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John F. Kennedy

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Title: John F. Kennedy


1
John F. Kennedy
  • 1961-1963
  • Domestic Policy

2
CLOSEST ELECTION SINCE 1884
  • Kennedy won the election by fewer than 119,000
    votes
  • That means ½ of America didnt want him to win

JFK
RMN
3
ASK NOT . . .
  • In his inaugural address, JFK
    uttered this famous
    challenge Ask not what your country can do for
    you --- ask what you can do for your country

Delivered Friday, January 20, 1961
4
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5
I. Kennedy White House
  • A. Lyndon B. Johnson Vice-President
  • B. Robert F. Kennedy -gt
  • Attorney Gen.
  • C. White House was
  • full of young (mid-30s
  • to early 40s) pragmatic
  • thinkers!

6
  • D. Compared to King Arthurs magical court
    Camelot. (Jacqueline Kennedy was very stylish!)
  • Invited artists, musicians, etc. to the White
    House.
  • E. Compared also to James Bond sophisticated,
    cool, and a womanizer!
  • Unfortunately JFK was a
  • womanizer!

7
THE CAMELOT YEARS
  • During his term in office, JFK and his beautiful
    young wife, Jacqueline, invited many artists and
    celebrities to the White House
  • The press loved the Kennedy charm and JFK
    appeared frequently on T.V.
  • The Kennedys were considered American Royalty
    (hence Camelot reference)

8
THE KENNEDY MYSTIQUE
  • The first family fascinated the American public
  • For example, after learning that JFK could read
    1,600 words a minute, thousands enrolled in
    speed-reading courses
  • Jackie, too, captivated the nation with her eye
    for fashion and culture

9
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10
John Kennedy and his siblings From youngest to
oldest Jean, Robert, Patricia, Eunice, Kathleen,
Rosemary, Jack, and Joe, Jr.
11
Caroline Kennedy
  • She recently put her name in to fill the vacant
    Senate seat that Hillary Clinton left when she
    accepted the Secretary of State position for Prez
    Obama
  • New York Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand got the seat

12
THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST
  • JFK surrounded himself with what one journalist
    described as the best and the brightest
    available talent
  • Of all of his elite advisors who filled Kennedys
    inner circle, he relied most on his 35-year-old
    brother Robert, whom he appointed attorney general

RFK was Johns closest friend and advisor
13
A MAN ON THE MOON
Armstrong
  • Under President JohnsonFinally, on July 20,
    1969, the U.S. would achieve its goal
  • An excited nation watched as U.S. astronaut Neil
    Armstrong took the first steps on the moon
  • Space and defense-related industries sprang up in
    Southern and Western states

One small step for man, one giant leap for
mankind
14
(6) 23rd Amendment
  • proposed on June 16, 1960, and ratified on March
    29, 1961. The amendment rectified an omission in
    the Constitution that prevented residents of the
    District of Columbia from voting in presidential
    elections- allowing citizens living in Washington
    DC to vote in National elections (for Prez)

15
(14) Engel v Vitale (1962)
  • A landmark US Supreme Court case that determined
    that it is unconstitutional for state officials
    to compose an official school prayer and require
    its recitation in public schools.
  • NO PUBLIC SCHOOL PRAYER

16
The Rule of the Law
17
(15) Rachel Carson/ Silent Spring (1962)
  • Rachel Carson is regarded by many as the
    godmother of the environmental movement. It was
    her book, Silent Spring, that sowed the seeds of
    passion for protecting the environment

Advocate of nature and environmental ethics,
against the misuse of chemicals in nature ...
18
  • (2) New Frontier name given
  • to the Kennedy domestic
  • platform can also be
  • applied to the foreign
  • policies previously
  • discussed!

19
III. Economy
  • A. Problems deciding on how to deal with the
    budget deficit Kennedy did not push for a tax
    cut until 1963 (It will be passed after his
    death!)
  • B. Kennedy wanted to work WITH big business (not
    against) and asked Congress to ease anti-trust
    legislation
  • C. Forbes ranks Kennedy first in reducing the
    unemployment rate.

20
Deficit Spending
  • D. Kennedy advocated deficit spending to
    stimulate the economy
  • E. Deficit Spending is the govt practice of
    borrowing money in order to spend more than is
    received from taxes

21
  • D. Area Redevelopment Act of 1961 394
    million given in loans and grants designed to
    help city and rural areas of low income and/or
    chronic unemployment
  • E. Minimum wage was raised to 1.25
  • F. Council of Economic Advisors proposed to
    stabilize prices by tying wage increases to
    productivity
  • G. Kennedys administration is ranked as the
    third highest in economic prosperity (behind
    Clinton and LBJohnson)

22
Civil Rights Review
  • Jim Crow Era South, post-Reconstruction
  • Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal
  • FDR sympathetic to African-Americans, outlawed
    segregation in government work areas
  • Truman desegregated the armed forces
  • Eisenhower enforced Brown
  • v. Board of Education,
  • Topeka (integration of schools)

23
  • The Civil Rights Movement Reading

24
IV. Civil Rights
  • A. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) appeal launched
    by a Florida prisoner
  • 1. all citizens are entitled to legal
  • counsel in a case involving a possible
  • jail sentence

25
  • B. African-Americans continued their struggle
    for desegregation.
  • 1. Kennedy was a strong supporter of
  • African Americans appointed
  • several African Americans to high
  • administrative positions
  • 2. Thurgood Marshall- Linda Browns
  • lawyer in Brown vs Board appointed to
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit
  • 3. Very strong supporter of MLK,Jr

26
  • Thurgood Marshall Reading

27
  • C. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
  • and
  • SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating
    Committee) grew out of the Greensboro
  • sit-in

28
  • D. Freedom Rides May 1961 CORE director James
    Farmer led a group of black and white freedom
    riders on a bus trip into the heart of the
    South. Trip began in Washington D.C. and ended
    in New Orleans would focus national attention
    on the inequality of segregated facilities.
    Violent mobs in South Carolina and Alabama beat
    riders and firebombed a bus.

29
Freedom Riders notice where the trip stops
30
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31
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32
  • Kennedy ordered federal marshals to protect civil
    rights organizers freedom rides forced the
    Kennedy Administration to take a much stronger
    stand on desegregation.
  • Voter registration drive for African Americans
    began in 1961 R. Kennedy asked SNCC to focus on
    increasing the amount of registered voters in
    MS only 4000 out of 394,000 were registered to
    vote due to continued violence!

33
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34
  • Freedom Rides Analysis

35
James Meredith
36
  • (12)James Meredith and the University of
    Mississippi September, 1962
  • 1. Governor Ross Barnett personally
  • blocked the African American
  • Meredith from registering.
  • 2. JFK ordered several hundred marshals to
    escort Meredith into a university dormitory.
    Mobs moved in shooting streetlights, throwing
    rocks and bottles.
  • 3. JFK sent in federal troops to save the
    marshals but not before 2 people were killed
    and 375 were wounded.

37
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38
1963 Birmingham, Alabama March
39
  • I. Martin Luther King, Jr. led a group to
    Birmingham, AL, to protest segregation
  • 1. led to his arrest and writing of Letter
  • from Birmingham Jail, which defended
  • the use of civil disobedience and warned
  • that not obeying the law would leave the
  • streets flowing with blood.
  • 2. Once freed, King led new
  • demonstrations TV cameras captured
  • the Birmingham police (under the
  • direction of police chief Bull Connor)
  • using attack dogs, clubs, and fire hoses
  • to end demonstrations

40
  • J. Birmingham actions sparked Kennedy to request
    support for a strong civil rights bill to end
    segregation and protect black voters

41
March on Washington
42
(17) March on Washington August 28, 1963
  • Led by Martin Luther King
  • 1. I Have a Dream Speech
  • 250,000 gathered at Lincoln Memorial to march
    sing in support of Civil Rights.
  • Led by MLK, Jr. to call for a color-blind
    society

43
  • March on Washington Analysis

44
I HAVE A DREAM
It was initially opposed by JFK, who thought it
would undermine the bill Congress began working
on a civil rights bill in the fall
45
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46
I have a Dream Speech Analysis
47
  • (16) June 11, 1963University of Al, George
    Wallace Alabamas Governor
  • stood in the doorway of the University to
    prevent Vivian Malone ( a black female) from
    registering
  • - Kennedy sent federal marshals to force the
    enrollment of the students
  • - JFK addressed the nation on June 12 about
    the moral issue of segregation

48
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49
  • Wallace and Kennedy Reading

50
  • (18) Same evening of Kennedys televised address,
    Medgar Evers
  • a civil rights leader in Mississippi
  • was assassinated in his driveway in
  • Jackson, MS by.
  • Bryon De La Beckwith, a KKK member,
  • was arrested for his murder (finally
  • convicted in 1994, three decades later)

51
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52
  • Medgar Evers Reading

53
(20) Assassination of JFK
  • A. Kennedy lost key Southern Democratic
    supporters due to civil rights issues.
  • He scheduled a trip to Texas to begin rebuilding
    support in the South (you
  • know politicians always
  • thinking about the
  • next campaign)

54
JFK SHOT
  • As the motorcade approached the Texas Book
    Depository, shots rang out
  • JFK was shot in the neck and then the head
  • His car was rushed to a nearby hospital where
    doctors frantically tried to revive him
  • President Kennedy was dead (11/22/63)

JFK SHOT
55
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56
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57
  • C. November 22, 1963 JFK was fatally shot in
    the head and neck by Lee Harvey Oswald
  • A 24-year-old Marine with a suspicious past left
    a palm print on the rifle used to kill JFK

58
JFK Cartoon Analysis
59
  • D. LHO was caught several hours later seemed
    mysterious and emotionally unstable.
  • His actions were never fully explained
  • L.H.O was shot two days after his arrest by
    Jack Ruby (on live TV)!
  • He was charged and as a national television
    audience watched his transfer from one jail to
    another, nightclub owner Jack Ruby broke through
    the crowd and shot Oswald to death

60
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61
  • E. Lyndon B Johnson, became the next prez, when
    he took the oath of office on Air Force One with
    Jackie Kennedy by his side

62
JFK LAID TO REST
  • All work stopped for Kennedys funeral as America
    mourned its fallen leader
  • The assassination and the televised funeral
    became historic events
  • Like 9-11, Americans can recall where they were
    when they heard the news of the Presidents death

Three-year old John Kennedy Jr. salutes his
fathers coffin during the funeral
63
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64
  • F. This events, along with contradicting
    eyewitness testimonies of the JFK assassination,
    caused many to believe there was a conspiracy
    behind the murder of the president. Later
    investigations approved by President LBJ and led
    by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded Oswald
    acted alone.
  • But DID HE REALLY?!?!?!?!?

65
UNANSWERED QUESTIONS
  • The bizarre chain of events led many to believe
    that Oswald was part of a conspiracy
  • The Warren Commission investigated the
    assassination and determined that Oswald had
    indeed acted alone
  • Recent filmmaker Oliver Stone isnt so sure his
    film, JFK, is filled with conspiracy theories

66
And what about this responsible for
death???
67
(No Transcript)
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