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Soil Acidity and Liming

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Soil Acidity and Liming Pellet Lime Finely ground limestone Glued together into water soluble pellets Advantage: Handling, spreading, speed of reaction – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soil Acidity and Liming


1
Soil Acidity and Liming
  • Pellet Lime
  • Finely ground limestone
  • Glued together into water soluble pellets
  • Advantage Handling, spreading, speed of reaction
  • Disadvantage Cost

100-200 mesh
2
Soil Acidity and Liming
  • Fluid Lime
  • Finely ground limestone
  • Suspended in water with clay
  • Approx. 1000 lb CCE/ton material
  • Advantage Spreading, speed of reaction
  • Disadvantage Cost

3
Less than recommended very fine limestone applied
compared to normal liming program
7
6
5
pH
4
3
0 3
6 9 Reaction
Time (years)
4
Less than recommended very fine limestone applied
annually but similar rate over time.
7
6
pH
5
4
0 3
6 9 Reaction
Time (years)
5
Soil Acidity and Liming
Effect of Pellet Lime on Soil pH
6
Soil Acidity and Liming
  • Calcium and Magesium
  • Normal liming practices will also supply required
    calcium and magnesium
  • At normal rates usually adequate Ca will be
    supplied for most crops
  • Magnesium will depend on the type of limestone
    used
  • If Mg is required use a Mg containing limestone
    (dolomitic)
  • Mg recommendations
  • pounds Mg/A
  • Mg in recommended limestone

7
Calcium and Magnesium
  • Management Recommendations
  • Maintain optimum pH
  • Maintain at least optimum levels of Mg (60 ppm)
    and K (100 ppm)
  • Dont worry about ratios until they are way out
    of balance
  • eg. MgCa gt1, KMggt1
  • Rare

8
By-product Liming Materials
  • Quality
  • Liming value
  • Undesirable components

9
Example Liming Value
Material sold in western PA for 2/ton CCE
5.38 For 1 ton of neutralizing value
2000 X 100 5.38 37,174 lbs. or 18.6 tons
(37.20)
Fineness
Through 20 Mesh 98.8 (90) Through 60 Mesh
78.2 (60) Through 100 Mesh 63.2 (50)
10
Gypsum
  • CaSO4
  • Excellent source of Ca and S
  • 33 Ca 27 S
  • No neutralizing value
  • Not a liming material

11
Limestone vs Gypsum
  • Limestone changes pH ? Gypsum doesnt
  • Both are good sources of Ca
  • Lime to recommended pH . . . no need for
    additional Ca for the soil or for agronomic crops
    in PA
  • High pH but low calcium soils (Sodic Soils) use
    gypsum as a source of Ca for the soil and the
    crop (Western US)
  • Improves physical properties ? Relieves chemical
    compaction
  • Low pH, acid loving crops or highly weathered
    soils, use gypsum as a source of Ca for the soil
    and the crop (Tropics)
  • Minimal lime to reduce Al toxicity

12
Byproduct Materials Undesirable components
  • Should be registered (PDA)
  • Must be approved for land application by DEP
  • May limit lifetime application
  • Problem with unregistered materials and materials
    from out of state
  • May be little or no checking of quality
  • Determine the source
  • Dust, screenings
  • Stainless steel slag
  • Ask what contaminants might be present
  • If in doubt . . . get it analyzed OR dont use it

13
Example Undesirable components - Metals in Aglime
14
Other Materials
  • Biosolids and Water Treatment Sludges
  • Often have significant neutralizing value
  • Must be clean
  • Must be registered if sold as liming materials

15
Other Materials Organic Calcium Compounds
  • Promesol 30, Liquid Lime
  • Trihydroxy glutaric acid 25 Ca
  • 1 gallon 500-750 lb CCE?
  • Liqui-Til
  • Trihydroxy glutaric acid
  • Neutralizes pH in alkaline soil?
  • KK Organic Soil Builder
  • Neutralizes both acidic and alkaline soils?
  • Liqui-Cal
  • 8 Ca
  • 1 gallon 500 lb CaCO3?
  • Liquid Calcium
  • 1 gallon Ca in 500 lb CaCO3?
  • Suggest it is a lime substitute
  • Golden Cal
  • Glucoheptomic acid
  • 1 gallon 500 lb CCE?
  • pH Plus
  • 1 gallon 500-750 lb CCE?

16
Other Materials
  • Remember 1 Eq. of base is required to neutralize
    1 Eq. of acid
  • Watch out for materials that contain Ca with
    unwritten or suggestive claims for liming value

17
Soil Acidity and Liming
  • Limestone Application
  • Apply limestone far enough ahead of time to be
    effective
  • Spread limestone uniformly
  • Spinner spreaders
  • Boom spreaders
  • Damp lime
  • Dust
  • Spit high rates of limestone (gt4 ton/A)
  • Time of year is not too critical
  • Consider soil quality issues compaction
  • Mix limestone as much as practical
  • Adjust for depth of mixing - 6 2/3 in. standard
    depth
  • No till Correct pH before going to no-till

18
Soil Acidity and Liming
Soil pH vs No-Till With 6000 lbs/A of Lime
Applied Every 3rd Year
Time (years)
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