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Microbial Detection Arrays

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Microbial Detection Arrays Jeff Childers Dave Miller Elizabeth Newton Ted Schumacher Shayla Stewart Steven To Charles Vaughan Sameera Wijesinghe Critical Design Review – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microbial Detection Arrays


1
Microbial Detection Arrays
MiDAs
Jeff Childers Dave Miller Elizabeth Newton Ted
Schumacher
Shayla Stewart Steven To Charles Vaughan Sameera
Wijesinghe
Critical Design Review December 5th,
2006 Aerospace Senior Projects University of
Colorado Boulder Advisors Dr. Forbes and Dr.
Maslanik Customers BioServe and Tufts University
2
Briefing Overview
  • Overview of Objectives and Requirements
  • System Architecture
  • Prototype Results
  • Mechanical Design Elements
  • Electrical Design Elements
  • Software Design Elements
  • Integration, Verification, and Test Plan
  • Project Management Plan
  • Appendices

3
Objectives
  • Component of larger project
  • Future Mars astrobiology mission from
    BioServe/Tufts University/JSC
  • Astrobiology objective electrochemical sensing
    of metabolic activity
  • Three components biology (JSC), sensors (Tufts),
    instrument hardware (CU)
  • MiDAs team objective instrument hardware
    component
  • Design/build integrated field instrument with
    meaningful biological and spaceflight constraints
  • Validate key functions to enable field research
  • Extends proof-of-concept from lab to field
  • Raise TRL from 1-3 to 4-5

4
TRL Objective
https//www.spacecomm.nasa.gov/spacecomm/programs/
technology/default.cfm
5
Deliverables
  • Field-ready unit (TRL 4-5)
  • Test data that verifies requirements
  • Operational manual for use
  • Document proposing design solutions to
    further raise the TRL (to 6-7)

6
Requirements Overview
  1. Samples placed in autoclaves
  2. Autoclaves heated to 121C and held for 15
    minutes
  3. Autoclaves cooled to 20C and held for 24 hours
  4. Process may be repeated up to 3 times
  5. Valves opened
  6. Water pumped into autoclaves
  7. Sample flushed into reaction chambers
  8. Inoculation sample added to test chamber
  9. Environmental chamber maintained between 4C and
    37C
  10. Mixers stir sample and water
  11. Sample is tested for 14 days

Water tubing not shown
7
Requirement Refinement
  • Complete autonomy no longer primary goal
  • Increased reliance on experimenter to open valves
    and deliver inoculation sample
  • Instrument will not provide its own power
  • Reason
  • Change at request of customer trades autonomy
    for reliability in field instrument
  • Autonomy adds expense, complexity, and failure
    modes without proving key concepts or raising TRL
  • Autonomy options will be included in design
    document
  • Key components maintained in field instrument

8
Mars/Earth Comparison
Theoretical Mars Mission MiDAs Earth Based Apparatus
Receive low power from Rover Receive low power from external source
Receive startup command from uplink Press power button
Rover opens Autoclave lid Person opens Autoclave lid
Rover inputs sample Person inputs sample
Rover closes Autoclave lid Person closes Autoclave lid
Autoclave cycle begins Autoclave cycle begins through SW run command
Rxn chamber environment controls begin Rxn chamber environment controls begin
Valve opens Person opens valve
Water flushes sample out of autoclave Water flushes sample out of autoclave
Valve closes Person closes valve
Mixing begins Mixing begins through SW run command
DAq begins DAq begins through SW run command
Inoculation sample added Person adds inoculation sample
DAq runs for 14 days DAq runs for 14 days
Data downlink from rover to satellite to Earth Data stored on-board, transfer to PC
9
System Architecture (External)
Dimensions 18 x 18 x 15 (46 cm x 46 cm x 39
cm)
10
System Architecture (Internal)
15 (39 cm)
10 (25 cm)
16 (40 cm)
11
Mass Analysis
2 Pumps 127g
Insulation 9.83g
Water Chamber 132g
2 Autoclaves 1890g
2 Valves 1450g
Tubing 396g
4 TECs 720g
Environmental Chamber 656g
2 Reaction Chambers 173g
Chassis 1150g
2 Mixers 95.8g
CPU and DAq (not shown) 292g
Sensors (not shown) 10.0g
Internal Mass 7.10kg (15 lbs) Total Mass 13.90
kg (30 lbs)
12
Experiment Timeline
Finish
Start
0
30 s
Soil
Soil
___A B___ Heater A Heater B Cooler
A Cooler B Cycle A Cycle B
Autoclave
t
0
Insert sample manually
A
B
Soil
Soil
13
Electrical Overview
KEY
14
Autoclave Prototype
  • Concerns
  • Low power heating
  • Seals
  • 304 Stainless Steel
  • Height 2.25 in.
  • Inner Diameter 1.5 in
  • LabView
  • External temperature sensor
  • Internal pressure sensor

15
Prototype Thermal Analysis
  • Steady state 2W energy loss
  • Heater on flat area
  • Large thermal gradient

16
Autoclave Prototype Results
  • Results
  • 121 C for small 12W strip heater, higher pressure
    than expected
  • Very uneven heating
  • Seals held
  • Conclusions
  • 3 smaller strip heaters evenly spaced
  • TEC used only for cooling
  • O-ring seals were effective
  • Melamine insulation was effective

17
Mixing Prototype
  • Ultrasonic
  • Frequency function of tip length
  • 18 kHz not feasible
  • Magnetic
  • May disrupt electrochemical sensors
  • Pending tests by Tufts
  • Mechanical
  • No off-the-shelf impeller options
  • Custom impeller designed

18
Mixing Prototype Results
  • Results
  • Too much slip with impeller to use motor
  • Had to rotate impeller manually
  • Sample developed air bubbles
  • Flour-like consistency ? very slow settling time
  • Sediment remains on bottom of chamber
  • Conclusions
  • Fluid movement around sides easily maintained
  • Need cross-bar near the bottom
  • Can maintain colloidal solution for several
    minutes without continuous mixing with 10-micron
    grains

19
Sample Transport Prototype Results
  • Results
  • ¾ tubing did not transport sample
  • 30 soil transported when dry
  • 95 soil transported when wet
  • Autoclaving did not affect soil consistency
  • Conclusions
  • 1 tubing
  • Water added to move sample

20
Autoclave Drawings
  • 316 stainless steel
  • Height 2 in. with flat sides 1.6 in. x 1.6
    in.
  • Wall thickness 0.125 in.
  • Inner Diameter 1.5 in. tapered

Bottom View
Valve Interface
21
Reaction Chamber Drawing
  • Ultem 1000
  • Height 5.2 in. (13.19 cm)
  • Diameter 1.6 in. (3.95 cm)
  • Wall thickness 0.197 in. (0.5 cm)
  • Soil transport pathway 1.0 in. (2.5 cm)
  • Cap to support mixing shaft
  • 20 sensor ports
  • 12 electrochemical sensors
  • 7 multi use ports
  • 1 temperature sensor

Cap
Sensor ports
Impeller
Motor
Reaction Chamber with Mixer and Cap
22
Autoclave Stress Analysis
  • Autoclave technique
  • 121 C with steam to aid heat flow
  • 15 psi above atmosphere for saturated steam at
    121 C
  • Thin wall pressure formulas
  • Minimum thickness 0.011 in. while actual used
    0.125 in.
  • Critical pressure for 0.125 in. is 20 kpsi
  • Seals
  • Regular threads alone will not seal
  • O-ring compression seals made of silicone for
    high temperature and pressure
  • Conclusions
  • O-ring seals are effective
  • Temperature of chamber is regulated and heater
    has limited heating power
  • Pressure relief valve added to 10-32 port on lid

23
Electrical System
  • Power supply is 12V
  • Power conditioning is added to give cleaner power
  • 5V power will be used to run sensors because of
    voltage stability

AC-DC converter
Voltage regulator
Power supply
24
Sensors and Control
  • Sensors will run constantly
  • Switchboard controls power to
  • TECs, mixers and LEDs
  • The DAQ card can proportionally control
  • Pumps, TECs and mixers

25
Software Timeline
  • Autoclave control
  • User turns on program
  • Autoclave A begins heating
  • At 121C Autoclave A holds for 15 min
  • Autoclave A begins cooling and Autoclave B begins
    heating
  • Autoclave A finishes cooling
  • Autoclave B finishes cooling
  • Program notifies user autoclave has completed
  • Reaction control
  • User turns valves open and beings program
  • Turn on pumps for 25 sec (at 1mL/sec flow rate)
  • Turn on Reaction Chamber control

26
Assembly Flow Diagram
27
Functional Test Plan
TEC
Heat from -10C to 121C Hold for 15 min Cool to
20C Repeat 3 times
Thermal Control
Strip Heater
Autoclave
Butterfly Valve
Transport 90 of sample when reagent water pumped
through
Sample Transport
Sample Consistency
TEC
Maintain temperature between 4C and 37C
Thermal Control
Reaction Chamber
Motor
Maintain fluid movement around sides
Maintain minimal sedimentation on sides and
bottom of chamber
Mixing
Impeller
Collection Storage
Interface
Collect store data from each sensor Receive
commands from SW Provide caution, warning, status
signals
DAQ Control
Software
Command
28
Verification and Test Plan
Temperature
4C 37C
Thermistor in environmental chamber
Reaction Chambers
Pressure
1 psi differential
Pressure sensor in environmental chamber
Mixing
Small sedimentation, fluid flow _at_ sensors
Visual/Video verification
Temperature
121C
Thermistor inside autoclave chamber through cap
Autoclaves
Pressure
15 psi
Pressure sensor inside autoclave chamber through
cap
Petri dish testing with bacteria and medium
(BioServe)
Sample sterility
No microbial life in sample
Containment
Solid liquid form
Thermistor inside autoclave chamber through cap
Reagent H2O Chamber
50mL (5 accuracy)
Time-based flow rate in peristaltic pump
(controlled flow)
Delivery
lt 60C
Thermistor inside water chamber
Sample Transport
Sterilized sample
Aseptic delivery
Sterile swabbing of wet surfaces, culture test
Inoculation
Collection Storage
Collected stored for entire experiment
DAQ storage capability analysis
Data Acquisition Control
Caution, Warning, Status
Provide status, caution warning signals
Testing LabView command software with set max
temperature and shut-off abilities
Nominal Consumption
30W
Power
Power model for all parts, measurement through
multimeter in circuit
Peak Consumption
30W for 30 sec
29
Risk Assessment
Sample transport
Autoclave Mixing Water transport DAQ
Reaction Chamber Thermal Control Budget Machining Time
30
Work Breakdown Structure
31
Schedule
32
Overall Budget
  ITEM PART NUMBER QUANTITY PRICE ()
THERMAL CONTROL        
  Insulation (Melamine) 86145K27 1 (24"x48"x2") 49.48
  Strip Heater HK5544R33.1L12B 7 236.95
  Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC) CP-0.8-127-06L 4 106.40
  Heat Sink HX6-201-L-M 4 46.20
SENSORS        
  Temperature SA1-RTD 6 300.00
  Pressure PX139 4 340.00
  ISE Package (18/pkg.)  - 2  00.00 
MECHANICAL        
  Ultem 1000 8686K81 1 (24X2 rod) 155.00
  316 Stainless steel 89325K673 2 (12X2.5 rod) 300.00
  Aluminum 89015K53 2 (48X48X0.0625) 230.00
  Bearing 6384K44 1 7.41
  Rotary-Shaft 1/4" Ring Seal 9562K41 1 3.15
  Pumps P625/275.133 2 690.00
  Motors 1224 2 600.00
  Butterfly Valve 4820K31 2 173.27
COMPUTER/DAQ        
  DAQ DMM-37X-AX 2 480.00
  Embeded CPU MOPSlcdLX 1 450.00
  Mixer Controller PA75CC 2 25.00
  Thermoelectric Controller WTC3243 4 348.00
      TOTAL 4540.86
33
Resources and Facilities
  • BioServe Laboratories
  • Matching funds
  • Spare/small parts
  • Machine shop
  • Temperature-controlled testing environment
  • Wet/Biological lab
  • Clean room
  • Aerospace Department
  • Machine Shop
  • Electronics Shop

34
Conclusions
  • Project feasible
  • Team has necessary expertise, time and resources
  • Risk mitigated through prototyping
  • Can increase overall TRL

35
References
  • Cengel, Yunus. Introduction to Thermodynamics and
    Heat Transfer.
  • McGraw-Hill. University of Nevada, Reno. 1997
  • Gilmore, David. Spacecraft Thermal Control
    Handbook. Aerospace press. El Segundo,
    California. 2002
  • Mankins, John C. Technology Readiness Levels.
    April 6, 1995. http//ipao.larc.nasa.gov/Toolkit/
    TRL.pdf.
  • www.dimondsystems.com
  • www.kontron.com
  • www.matweb.com
  • www.mcmaster.com
  • www.melcor.com
  • www.minco.com
  • www.omega.com
  • www.sonaer.com

36
Presentation Appendix
  1. Title Page
  2. Briefing Overview
  3. Objectives
  4. TRL Objective
  5. Deliverables
  6. Requirements Overview
  7. Requirement Refinement
  8. Mars/Earth Comparison
  9. System Architecture (External)
  10. System Architecture (Internal)
  11. Mass Analysis
  12. Experiment Timeline
  13. Electrical Overview
  14. Autoclave Prototype
  15. Prototype Thermal Analysis
  16. Autoclave Prototype Results
  17. Mixing Prototype
  18. Mixing Prototype Results

19. Sample Transport Prototype Results 20.
Autoclave Drawings 21. Reaction Chamber
Drawings 22. Autoclave Stress Analysis 23.
Electrical System 24. Sensors and Control 25.
Software Timeline 26. Assembly Flow Diagram 27.
Functional Test Plan 28. Verification and Test
Plan 29. Risk Assessment 30. Work Breakdown
Structure 31. Schedule 32. Overall Budget 33.
Resources and Facilities 34. Conclusions 35.
References
37
Drawing Tree
38
Drawing Tree (continued)
39
Mechanical Drawing Tree
40
Autoclave Body
41
Autoclave Cap
42
Autoclave Bottom
43
Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC)
44
Heat Sink
45
Reaction Chamber
46
Reaction Chamber Cap
47
DC Motor
48
Impeller
49
Reaction Chamber Environment
50
Reaction Chamber EnvironmentSide Door
51
Peristaltic Pump
52
Pump Mount
53
PharMed Tubing
54
DAq
55
Embedded CPU
56
Chassis
57
Chassis Top
58
Chassis Front Interface
59
Electrical Schematic Tree
60
Electrical Schematic
61
Power System
62
Sensor Schematics
63
Sensor Wire Harness
64
Control Schematics
65
Control Schematics continued
66
Control Wire Harness
67
Switch board
68
DAq Block Diagram
www.Dimondsystems.com
69
Embedded CPU
www.kontron.com
70
Software tree
AIn Analog Input Acquires pressure and
temperature data DBit Out Digital Bit Out
toggles output high or low to control the switch
board Err Msg Error message displays error
message if output is not configured right To Eng
Converts binary inputs from levels to voltage
level ToEngArray Converts array of binary inputs
to voltage level
Autoclave temperature/pressure.vi
Elapse Timer Counts amount of time elapsed
after specific case
Time Delay Waits specified time before taking
next sensor data
Write File Writes data to measurement file
71
Software Prototype
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