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STAFFING

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STAFFING Sources of Recruitment Sources of Conflict Competition for scarce resources Time pressure Unreasonable standards, policies, rules or procedures Communication ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: STAFFING


1
STAFFING
2
Human Resource Management
The integration of all processes, programs, and
systems in an organization that ensure staff are
acquired and used in an effective way
3
Human Resource Management (Contd.)
  • HR is multidisciplinary It applies the
    disciplines of
  • Economics (wages, markets, resources),
  • Psychology (motivation, satisfaction),
  • Sociology (organization structure, culture) and
  • Law (min. wage, labor contracts)
  • What HR Professionals Do?
  • HR planning
  • Recruitment Selection
  • Training and development
  • Compensation Performance review
  • Labor relations

4
Human Resource Planning
Assessing Future Human Resource Needs
Assessing Current Human Resources
Developing a Program to Meet Needs
5
Human Resource Planning
The process of systematically reviewing HR
requirements to ensure that the required number
of employees, with the required skills, are
available when they are needed
6
HR Planning
  • We have found the gap, how do we fill this void?
  • Internal Labour Supply
  • Skill Inventory
  • Succession Planning
  • Replacement Planning
  • Inventory Chart
  • Present Future staffing situations
  • Helps in retention expulsion strategy
  • External Labour Supply

7
Job Analysis (Functional Job Analysis, Position
analysis questionnaire) A Basic Human Resource
Management Tool
  • Human Resource Planning
  • Recruitment
  • Selection
  • Training and Development
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Compensation and Benefits
  • Safety and Health
  • Employee and Labor Relations
  • Legal Considerations
  • Job Analysis for Teams

Tasks
Responsibilities
Duties
Job Descriptions
Job Analysis
Job Specifications
Knowledge
Skills
Abilities
8
Definitions
  • Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be
    performed for an organization to achieve its
    goals
  • Position - Collection of tasks and
    responsibilities performed by one person there
    is a position for every individual in an
    organization
  • Job analysis - Systematic process of determining
    the skills, duties, and knowledge required for
    performing jobs in an organization (functional
    job analysis , position analysis questionnaire)
  • Job description document providing information
    regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of
    job
  • Job specification minimum qualifications to
    perform a particular job

9
Recruitment
  • Process of locating, identifying, and attracting
    capable candidates
  • Can be for current or future needs
  • Critical activity for some corporations.
  • What sources do we use for recruitment

10
Sources of Recruitment
11
School Placement
Employee Referrals
Internal Searches
Recruitment Sources
Voluntary Applicants
Employment Agencies
Advertisements
12
SELECTION
  • A series of steps from initial applicant
    screening to final hiring of the new employee.
  • Selection process.
  • Step 1 Completing application materials.
  • Step 2 Conducting an interview.
  • Step 3 Completing any necessary tests.
  • Step 4 Doing a background investigation.
  • Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.

13
Selection process
  • Step 1 Completing application materials.
  • Gathering information regarding an applicants
    background and experiences.
  • Typical application materials.
  • Traditional application forms.
  • Résumés.
  • Sometimes tests may be included with application
    materials.
  • Step 2 Conducting an interview.
  • Typically used though they are subject to
    perceptual distortions.
  • Interviews can provide rough ideas concerning the
    persons fit with the job and the organization.

14
Selection process
  • Step 3 Completing any necessary tests.
  • Administered before or after the interview.
  • Common examples of employment tests.
  • Cognitive, clerical, or mechanical aptitudes or
    abilities.
  • Personality.
  • Step 4 Doing a background investigation.
  • Can be used early or late in selection process.
  • Background investigations include
  • Basic level checks.
  • Reference checks.

15
Selection process
  • Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.
  • Draws on information produced in preceding
    selection steps.
  • A job offer is made.
  • A physical examination may be required if it is
    relevant to job performance.
  • Negotiation of salary and/or benefits for some
    jobs.
  • Step 6 Socialization.
  • The final step in the staffing process.
  • Involves orienting new employees to
  • The firm.
  • The work units in which they will be working.
  • The firms policies and procedures.
  • The firms organizational culture.

16
Performance Appraisal
17
Performance Appraisal
The identification, measurement, and management
of human performance in organizations.
18
Why Conduct Performance Appraisals?
  • Make decisions about that person's future with
    the organization
  • Identify training requirements
  • Employee improvement
  • Pay, promotion, and other personnel decisions
  • Research
  • Validation of selection techniques and criteria

19
A Model of Performance Appraisal
Skills/Activities/Output
Performance Appraisal System
Reward/Training/Punishment
20
Techniques for Evaluating Managers
  • Evaluation by superiors
  • Evaluation by colleagues
  • Peer ratings tend to be more favorable for career
    development than for promotion decisions
  • Self-evaluation
  • Self-ratings suffer from leniency
  • Subordinate evaluation
  • Effective in developing leadership
  • Leads to improved performance
  • 360 degree feedback (multi-source)

21
360 Feedback
The combination of peer, subordinate, and
self-review
22
Key Steps in Implementing 360 Appraisal
  • Top management communicates the goals
  • Employees and managers are involved in the
    development of the appraisal criteria and
    process.
  • Employees are trained in giving receiving
    feedback.
  • Employees are informed of the nature of the 360
    appraisal instrument and process.
  • The 360 system undergoes pilot testing
  • Management continuously reinforces the goals of
    the 360 appraisal and is ready to change the
    process when necessary.

23
Measurement Tools
24
Relative and Absolute Judgment
Relative Judgment
An appraisal format that asks supervisors to
compare an employee's performance to the
performance of other employees doing the same job.
Absolute Judgment
An appraisal format that asks supervisors to make
judgments about an employees performance based
solely on performance standards.
25
Rating Methods
  • Performance rating scales
  • Supervisors indicate how or to what degree a
    worker possesses a relevant job characteristic
  • Ranking technique
  • Supervisors list the workers in order from
    highest to lowest
  • Paired-comparison technique
  • Compares the performance of each worker with that
    of every other person in the group
  • Forced choice technique
  • Raters are presented with groups of descriptive
    statements and are asked to select the phrase in
    each group that is most descriptive of the worker
    being evaluated

26
Rating Methods
  • Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
  • Appraisers rate critical employee behavior
  • Critical-incident behaviors are established
  • These behaviors are used as standards for
    appraising effectiveness
  • The BARS items can be scored objectively by
    indicating whether the employee displays that
    behavior
  • Behavioral observation scales (BOS)
  • Appraisers rate the frequency of critical
    employee behaviors
  • The ratings are assigned on a five point scale
  • The evaluation yields a total score
  • Management by objectives (MBO)

27
Appraising Managers as Managers
28
Organizational Change
29
Concept of Organizational Change
Defined as adoption of a new idea or behavior by
an organization. Organizations need to
continuously adapt to new situations if they are
to survive and prosper
30
Planned and Unplanned Organizational Changes
  • Planned Changes
  • Changes in products and services
  • Changes in administrative systems
  • Changes in organizational size or structure
  • Introduction of new technologies
  • Advances in information processing and
    communication
  • Unplanned Changes
  • Changing employee demographics
  • Performance gaps
  • Governmental regulations
  • Economic competition in the global arena

31
Workforce
World Politics
Technology
Forces For Change
Social Trends
Economic Shocks
Competition
32
Resistance to Change - Forms
  • Overt and immediate
  • Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions
  • Implicit and deferred
  • Loss of employee loyalty and motivation,
    increased errors or mistakes, increased
    absenteeism

33
Resistance to Change
34
Resistance to Change
35
Overcoming Resistance to Change
Education and Communication
Participation
Negotiation
Facilitation and Support
Coercion
Manipulation and Cooptation
36
Organizational Change
Changing
Refreezing
Unfreezing
37
Unfreezing the Status Quo
Desired State
Restraining Forces
Status Quo
Time
38
Definition of OD
OD is a planned process of change in an
organizations culture through the utilization of
behavioral science technology, research, and
theory.
39
Organization Development is...
a systemwide application and transfer of
behavioral science knowledge to the planned
development, improvement, and reinforcement of
the strategies, structures, and processes that
lead to organization effectiveness.
40
Organizational Development - The Premises
  • Respect for people
  • Trust and support
  • Power equalization
  • Confrontation
  • Participation

41
OD Process
Evaluation
Diagnosis
Intervention
.
42
OD Interventions
  • Intergroup development
  • Process consultation
  • Sensitivity training
  • Third Party Intervention
  • Survey feedback
  • Team building
  • Culture Change

43
Manager Development
  • On the Job Training
  • Planned Progression
  • Job Rotation
  • Creation of assistant-to
  • Temporary promotion
  • Committees
  • Off the Job
  • Training
  • Conference
  • MDPs
  • Business Simulations

44
Organizational Conflicts
45
Sources of Conflict
  • Competition for scarce resources
  • Time pressure
  • Unreasonable standards, policies, rules or
    procedures
  • Communication breakdowns
  • Personality clashes
  • Ambiguous or overlapping jurisdictions
  • Unrealized expectations

46
Managing Conflicts
  • Avoidance
  • Problem solving
  • Compromise
  • Forcing
  • Smoothing
  • Structural change

47
LEADING
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