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Title: Welcome to the Literacy in Life Training An Introduction to Teaching Adult Learners


1
Welcome to the Literacy in Life
TrainingAn Introduction to Teaching Adult
Learners
2
  • Tacoma Community House is an organization that
    began in Tacoma in 1910 as a settlement house to
    welcome newcomers to Tacoma.
  • TCH offers
  • Adult education
  • Employment assistance
  • Immigration services
  • Trainings (like this one through Literacy NOW)

3
Literacy NOW is a division of Tacoma Community
House.
  • The workshops are funded by
  • Office of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance
  • Fees to individual programs
  • Tacoma Community House
  • Literacy NOW provides a variety of workshops
  • For ESL Tutors
  • For Literacy Tutors
  • Intercultural Communication for the Workplace or
    Library

4
Historical Perspectives on Literacy
  • In 1991, according to Congress, to be literate
    was to have the reading, writing and math skills
    necessary to function effectively as a worker,
    family member, and community member.
  • Historically, literacy has been measured based
    on possession of a high school diploma.
  • According to the 2000 US Census, 571,000 WA
    adults do not have a high diploma and are not
    enrolled in school.

YEAR Considered Literate If
1880s you could sign your name
1930s you completed the 4th grade
1960s you completed the 8th grade
2000 ???
5
  • The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy
    (NAAL) uses three different literacy
    classifications
  • Prose Literacy
  • The knowledge and skills needed to perform prose
    tasks, (i.e., to search, comprehend, and use
    continuous texts).
  • Examples include editorials, news stories,
    brochures, and instructional materials.
  • Document Literacy
  • The knowledge and skills needed to perform
    document tasks, (i.e., to search, comprehend, and
    use non-continuous texts in various formats).
  • Examples include job applications, payroll forms,
    transportation schedules, maps, tables, and drug
    or food labels.
  • Quantitative Literacy
  • The knowledge and skills required to perform
    quantitative tasks, (i.e., to identify and
    perform computations, either alone or
    sequentially, using numbers embedded in printed
    materials).
  • Examples include balancing a checkbook, figuring
    out a tip, completing an order form or
    determining the amount.

6
Each type of literacy has four different levels
of proficiency
  • Below Basic
  • no more than the most simple and concrete
    literacy skills
  • Basic
  • can perform simple
  • and everyday literacy
  • activities
  • Intermediate
  • can perform moderately
  • challenging literacy activities
  • Proficient
  • can perform complex and challenging literacy
    activities

7
Warm-up Activity
  • Draw a picture of a living space, inside or out.
    A place from your past, or future.
  • This activity contains the key principles we need
    to incorporate when working with adult learners
  • It is personal
  • It is meaningful
  • It is interactive
  • There is a concrete hook

8
Traditional Approaches to Adult Literacy
  • Adult Learners are often treated as if they are
    an empty head full of scores.
  • But adults are more complex than their test
    scores. They have multiple roles to fulfill in
    and outside the classroom, and multiple reasons
    for choosing to be in school.

9
Who are my students?
  • Adult learners fulfill multiple roles and have
    multiple reasons for being in school. Adult
    learners have three intersecting roles as family
    members, workers, and citizens.

10
Why become literate?
  • Adult students typically have four reasons for
    improving their literacy
  • Voice
  • To express ideas and opinions with the confidence
    that they will be heard and understood
  • Access to information
  • To access information to orient themselves in the
    world
  • Independent action
  • To solve problems and make decisions
    independently
  • Bridge to the future
  • To reflect on their past learning experiences and
    apply insights to the world as it changes

11
Adult Learners are NOT the Same as children
  • Adult learners differ in many ways from children.
    They have more independence, heterogeneity,
    responsibility, life experience, time constraint,
    and choice in being a part of a classroom.
    Materials must be adapted to meet the practical
    and immediate needs of adults and teaching must
    respect the maturity of students.

12
Adult Literacy Standards
  • These are some broad descriptions that identify
    what adults need to do to be successful in their
    roles and purposes

13
AssessmentComprehensive Adult Student Assessment
System
  • CASAS has been used by over 3 million adults. The
    assessments provide descriptions of adults'
    general job-related ability in reading,
    mathematics, oral communication, and writing.
  • Scores are on a numerical scale ranging from 150
    to 250. For more information, see the CASAS
    skills descriptors links below
  • Adult Basic Education Level Descriptors
  • Writing Levels
  • Speaking Levels

14
Learning Styles
  • Auditory
  • Learns through hearing and talking
  • Examples listening to a lecture
  • Visual
  • Learns through seeing, watching, and reading
  • Example Watching the lecturer write information
    on the whiteboard
  • Kinesthetic
  • Learns best while moving large muscles
  • Example fidgeting or jiggling leg during a
    discussion
  • Haptic
  • Learns best while moving small muscles
  • Example doodling while listening to a lecture
  • Tactile
  • Learns best by processing information in context
    through touch
  • Example using braille to read instead of trying
    to visually process letters

15
  • To create the most useful learning environment,
    ask the learner
  • Do you like quiet or music when you read or
    write?
  • Do you like lots of light?
  • Do you like dimmer lights?
  • What kind of space do you need around you?

16
Auditory Learning Strategies
  • Think aloud Talk to yourself. Before beginning
    a project or study session state out loud what
    you are going to do. You may want to write them
    down at the same time.
  • Write and state aloud goals for assignments.
    Restate out loud as often as needed.
  • Discuss ideas with a friend or small group. Quiz
    each other out loud, brainstorm out loud,
    etcetera.
  • Say math problems and steps aloud. This will
    help you retrieve the steps from your memory.
  • Ask to take oral quizzes, tests, and exams. Some
    subjects require learning to organize your
    writing but, in other subjects or assignments,
    oral presentations are acceptable.
  • Memorize material by reciting it out loud over
    and over again.
  • Free write a rough draft of a paper. Write what
    you hear in your head or verbalize it into a tape
    recorder. Make changes such as organization and
    grammar later when ideas will be there.
  • Read class material aloud by yourself, in a
    group, or with a partner.
  • Sit in the back or the side of the room.
  • Make your own tapes of important information from
    lectures or from readings.
  • Record the steps of math problems or formulas or
    say them out loud to study for tests.
  • Use mnemonics to memorize material. They can
    include rhymes, songs, or rhythms.
  • Make flashcards and read them aloud while making
    and practicing them.

17
Visual Learning Strategies
  • Work in a well organized and quiet space.
  • Think on paper. Write down thoughts, ideas,
    questions, and steps to complete tasks.
  • Use visual organizers such as cluster maps to
    organize information and ideas.
  • Use spelling techniques that concentrate on the
    shape of the word by outlining it using color.
  • Keep paper and pencil handy to jot down ideas or
    thoughts about papers, tests, or projects.
  • Draw pictures or symbols for complex ideas or
    information copy reading materials and take
    notes on the page.
  • Highlight important information in one color and
    new vocabulary in another.
  • Make eye contact with speaker/presenter and ask
    questions or write down questions as they occur
    to you.
  • Make charts, graphs, and tables out of data and
    statistical information.
  • Use flow charts or visual representations to
    remember steps to problems.
  • Make posters, videos, or presentation boards for
    reports when possible.
  • Use color to organize notebooks or 3-ring
    binders.
  • Preview reading by scanning pictures, tables,
    charts, and headings. Write down questions next
    to the text.
  • Create your own flash cards using color and
    symbols to set apart from one another.
  • Sit in the front of a classroom away from doors
    and windows when possible.
  • Go over notes rewriting them in outline form and
    compare with a friend for important information.
  • Make a list or keep a pocket calendar to track
    assignments and appointments. Mark them
    complete.
  • Write down mnemonics such as sapia, a word
    created from the first letter of the oceans of
    the world.

18
Kinesthetic Learning Strategies
  • Chew gum while in class or while studying.
  • Work at a tall table that allows you to stand or
    move around freely.
  • Play music in the background. Wear headphones if
    around others.
  • Connect physical movement to information to
    memorize walk while reciting flashcards.
  • Take frequent short breaks while studying or
    change your position every 10 15 minutes.
  • Use a koosh or squeeze-it ball to keep your hands
    busy, or roll a tennis ball with your feet to
    keep your body quietly moving during periods
    where you must remain seated.
  • When learning new information, make task cards,
    flashcards, card games or teach someone else.
  • When memorizing new words, draw each letter in
    the air with your hand using large muscles and
    large movements while saying the letters out
    loud.
  • Use interactive computer games to help with
    learning math facts.
  • When reading a chapter or short story, preview
    the material by scanning the cover, any pictures
    or illustrations, and reading the table of
    contents or headings before reading.
  • Use multimedia to report on what you have learned
    when you can by creating videos, posters, models,
    power point, photographs, and dramatic
    presentations.
  • Make large flashcards or charts of information to
    be remembered or understood.
  • Create raps or rhyming poems of new information
    and concepts.

19
Some of your students will have learning
disabilities
  • 1 in 5 adults in the US has a learning
    disability thats about 1,333,640 in WA State
    alone
  • 30-80 of adult learners have learning challenges
    that negatively impact their learning
  • So, what do you know about learning disabilities
    (INSERT What do you know PPT here)

20
The Tutors Role
  • To motivate
  • To set up a welcoming learning environment
  • To set the tone for learning
  • To monitor the learners development
  • To identify and use relevant and purposeful
    materials
  • To create timely learning experiences connected
    to what the learner is ready to learn

21
Activities for the 1st Meeting
  • Names
  • Exchange names with your student and ask
    questions about their name How did you get your
    name? Do you have any nicknames? Where did they
    come from? What do you like and not like about
    you name?
  • Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
  • Student and tutor interview each other. What is
    one thing you did in your past, one thing you are
    doing right now, and one this you hope to do in
    the future?
  • My Personal Shield
  • Create a symbol to represent areas of your life.
    Draw a round shield divided into four parts. In
    each part, make a picture to represent 1. The
    best time I ever had. 2. My greatest
    accomplishment. 3. My most prized possession. 4.
    Something I would like to happen.

22
Sources Cited
  • Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems.
    Skill Level Descriptors. 21 August 2009.
    http//https//www.casas.org
  • Frequently Asked Questions. 28 July 2009.
    National Institute for Literacy. 18 August 2009.
    http http//www.nifl.gov/about/faq.html
  • Literacy Network of Washington. What do you know?
  • National Center for Educational Statistics.
    National Assessment of Adult Literacy. 2003. 21
    August 2009. http//nces.ed.gov/naal/
  • Schneider, Melody. Literacy in Life A Handbook
    for Volunteer Literacy Tutors. Washington
    Literacy Network of Washington, 1998.
  • Us Department of Education. 25th Annual Report to
    Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals
    with Disabilities Education Act. 2003.
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