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The Renaissance

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Title: The Renaissance


1
The Renaissance
2
Objectives
  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of
    developments leading to the Renaissance in Europe
    in terms of its impact on Western Civilization
    by
  • Identifying the economic foundations of the
    Italian Renaissance
  • Sequencing events related to the rise of Italian
    city-states and their political development,
    including Machiavellis theory of governing as
    described in The Prince
  • Citing artistic, literary, and philosophical
    creativity, as contrasted with the medieval
    period, including Leonardo da Vinci,
    Michelangelo, and Petrarch
  • Comparing the Italian and the Northern
    Renaissance, and citing the contributions of
    writers

3
The Renaissance
  • Late Middle Ages, Europe suffered from both war
    and plague
  • Those who survived wanted to celebrate human life
    and the human spirit
  • People began to question institutions like the
    church
  • In Northern Italy, writers began to express this
    new spirit and experiment with different styles

4
rebirth
  • Renaissance means rebirth
  • Between 1350- 1550 Italians witnessed a rebirth
    of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds
  • Rival of art and learning
  • Italy of three advantages
  • Thriving cities
  • Wealthy merchant class
  • Classical heritage of Greece and Rome
  • Three Characteristics of the Renaissance
  • Urban society
  • Recovery from disasters
  • Emphasizing individual ability

5
Urban Society
  • Powerful city-states emerged from the Middle Ages
  • City-states center of Italian political,
    economic, and social life
  • Italy urban compared to rural Europe
  • Had a growing secular, or worldly, viewpoint
  • Increasing wealth, enjoyment of material things
  • Cities conducive to spreading of ideas

6
City-States
  • No centralized monarchy developed during the
    Middle Ages
  • lack of single strong ruler
  • Three city-states remained independent
  • Milan, Venice, and Florence
  • Prospered from
  • Flourishing trade during the Middle Ages
  • Profited from the Crusades
  • Able to extend trading into Eastern ports
  • Developed Mercantile fleet
  • Merchants did not inherit wealth, earned it (and
    status) with with, believed they deserved wealth
    and power because of their individual merit

7
Milan
  • Northern Italy
  • Crossroads of main trade routes from Italian
    cities to Alps Mountains
  • One of the richest Italian cities
  • Rulers
  • Visconti family dominated the region starting in
    the 14th century
  • Became Dukes of Milan and the Lombardy region
  • Last Visconti ruler died in 1447
  • Francesco Sforza conquered the city and became
    its new duke
  • Was a leader of mercenaries
  • Built strong centralized state
  • Created an efficient tax system- generated
    enormous revenues for the government

8
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9
Venice
  • Link between Asia and Western Europe
  • Republic with a Doge as leader
  • Really ran by small group of merchant-aristocrats
  • Traders that became wealthy through crusades
  • Ran government affairs for their own
    self-interests
  • Tremendous trading power and international
    economic power

10
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11
Florence
  • Region of Tuscany
  • 14th century controlled by small group of wealthy
    merchants that controlled government
  • Led successful wars that established Florence as
    a major city
  • The Medici Family
  • Cosimo deMedici
  • 1434, took control of city
  • Controlled government, did not seek office
    himself, Dictator of Florence
  • Had banks throughout Italy
  • Wealthiest man in Europe
  • Lorenzo deMedici The Magnificent
  • Grandson of Cosimo
  • Dominated the city, patron of the Arts
  • Economic Decline
  • Late 1400s
  • Increased cloth competition drove down profits

12
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14
Renaissance Society
  • Middle Ages three estates or social classes
  • Nobility, peasants, and townspeople
  • Renaissance
  • Nobility
  • Only 2- 3 of population
  • Held important political posts
  • Expected to fulfill certain ideals
  • Peasants
  • Mass of population, 85-90
  • Serfdom declined with end of Middle Ages and end
    of Manorial system
  • Labor converted to rent paid in money
  • Townspeople
  • Merchants and artisans

15
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16
Society in towns or cities
  • Patricians
  • Top of society
  • Wealth from trade, industry, and banking
  • Dominated communities economically, politically,
    and socially
  • Burghers
  • Shopkeepers, artisans, guild masters, guild
    members
  • Produce goods and services
  • Workers and Unemployed
  • Pitiful wages
  • 30-40 of population
  • Urban poverty increased in late 14th and early
    15th century

17
Family and Marriage
  • Family bond important during Renaissance
  • Marriage
  • Arranged by parents
  • Often to strengthen business ties
  • Most important part of contract was dowry
  • Money paid to husband by wifes family upon
    marriage
  • Center of family
  • Father-husband was center of family
  • Gave it his name
  • Managed finances
  • Made decisions
  • Fathers Authority
  • Absolute
  • Children did not reach adulthood until they
    went before a judge and they were formally freed
  • Varied between early teens and late twenties

18
Humanism
  • Study of Classical Texts
  • Leads to Humanism
  • Intellectual movements focused on human potential
    and achievements
  • Studied Ancient Greek values, tried to reconcile
    them with Christian teachings
  • Influenced art and architects to carry on
    classical traditions
  • Popularized study of subjects common to classical
    education
  • Emphasizing individual ability
  • High regard for human worth
  • Well-rounded universal person
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Painter
  • Sculptor
  • Architect
  • Inventor
  • mathematician

19
Renaissance Man
  • Educated men should master almost every area of
    study
  • Called universal man, today called renaissance
    man
  • Baldassare Castiglione (1528)
  • The Book of the Courtier by Baldassare
    Castiglione
  • Described characteristics have character,
    talent, skills of warrior and an education,
    follow certain standard of conduct, aim was to
    serve prince in effective and honest way
  • Should be charming, witty, and educated in the
    classics
  • Should sing, dance, play music, and write poetry

20
The Renaissance Man defined
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Painter
  • sculptor
  • inventor
  • scientist
  • Best known for painting the Mona Lisa and the
    Last Supper

21
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22
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23
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24
Writers changing Literature
  • Petrarch
  • One of the earliest and most influential
    humanists
  • Father Renaissance Humanism
  • Great poet, wrote in both Latin and Italian
  • Looked at forgotten Latin manuscripts, spread
    Cicero, Homer, and Virgil
  • Typically wrote sonnets (14-lined poems)
  • Used pure classical Latin
  • Boccaccio
  • Wrote Decameron
  • Uses cutting humor to illustrate the human
    condition
  • Presents his characters in all their
    individuality and all their folly

25
Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Wrote The Prince (1513)
  • Central thesis
  • How to acquire and keep political power
  • Ethics
  • Middle Ages stressed ethics of leaders
  • Machiavelli said that princes must understand
    human nature, which was self-centered
  • Political policy should not be based on moral
    principles
  • Must be strong and shrewd, be able to trick his
    enemies and even own people for the good of the
    state
  • World
  • Examines the imperfect conduct of humans
  • Idea that people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt
  • In real world, Prince must sometime mislead
    people and lie to opponents

26
Machiavelli
Machiavelli saw himself as an enemy of oppression
and corruption Critics attacked his cynical
advice and even claimed he was inspired by the
devil Machiavellian came to be a term used to
refer to deceit in politics
27
Education in the Renaissance
  • Humanists believed that education could
    dramatically change human beings
  • At core were liberal studies
  • History, moral philosophy, rhetoric, letters,
    poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music, physical
    education
  • Preparation for life
  • Aim was to create not just great scholars, but
    complete citizens
  • Model for basic education in Europe until the
    20th century
  • Females
  • Some did attend school
  • Taught same subjects, as well as how to ride,
    dance, sing, play the lute, and appreciate poetry
  • Did not learn mathematics or rhetoric
  • Religion and morals were most important for
    education Christian ladies to become good wives
    and mothers

28
Artistic Renaissance in Italy
  • Artists sought to imitate nature
  • Wanted people to see the reality of the objects
    or events they were portraying
  • Developed a new world perspective
  • Human beings became the focus of attention
  • New Techniques
  • Frescoes
  • 1st masterpieces of Renaissance were frescoes
    painted by Masaccio in Florence in 15th century
  • Fresco is a painting done on fresh, wet plaster
    with water-based paints
  • Looks like the paintings come alive, created a
    new realistic style of painting

29
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30
Renaissance Art
  • New Renaissance style was modified by others
  • Two major developments
  • Stressed technical side of painting
  • Understanding the laws of perspective
  • Organization of outdoor space and light through
    geometry
  • Investigation of movement and human anatomy
  • Realistic portrayal of the individual person,
    especially the human nude

31
Artistic Renaissance in Italy
  • Perspective
  • Making distant objects smaller than those close
    to the viewer
  • Scenes appeared three-dimensional
  • Used shading to look more realistic
  • Women Artists
  • Work was secret
  • Very few women were recognized
  • Architecture
  • Rejected Gothic style
  • Adopted style of Ancient Greeks and Romans
  • Domes were used often

32
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34
Artistic Renaissance in Italy
  • Sculpture
  • Donatello
  • Spent time in Rome studying sculpture and
    architecture
  • Copied statues of Greek and Romans
  • Famous works include statue of St. George
  • Made sculpture more realistic by carving natural
    postures and expressions that reveal personality
  • Architecture
  • Filippo Brunelleschi
  • Inspired by classical Rome
  • Medicis hired him to design the San Lorenzo
    Church in Florence
  • Church unlike Medieval and Gothic offers warmth
    and comfort of spiritual needs
  • Sought to reflect human-centered world

35
Donatellos Sculptures
36
Brunelleschi
37
Masters of the Renaissance
  • High Renaissance from 1490 1520
  • Last stage of Renaissance painting
  • Masters
  • Leonardo
  • Wanted to capture the perfection of nature and
    the individual
  • Raphael
  • Famous for Madonna paintings
  • Tried to achieve an ideal of beauty far
    surpassing human standards
  • Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace
  • Michelangelo
  • Accomplished painter, sculptor, and architect
  • Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
  • Depicts Biblical history from Creation to the
    Flood
  • Took four years to complete
  • Humans with perfect proportions, beauty godlike
  • Glorified human body
  • Scupltures Pieta and David

38
Raphael
39
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40
Renaissance in the North
  • Spread from Italy to the Low countries
  • Belgium, Luxembourg, and Netherlands
  • Invasion of French King into Italy drove artists
    and writers north in 1494 C.E.
  • Did not decorate ceilings and walls of churches,
    made illustrations
  • Flanders was important school of art
  • Jan van Eyck
  • One of the 1st to use oil painting
  • Imitated nature by observing and portraying
    reality
  • Albrecht Durer
  • German painter
  • Visited Italy, copied Italian laws of perspective

41
Jan van Eyck
42
Albrecht Durer
43
Other Notable Contemporaries
  • Erasmus
  • Christian Humanist
  • Wrote The Praise of Folly
  • Thought to improve society, everyone should read
    the Bible
  • Sir Thomas Moore
  • Christian Humanist
  • Wrote Utopia which means no place
  • About imaginary land inhabited by peace-loving
    people
  • William Shakespeare
  • English Playwright
  • Themes included dramatic conflict, human flaws,
    and human nature
  • Famous works include Macbeth, Hamlet, Romeo and
    Juliet, and A Midsummer Nights Dream

44
The Printing Revolution
  • Johann Gutenberg reinvented movable type around
    1440 C.E.
  • Then invented the printing press
  • Machine that pressed paper against a tray full of
    moveable type
  • Printed completed Bible in 1455 C.E.

45
Effects of Printing Revolution
  • Enabled a printer to produce hundred of copies of
    a single work
  • Books became cheap, more people could afford
  • More books meant more people could learn how to
    read
  • People began to interpret the Bible for
    themselves, became more critical of priests and
    demanded reforms

46
Objectives
  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of
    developments leading to the Renaissance in Europe
    in terms of its impact on Western Civilization
    by
  • Identifying the economic foundations of the
    Italian Renaissance
  • Sequencing events related to the rise of Italian
    city-states and their political development,
    including Machiavellis theory of governing as
    described in The Prince
  • Citing artistic, literary, and philosophical
    creativity, as contrasted with the medieval
    period, including Leonardo da Vinci,
    Michelangelo, and Petrarch
  • Comparing the Italian and the Northern
    Renaissance, and citing the contributions of
    writers
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