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Early World History: The Expansion of Civilization

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Early World History: The Expansion of Civilization Basic Beliefs of Confucianism Emphasizes li the rituals of everyday life Goal is to promote harmony on Earth ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early World History: The Expansion of Civilization


1
Early World HistoryThe Expansion of Civilization
2
Major Themes
  • Migration of people and ideas
  • Political consolidation complexity
  • Organized religion develops
  • Technological/Intellectual development

3
What causes people to migrate?
4
Indo-European Migrations
5
Hittite Empire (c.1750-1160 BCE)
6
Aryan Migration into India
7
Diffusion of Indo-European Languages
8
Indo-European Language Tree
9
Phoenician Colonization(1500-300 BCE)
10
Phoenician Alphabet
11
Bantu Migrations(1500 BCE-500 CE)
  • Began with the drying of the Sahara
  • Introduced agriculture, iron, and cattle herding
  • Become dominant ethnic and language group of
    Sub-Saharan Africa

12
African Language Distribution
Bantu words borrowed by Western
culture Banjo Bongos Gumbo Jumbo Safari Conga Rumb
a Zombie Kwanzaa
13
Polynesian Migration(3000 BCE -500 CE)
14
The Expansion of Civilization
15
Zhou Dynasty in 500 BCE
16
Warring States Period
  • Zhou feudalism began to breakdown around 500 BCE
  • Regional warlords began to fight each other for
    control and territory
  • Widespread use of iron
  • Horrible atrocities against the Chinese people
  • Hundred Schools of Thought

17
Persian Empire in 525 BCE
18
Cyrus the Great
  • Created the Persian Empire (550-539 BCE)
  • Used kindness and tolerance to rule conquered
    peoples
  • Allowed Jews to return to their homeland

19
Darius the Great
  • Ruled 522-486 BCE
  • Administrative Genius
  • Provinces Satraps
  • Built the Royal Road
  • Used metal coins
  • 1st government to use standard currency
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Idea of Heaven Hell

20
The World 500 B.C.
21
What is the purpose of religion?Consider
spiritual and practical purposes.
22
Hinduism
  • Began in India c.1500 BCE
  • One God in many different forms
  • Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
  • Krishna
  • Sacred Texts
  • Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads

Shiva, the Destroyer
23
Basic Beliefs of Hinduism
  • Atman
  • Major Ideas
  • Dharma (duty)
  • Karma (action)
  • Samsara (cycle of life)
  • Moksha (liberation)
  • Yogas
  • Paths or practices
  • Several different types

Kali, goddess of death and destruction
24
Social Impact of Hinduism
25
Modern Untouchables
Modern India has 160 million untouchables or
approximately 15 of Indias population.
26
Buddhism
  • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE)
  • Born into kshatriya caste
  • Reform movement of Hinduism
  • No specific deity?
  • Rejects the atman
  • Believes in spiritual equality
  • No caste system

27
Basic Beliefs of Buddhism
  • Four Noble Truths
  • Life is suffering
  • Desire causes suffering
  • End suffering by ending desire
  • To end desire follow the Eightfold Path
  • Right view, right intention, right speech, right
    action, right livelihood, right effort, right
    mindfulness, right concentration

Buddhist Wheel of Life the eight spokes
represent the Eightfold Path
28
Spread of Buddhism
29
Judaism
  • Monotheistic
  • Yahweh (Yhwh)
  • Abraham considered father of the Jews
  • Hebrews are the chosen people of God Canaan is
    the chosen land
  • Messiah will create Gods kingdom on Earth

Abraham and Issac by Rembrandt
30
Basic Beliefs of Judaism
  • Death is not the end of human existence
  • Focus on life instead of afterlife
  • Believe dead will be physically resurrected
  • One is saved through commitment to being moral to
    God.
  • 614 Rabbinical laws

Moses by Rembrandt
31
Social Impact of Judaism
  • Short lived kingdom in the Middle East
  • Heavy emphasis on tradition culture
  • Language, diet, holidays, etc.
  • Matrilineal
  • Jewish Diaspora

Israel as a united monarchy lasted from 1050-930
BCE. Eventually it was divided into two
kingdoms. The northern kingdom of Israel would
last until 720 BCE. The southern kingdom of
Judah would last until 586. The fall of the two
kingdoms led to Jewish Diaspora.
32
The Diaspora
33
Confucianism
  • Started by Confucius (551-479 BCE) during the
    Warring States Period in China
  • Offers solutions to the problems plaguing China
  • Focus on life rather than the afterlife
  • Does not advocate a specific deity
  • Emphasizes worship of ancestors

Drawing of Confucius
34
Basic Beliefs of Confucianism
  • Emphasizes li
  • the rituals of everyday life
  • Goal is to promote harmony on Earth through
    relationships
  • Five Relationships
  • Filial Piety

Dacheng Temple in Confucius hometown of Qufu in
China.
35
Social Impact of Confucianism
  • Becomes foundation of Chinese government
  • Reinforced importance of patriarchal
    relationships
  • Reinforced family as the center of Chinese
    society
  • Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore are influenced by
    Confucian ethic

Family altar in Malaysian Chinese home. Family
is inviting ancestors to partake in the Hungary
Ghost festival
36
Daoism (Taoism)
  • Founded by Laozi (6th cent. BCE?) during the
    Warring States Period
  • Everything revolves around the Dao
  • Goal Create societal harmony by living according
    to the natural laws of the universe
  • Wu Wei without action

37
Impact of Daoism
  • Encourages respect for nature
  • Heavily influenced Chinese art and literature
  • Landscape paintings
  • Yoga and meditation
  • Hygiene and cleanliness
  • Medicine
  • Balance between Yin (feminine, dark) and Yang
    (masculine, light)
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