of potato are
    axillary buds, can grow when planted.

  • 3. Leaves - flat blades (for light collection)
    and petioles (joins leaf to stem.) Celery is a
    big petiole.
  • Tendrils modified leaves for climbing and
    support .
  • Spines of a cactus modified leaf parts
    protecting plant. Cactus stem is photosynthetic.
  • Plant Cells - have chlorophyll, large central
    vacuole, some have a multipart cell wall
  • Primary cell wall - laid down first
  • Secondary cell wall - deposited between plasma
    membrane and primary wall, more rigid for support
  • Parenchyma cells - most abundant cell, for food
    storage, photosynthesis. Only primary cell walls.
  • Collenchyma cells - provide support in growing
    parts of plant. Only primary cell walls.
  • Sclerenchyma cells - have thick secondary walls
    with lignin (wood). When mature, most are dead -
    rigid cells support plants. Make rope and

  • 2 Plant Vascular Tissues
  • 1. Xylem - contains water conducting cells - move
    water minerals up stem
  • 2. Phloem -contains food conducting cells
    -transport sugars from leaves or storage tissue
    to other parts of plant
  • 3 Tissue Systems continuous throughout plant
  • 1. Dermal-covers, protects, waxy coating
  • (epidermis)
  • 2. Vascular- xylem and phloem support, transport
  • 3. Ground - bulk of young plant, fills spaces
    between epidermis and vascular. Photosynthesis,
    storage, support.
  • Types of ground tissue
  • Cortex - in root,cells store food, take up
    water minerals.
  • Endodermis - selective barrier in
    cortex-determines which substances pass between
    cortex and vascular tissue.
  • Pith - fills center of stem in dicots, food

  • Ground Tissue continued
  • Stomata - in epidermis of leaf and some stems,
    are tiny pores between guard cells - minimizes
    water loss, allow gas exchange.
  • Mesophyll - ground tissue of a leaf, for gas
    exchange and photoshythesis
  • ???Can you name all parts of this leaf below ???
    Label them!
  • Upper epidermis, Lower epidermis, Mesophyll,
    Cuticle, Vein, Xylem, Phloem, Guard cells,
    Stomata, Palisade Layer, Spongy layer

  • What kind of plant organ is this, monocot or
    dicot, and why? __________________________________

  • Review the structure of a flower, left.
  • Go over life cycle of an angiosperm, below.

  • This diagram shows how the male gametophyte
    (pollen) and female gametophyte (embryo within
    ovule) develop.
  • The ovary may contain several ovules only 1 is
    shown here.
  • Please go over Steps 1-3 for the male and for the
    female on the diagram above. Males have
    ____surviving cells females have ___.

  • Above diagram shows pollination and double
    fertilization steps
  • 1. Pollination
  • 2. Pollen form 2 sperm
  • 3. Sperm travel through a pollen tube to ovule
  • 4. Double fertilization occurs
  • one sperm fertilizes egg forming diploid zygote
    which becomes the embryo
  • other sperm joins to form the triploid central
    cell, which develops into endosperm, nourishing
    the embryo

  • Seed Formation
  • Embryo develops cotyledons.
  • These organs absorb nutrients from endosperm.
  • Embryo develops into mature seed with tough
    protective seed coat enclosing endosperm.
  • Seed becomes dormant until seed germinates.
  • Dormancy allows time for seed dispersal, favors
    survival for good environmental contitions
  • Fruit formation
  • Fruit mature ovary
  • Houses and protects seeds, disperses them from

  • Seed Germination
  • Seed takes up water and expands, ruptures its
    seed coat
  • Embryo resumes growth (from dormancy)
  • Embryotic root emerges, then shoot a hook forms
    near its tip (protection)
  • True leaves expand from shoot tip, and
  • In pea, cotyledons remain behind in soil and
    decompose (see above)
  • In beans, cotyledons emerge from soil and become
    seed leaves, which photosynthesize
  • Only small fraction of seedlings live to

  • Plant Growth
  • Plants have indeterminate growth - continue to
    grow as long as they live - increases exposure to
  • Have a finite life span 3 examples
  • Annuals - mature, reproduce and die in 1 year or
    growing season. Ex wheat, corn, rice,
  • Biennials - live for 2 years flower and seed
    occur during second year. Ex carrots
  • Perennials - live and reproduce for many years.
    Ex trees, shrubs, some grasses.
  • Primary Growth lengthening
  • Meristem - cells that divide and generate new
    cells and tissues (See lab and left diagram)

  • Secondary Growth thickening
  • Wood - dead xylem tissue
  • Vascular cambium - gives rise to secondary
    phloem and secondary xylem. Secondary xylem is
    produced each year thickness of perennial
    and/or wood. This results in annual growth of
    rings. Each tree ring has cylinder of spring
    wood (larger cells) and of summer wood.
  • Cork cambium - produces cork (dead when mature,
    protects stem)
  • Everything external to the vascular cambium (
    secondary phloem, cork cambium, cork) bark
  • What happens if you remove the bark from a tree?
  • Extra credit lab/ worksheet is available about
    counting tree rings.

  • Pollinators (Vectors) and flowers mutually
    beneficial relationship
  • How do flowers benefit?
  • (Pollination and seed dispersal)
  • How do pollinators benefit?
  • (Nectar and pollen for food.)
  • Color and fragrance advertise for pollinators
  • Birds see red/pink
  • Bees - smell
  • See next Set 4 For Video Clips of these

Chapter 29 - The Working Plant
  • Sap -watery solutions moving through vascular
  • In xylem it carries water and nutrients from
    roots to leaves and stems.
  • In phloem it transports sugar already made, from
    leaves to other parts of plants.
  • Sap is made in Spring by converting starch that
    was made the previous summer into sugars.
  • It takes 40 liters of maple tree sap to produce
    1 liter of maple syrup.

  • Plants get CO2 from air (through stomata),
    minerals and H2O from soil,(through root hairs)
    and O2 from soil.(through stomata).
  • A plant releases more O2 from photosynthesis than
    it consumes by respiration
  • Plant nutrition all minerals that enter a plant
    root are dissolved in water
  • Go through epidermis cortex of root plasma
    membrane of root cells (selectively
    permeable) to xylem.
  • Mycorrhiza (fungi) help in absorption
  • Macronutrients-need in large amounts carbon,
    oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus,
    calcium, potassium, and magnesium
  • Micronutrients - need in extremely small amounts
    iron, chlorine, copper, manganese, zinc,
    molybdenum, boron, nickel. Mainly components of
  • See p. 641-642 for uses of all nutrients
  • Deficiencies - quality of soil affects our own
    nutrition - Corn on left grown in nitrogen rich
    soil on right in nitrogen poor soil

  • Bacteria help with nitrogen nutrition 3 types of
    soil bacteria
  • 1. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria - converts N2 in air
    to ammonium
  • 2. Ammonifying bacteria - adds ammonium by
    decomposing organic matter
  • 3. Nitrifying bacteria - converts soil ammonium
    to nitrate - plants take this up
  • Plants then convert nitrate back to ammonium to
    make proteins/organics.

  • Legumes (soybean, clover, peas, alfalfa) have
    root nodules that contain nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria called Rhizobium.
  • Symbiotic relationship - bacteria have a place to
    live and receive carbohydrates/organics from
    plant. Plants get ammonium ions released into
  • Why do some farmers rotate their crops? Ex One
    year corn, the next year soybeans?

  • The Transport of Water
  • Pulled up plant through transpiration (loss of
    water vapor from plant,) through the stomata
  • Cohesion water molecules stick together, are
    pulled up together
  • Adhesion water molecules adhere to cellulose
    molecules in walls of xylem cells
  • A continuous string of water molecules move up
  • Molecules of water break off from the top of the
    string as they leave the leaf. String is kept
    tense and pulled upward as long as transpiration
  • No energy expenditure by plant
  • Called Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism

Chapter 29 continued...
  • Transpiration - greatest on sunny, warm, dry and
    windy days
  • Maple tree can lose more than 200 L of water per
  • Unless rehydrated, plant could eventually die
  • Leaf stomata can help plants adjust transpiration
    rates-controls opening by changing shape
  • Open during day and close at night, saving water.
    May close during day if plant is losing water
    too fast.

  • The Transport of Sugars
  • Phloem sap moves in various directions in plant
  • Phloem moves sugar from a source (leaf) to a sink
    (root or fruit)
  • Pressure-flow mechanism - the building of water
    pressure at source end of phloem tube, and the
    reduction of water pressure at the sink end
    causes water to flow from source to sink,
    carrying sugar with it.

  • Plant Hormones -control plant growth and
    development - affect division, elongation,
    differentiation of cells
  • 5Major types
  • 1. Auxin-produced by apical meristem, stimulates
    growth of shoot-causes cells to elongate.
  • Ex Cells elongate (more auxin) on dark side of
    stem, causes stem to bend on opposite side
    (toward light)
  • Requires certain concentrations too much
    inhibits stem elongation.
  • Usually, it inhibits roots (except in high
    concentrations it can elongate roots.)

  • 2. Ethylene - a gas which triggers aging
    responses - fruit ripening, dropping of leaves.
    (See left top photo)
  • Why does one bad apple spoil the whole
  • 3. Cytokinins - growth regulators, promote cell
    division. In roots, embryos, fruits. Stimulate
    growth of axillary buds (branches and bushy.)
  • Why are cytokinins used by growers of Christmas
  • 4. Gibberellins - stimulates cell elongation and
    cell division in stems. Can influence fruit
    development. Used in grapes-larger and more
    farther apart in the cluster. (See left bottom

  • 5. Abscisic Acid - slows growth. Ex seed
    dormancy, esp. during adverse conditions
  • During drought, causes stomata to close during
    wilting, preventing further water loss
  • Photo desert plants grew from seeds that
    germinated just after a hard rain - were dormant
    in parched soil beforehand.

Summary of plant hormones
The End
What is matter?
  • Matter anything that occupies space and has
  • Composed of chemical elements
  • Element cannot be broken down into other
  • 92 natural elements
  • EX oxygen, carbon, copper
  • Each element has a symbol from its name
  • EX - O, C, Cu
  • Essential to life(96)
  • O, C, H, N
  • Trace elements(4)
  • Ca, P, K, S

  • Compound a substance containing 2 or more
    elements in a fixed ratio
  • More common than elements

H2O water
NaCl table salt
  • Atom
  • Indivisible Greek
  • Smallest unit of matter that retains the
    properties of an element

Atomic Structure Nucleus central core of
the atom, contains protons and neutrons Proton
positively charged Neutron no
charge Orbitals - outside the
nucleus Electron negatively
charged Attraction between protons and electrons
keep the electrons nearby the nucleus.
How is one element different from another element?
  • Atomic number same as the number of protons
  • Oxygen has 8 protons
  • If the atom is electrically neutral (number of
    protons number of electrons) then the atomic
    number also is the same as the number of
  • Mass number sum of the numbers of protons and
    neutrons in a nucleus

Periodic Table of Elements
  • Isotopes elements with the same number of
    protons and electrons, but a different number of

Radioactive Isotopes the nucleus will decay,
giving off particles and energy
Chemical Properties of Atoms
  • Electrons determine how an atom will behave.
  • Electrons that are farther from the nucleus have
    greater energy.
  • Electron shells 1st 2 electrons, 2nd 8
    electrons, 3rd 8 electrons
  • If an electron shell is not full the atom is
    likely to react with other atoms in a chemical
  • If the electron shell is full it is unreactive
    (chemically inert).

Chemical Bonding
Chemical bonds formed by atoms trying to fill
the outer most electron shell
  • Ionic bonds attraction between oppositely
    charged ions (electron is transferred)
  • Ions are formed by either gaining or losing an
  • Atoms like to have full energy shells and will
    easily gain or lose 1-3 electrons to do it.
  • Example Na has 1é in its outer shell and Cl has
    7é in its outer shell. Na can lose 1é to become
    Na1 and and Cl can gain 1é to become Cl-1 and
    both will have a full outer shell.

  • Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one
    or more pairs of outer shell electrons.
  • Molecule formed by atoms held together by
    covalent bonds.

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  • Chemical Reaction
  • changes in the chemical composition of matter
  • For a balanced chemical reaction the number of
    each element must be equal on both sides of the
    reaction. Reactions cannot create or destroy
    matter, it can just rearrange it.

  • Photosynthesis is all about
  • feeding the biosphere

  • Photosynthesis converts energy of sunlight into
    the chemical energy of sugar and organic
  • Almost all plants, some protists and some
  • Autotrophs
  • An organism that makes all its own organic matter
    from inorganic nutrients
  • Self feeders
  • Require inorganic compounds - CO2, H2O and
  • Make organic compounds carbohydrates, lipids,
    proteins, nucleic acids
  • producers
  • Heterotrophs
  • Cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones
  • Other feeders
  • We must eat!
  • Depend on autotrophs for their organic fuel and
    material for growth and repair
  • consumers

Sites of Photosynthesis
  • Chloroplasts organelle responsible for
  • Leaves are the major site of photosynthesis (all
    green parts of a plant have chlorophyll and
    chloroplasts and can undergo photosynthesis)
  • Double membrane envelope
  • Inner membrane encloses the stroma thick fluid,
    where sugars are made from CO2
  • Thylakoids sacs suspended in the stroma,
    stacked in grana, where the chlorophyll molecules
    that capture the light energy are stored

Parts of the leaf
  • Mesophyll cells making up the green tissue on
    the interior of the leaf
  • Palisade mesophyll upper portion, densely
  • Spongy mesophyll lower portion, air spaces
  • Stomata openings through which CO2, H2O and O2
    gases are exchanged (most H2O comes up from the

Photosynthesis Chemical Reaction
  • Reactants 6 CO2 and 6 H2O
  • Products C6H12O6 and 6 O2
  • Electrons are added to CO2 to produce sugar
  • Sunlight provides the energy to split the H2O
    molecules and release O2 into the atmosphere

PhotosynthesisA Simple Summary
  • Light Reactions
  • Convert solar to chemical energy
  • Synthesize ATP (energy storage) and NADPH
    (electron carrier)
  • Calvin Cycle (Dark Reactions)
  • Makes sugar from CO2
  • Uses ATP and NADPH from light reactions

Light Reactions
  • Sunlight is radiation or electromagnetic energy.
  • We are able to see only light that is reflected
    from an object.
  • EX green leaves absorb red-orange and
    blue-violet light therefore, reflecting green
    light. Chloroplasts convert the absorbed energy.

Chloroplast Pigments
  • Found in photosystems
  • Chlorophyll a absorbs blue-violet and red light
  • Participates directly in the light reactions
  • Chlorophyll b absorbs blue and orange light
  • Helps light reactions by increasing the range of
    light that can be absorbed
  • Carotenoids absorb blue-green light
  • Absorb and dissipate excessive light that may
    damage chlorophyll a

Photosystems and Light
  • Photon fixed quantity of light energy
  • Pigment molecules absorb photons of light that
    excite the electrons to a higher energy state
  • As the electron falls back to the normal state
    is releases energy as heat or light energy

  • Photosystems have clusters of pigment molecules
    that act as antennae for photons of light.
  • Photons of light jump from pigment to pigment
    until it reaches the Reaction Center containing
    chlorophyll a.
  • Next to the reaction center is the primary
    electron acceptor which traps the light excited
    electron energy into ATP or NADPH.

Two Types of Photosystems
  • Water splitting photosystem
  • Light energy to extract electrons from water
  • Releases O2 as a waste product
  • NADPH producing photosystem
  • Produces NADPH by transferring light excited
    electrons from chlorophyll to NADP
  • An electron transport chain connecting the two
    photosystems releases energy used to make ATP

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  • Light reactions as seen in the thylakoid
  • Electron transport chain pumps H ions across a
  • ATP synthases use the energy stored by the H
    gradient to make ATP.

Calvin Cycle(Dark Reactions)
Calvin Cycle
  • It is a cycle because the starting material is
    regenerated with each turn of the cycle.
  • Inputs
  • CO2, ATP and NADPH
  • Outputs
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
  • Raw material to make glucose and other organic

C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM
  • C3 Plants use CO2 directly from the air
  • EX soybean, wheat, oats, rice
  • Dry weather can decrease the rate of
    photosynthesis and crop productivity because
    stomata are closed to prevent water loss and no
    CO2 gas exchange occurs.
  • C4 Plants use an enzyme to incorporate CO2
  • EX corn, sorghum, sugarcane
  • Save water without slowing photosynthesis
  • When hot the stomata are closed to prevent water
  • Continues sugar production by using an enzyme to
    incorporate CO2 into a 4 C compound instead of
    the normal 3 C compound.
  • CAM Plants opens stomata at night to let in CO2
    and to prevent water loss
  • Ex pineapple, cacti, succulents
  • Once the CO2 is inside the leaf it forms a 4 C
  • Bank CO2 at night and release it to the Calvin
    Cycle during the day

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Photosynthesis Review
Greenhouse Effect warming induced by CO2
Energy Cycle
CO2 H2O C6H12O6 O2
  • Photosynthesis uses light energy to make
    organic molecules
  • Chloroplasts
  • Chlorophyll
  • Producers
  • Respiration harvests energy stored in sugars
    and organic molecules
  • Mitochondria
  • Consumers

Types of Energy
  • ENERGY capacity to do work
  • Kinetic Energy energy of motion
  • Potential Energy energy because of its location
    or arrangement
  • Conservation of Energy energy can neither be
    created nor destroyed
  • ENTROPY measure of disorder or randomness
  • Chemical Energy energy stored in the chemical
    bonds of molecules a form of potential energy
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