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The Catholic Reformation


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Title: The Catholic Reformation

The Catholic Reformation
  • Reforms, 1500-1545
  • Counter-Reformation, 1545-1600

(No Transcript)
The Counter-Reformation?
  • External or Internal Pressure?
  • Concern for reformation had been within the
    church for along time.
  • Most Europeans remained Catholic
  • Most humanists
  • Most universities
  • Most peasants
  • All of Mediterranean Europe!

Reforming Individual
  • Savonarola (1452-98), Florence railed against
    the paganism of the humanists, the worldliness of
    the church, and called for a general council to
    reform the church.
  • He lost popular support with a Papal interdict.
    In 1498 he was tortured, hung and his body burned
    with his ashes thrown into the river Arno.

Reforming Groups
  • Oratory of Divine Love, founded in 1497, was
    inspired by the selfless hospital work of
    Catherine of Genoa.
  • The group hoped to reform the church by reforming
    themselves through prayer, discussion and
  • They advocated an end to simony, pluralism and
    worldliness in the church.
  • Members included Cardinal Cajetan (1480-1547),
    Pope Paul IV (1476-1547) and Cardinal Contarini

Reforming Pope
  • Adrian VI (1522-1523) saw the problems in
  • the church as a direct result of the abuses of
  • the church and the immorality of its priests.
  • Moral, devouta product of the Brethren of
  • Common Life (from which John Calvin and Erasmus
    both emerged).

Pope Clement VII, 1523-1534Regressive Measures
  • Another De Medici pope
  • Followed policies of other Renaissance popes
  • Policies led to sacking of Rome 1527
  • Lost half of Europe to Protestants

Ignatius Loyola, 1491-1556
  • Founder of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
  • Soldier in Spanish army
  • Wounded at Pavia in 1521
  • Cannonball hit his leg
  • Had to be re-broken and reset later
  • Part of protruding bone sawed off
  • Became delirious
  • Experienced profound religious conversion
  • Dedicated his life to God

Loyolas Spiritual Growth
  • 1523 visited Holy Land
  • Church would not permit him to teach without
  • Studied at University of Alcala
  • Also at University of Paris
  • College of Montague
  • Same college where Erasmus Calvin were
  • There seven years
  • Gathered 7 companions with him (1534)
  • Had about 1000 when he died

Loyola as Founder of Jesuits
  • Middle aged man by time left university
  • Learned and razor-sharp theologian
  • Never ceased to be a soldier
  • Went to Rome and placed himself at the service of
    Pope Paul III
  • Paul saw potential for accomplishment
  • 1538 founded Society of Jesus
  • Loyola was its first general
  • Organized as the army of God

Grant from Ignatius Loyola
Spiritual Exercises
  • Loyola wrote to train Jesuits
  • Practical handbook of mystical conversion and
    spiritual discipline
  • Influenced by Thomas a Kempis.

Paining by Rubens showing St. Ignatius Loyola in
a mystical trance
Jesuit Commitment
  • Jesuits took vow of absolute obedience to Pope,
    and new order was approved by the Pope in 1540.
  • Took vows of poverty
  • Absolute military discipline in order
  • Society grew rapidly
  • Had great influence

Jesuit Accomplishment
  • Founded schools colleges
  • Served as advisors to Catholic kings
  • Dominated higher studies in dozen fields
  • Extended moral discipline to local level
  • Led Catholics to re-conquest over Protestants
  • Switzerland, south Germany, Austria, Poland
  • Their missionaries followed Spanish and Portugese
    conquerors and traders to Americas and Far East

Reforming Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
  • Convened a panel of respected experts to evaluate
    the health of the church. The panel reported
    many abuses (nepotism, simony, pluralism,
    absenteeism, mismanagement of wealth and
    immorality). The panel increased discipline
    rather than pursuing institutional reform.
  • Appointed the best men as Cardinals, respected
    for knowledge, and product of Renaissance

Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, 1483-1542
  • Layman who experienced spiritual conversion
  • Humanist who sought to reform church from within
  • Believed in reason and conciliation
  • Mild, peaceful approach
  • Headed papal commission, 1537

Cardinal Gasparo Contarini, 1483-1542
  • Drew up list of abuses needed reforms
  • Reforms put into effect immediately
  • Agreed with Luther on justification by faith
  • Yet reforms failed to address basic spiritual

Pope Paul IV, 1555-1559
  • Came into ascendancy with death of Contarini in
  • Used inquisition
  • Against Catholics who strayed from fold
  • Against Protestants in Catholic lands
  • Used torture, spying, terror
  • Especially in Spain, Italy, Spanish Netherlands

Pope Paul and His Methods
  • Also used The Index
  • List of forbidden books
  • Books not approved by him were burned
  • Some books completely destroyed
  • He hated Loyola
  • First true pope of the Counter-Reformation
  • But nearly destroyed it by his intolerance

The Apex of Reforming Popes
  • Pope Pius IV (1559-1565)
  • Pope Pius V (1565-1572)

Council of Trent (1545-1563)
  • Originally called in 1545, it did not actively
    pursue agenda till Paul Paul IV (1555-59) led it
    (only 31 representatives showed up for the first
  • Called for two purposes
  • Church Reformation an institutional
    reorganization, change in church practices and
    moral reformation.
  • Response to Protestant threat clarify church
    dogma in the light of Protestant attacks on major
    items in Catholic theology

Council of Trent
  • Popular demand for reforming council
  • First summoned by Paul III in 1545
  • Met at Trent on border of Germany, Italy, France
  • Met in 3 sessions
  • 1545-1547
  • 1551-1552
  • 1562-1563

Meeting of Opening of the Council of Trent
Church Reformations
  • It instituted reforms in the Papal curia,
    primarily financial.
  • It condemned pluralism and simony.
  • It affirmed the efficacy of indulgences but
    formulated strict guidelines in order to identify
  • Regulated responsibilities of local priests and
    regional bishops.
  • Founded seminaries with uniform curriculum for
    the training of priests.

Accomplishments of Council of Trent
  • Summarized Counter-Reformation
  • Rejected Protestantism
  • Although much debate by delegates who wanted to
    accept Protestants and their teaching
  • Rejected any compromise with Protestants
  • Declared those who affirmed Protestant doctrines

  • Reaffirmed traditional Catholicism
  • Tradition equal authority with Scripture
    (inclusion of the Apocrypha) with Latin Vulgate
    the official translation.
  • Recognized popes councils as final judges
    interpreters of Bible religious doctrine
  • Proscribed a list of banned books Index of
    Forbidden Books (which was not abolished till
  • Upheld traditional Catholic beliefs
  • Purgatory
  • Indulgences
  • Prayer to saints
  • Seven sacraments
  • Mass as True Sacrifice
  • Works necessary for salvation

(No Transcript)
Painting of Council of Trent by Titian
  • Raised morale of Catholics
  • Made the liturgy uniform throughout the church
  • Set up educational system for clergy
  • Meant much better preparation for them
  • Established concordats with Catholic kings
  • Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Austria
  • Papal control sacrificed to some degree
  • For pledge by king to support Catholicism in his
  • Thus a Protestant attack on the Catholic Church
    was an attack on the state

Net Effect of Trent
  • It reformed some of the practices of the medieval
    Catholic Church and encouraged educational
    advances among clergy. The goal was to make
    traditional religion more effective and
    attractive to the laity.
  • It also encouraged uniformity, obedience to the
    church and anti-Protestantism. It instituted
    strictures that would prevent another theological
    revolution such as Protestantism.
  • Marked the end of the one, universal Catholic
    church and signaled the emergence of Roman
    Catholicism as one among other denominations of
    the Christian faith. Now Europe was permanently
    divided between Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic
    and various Protestant churches.

Religious Wars
Religious Wars in Europe1530-1648
  • Holy Roman Empire Wars Against Protestant Princes
  • Protestant-Catholic Wars in France.
  • Dutch-Spanish Wars in the Netherlands
  • Thirty Years War in Central Europe

Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant Princes
  • Between 1519 and 1530, Emperor Charles V could
    not effectively deal with Lutheranism because
  • The Turks were progressively advancing in the
    Balkans and were at the gates of Vienna in 1529.
  • Charles was securing his claims in Italy as he
    battled the King of France and the Pope in
    successive wars (1521-25 and 1527-1529).
  • Three Imperial Diets at Nurenburg from 1522-24
    postponed the religious issues.
  • Diet of Speyer (1526)Emperor decides to enforce
    the Edict of Worms.
  • He was opposed by some princes, and the question
    was deferred to a Church Council.
  • It passed a recess act which declared that each
    state should conduct its own religious affairs.

Diet of Speyer (1529)
  • The Recess is repealed by Charles.
  • Six Lutheran estates (including Saxony,
    Brandenberg and Hesse) and 14 free cities protest
    (and thus, Protestants).
  • The Lutheran Princes seek support from
  • Francis I, King of France
  • Henry VIII, King of England
  • Swiss Cantons

Diet of Augsburg (1530)
  • Charles ready to resolve the religious question
    since his Empire is secure.
  • He receives various Protestant confessions
  • Melancthon, Augsburg Confession (Lutheran)
  • Zwingli, Fidei Ratio (Zurich)
  • Bucer, Tetrapolitana (Strasbourg)
  • Eck, Confrontatio (Catholic Confession)
  • Outcome
  • Charles demands that all return to the Catholic
    Faith by Easter, 1531 (he had just been crowned
    Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in Bologna,
    Italy earlier in 1530).
  • Protestant Princes form the Schmalkaldic League
    in February 1531.
  • Luther wrote a Confession for the League
    Schmalkadic Articles (1537).

Schmalkaldic Articles
  • The first and chief article is this Jesus
    Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and
    was raised again for our justification (Romans
    324-25). He alone is the Lamb of God who takes
    away the sins of the world (John 129), and God
    has laid on Him the iniquity of us all (Isaiah
    536). All have sinned and are justified freely,
    without their own works and merits, by His grace,
    through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,
    in His blood (Romans 323-25). This is necessary
    to believe. This cannot be otherwise acquired or
    grasped by any work, law, or merit. Therefore, it
    is clear and certain that this faith alone
    justifies us...Nothing of this article can be
    yielded or surrendered, even though heaven and
    earth and everything else falls (Mark 1331)

War Delayed
  • Charles did not enforce the Edict because
  • Needed funds from Princes to support a renewed
    war with the Turks
  • Pope Clement VII had signed a treaty with Francis
    I and the third Hapsburg-Valois War began
  • When Charles was ready to act again in 1541, the
    last Hapsburg-Valois War erupted (1542-1544).
  • When Luther died in 1546, the league had internal

Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1555)
  • Charles defeated the Schmalkadic League from
  • He instituted the Augsburg Interim
    (1548)reinstated Roman Catholic Faith by
    Imperial order.
  • But Charles again ran into problems with the
    Turks (overrunning Hungary) and France (War of
    Liberation in 1552).
  • Peace was achieved between Charles and the
    Protestant Princes in 1555The Peace of Augsburg
    with the key principle of cuius regio, eius

French Gallicanism
  • France had always been rather independent in
    relation to the Roman Catholic Church
  • The Bablyonian Captivity in Avignon
  • Counciliarism began at the University of Paris
  • Humanism was strong in southern France
  • But France was the most centralized monarchy in

Queen Catherine de Medici
King Charles IX (1560-1574)
Reformed Church in France
  • Geneva was French-speaking and trained ministers
    who were sent into France.
  • France persecuted these ministers
  • Francis I began the persecution of Protestants in
  • Henry II (1547-1559) instituted an inquisition
    called the burning chamber in 1555.
  • No leniency books from Geneva burned
  • French Reformed Church meets in its first
    National Synod in 1559.
  • Adopted the Gallic Confession of Faith
    (authored by Calvin)
  • By 1562 represented 2,000 congregations of
    3,000,000 adherents out of a population in France
    of 20,000,000.
  • It almost functioned as a state within a state.

Growth of Political Power
  • Protestants were called Huguenots (uncertain
  • Between 1562-1598, Protestants and Catholics were
    fight eight major religious civil wars.
  • There were three additional wars in the 1620s.
  • By 1550 Huguenots were a political power in
    southern France, particularly among nobles
    resentful of the growing power of the monarchy
    and the rising middle class.
  • During the short reign of Francis II
    (1559-1560)17 year old son of Henry II, the
    Protestants became a political party.

The Reign of Charles IX 1560-1574
  • Came to the throne at the age of 10 and was thus
    dominated by his mother Catherine dMedici.
  • Due to youth, regional nobles gained power.
  • Guise family (Catholic)conducted violent
    oppression of Protestants
  • Bourbon family (Protestant)led by Henry of
    Navarre and Gaspard de Coligny
  • France went through a series of religious civil
    wars in the 1560s, but the Protestants gained a
    favorable peace in 1570.
  • Coligny had become good friends with King Charles.

Huguenot-Catholic Wars in France
  • In August 1572, it was believed a major political
    healing was about to take place the marriage of
    the Protestant Henry to the Catholic Margaret of
  • However, on August 24, 1572, Huguenot leaders
    (including Coligny) were murdered in their beds,
    and this encouraged angry mobs throughout France
    to assault Protestants (St. Bartholomew Day
  • 6,000 Protestants died in Paris
  • 70,000 Protestants died in the Provinces
  • But Protestants were still able to secure
    favorable terms to the end of hostilities.

Coligny Henry, Duke of
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre
The War of the Three Henries (1585-1590)
  • Three Henries
  • Henry III, King of France and last surviving
    Valois heir of Francis I.
  • Henry, duke of Guise, head of the Catholic League
  • Henry of Navarre, Bourbon family and
    heir-presumptive of the childless Henry III
    (cousin of Henry III) and married to Henry IIIs
    sister (Margaret).
  • The War
  • Henry III fled Paris as Henry of Guise was
    popularly acclaimed King. Henry of Guise was
  • The Catholic League revolted and Henry III was
    assassinated. The Catholic league proclaimed an
    uncle of Henry of Navarre as King Charles X.
  • Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League in
    1590, but Spanish troops prevented his entry into

Henry IV (1589-1610)
  • Protestant Henry becomes Catholic Paris is
    well worth a mass.
  • In order to appeal to moderate French Catholics
    and to prevent the King of Spain from installing
    his granddaughter as queen, Henry becomes
  • He is crowned in 1593, Pope accepts his
    conversion in 1595 and wins a treaty with Spain
    in 1598.
  • In 1598 he proclaims the Edict of Nantes which
    grants religious toleration for Protestants in
    certain towns.
  • Public worship still forbidden in episcopal
  • In 200 towns where they could worship, they were
    also free to garrison and fortify their town.
  • Protestants were granted civil liberties and the
    protection of the law.
  • Henry IV, however, was assassinated in 1610 some
    think by a Jesuit plot.

King Henry IV
Margaret of Valois
Huguenots Expelled
  • Henry IV was assassinated in 1610, and 8 year old
    Louis XIII (1601-43) became king but his mother
    Marie de Medici was the real power.
  • Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) ultimately became
    the power behind the throne of the pro-Catholic
    royalty. Protestants were disarmed and divested
    of political power.
  • In 1665 Protestants were to surrender their
    children to be educated at Catholic schools.
  • Ultimately, Louis XIV in 1685 issued the Edict of
    Fontainbleu which criminalized Protestantism in
    France. 50,000 families fled to America, South
    Africa, Prussia, Netherlands and England.
  • Despite the oppression, a French Reformed
    Church continued to exist in France and
    re-emerged when Louis XVI issued a decree of
    religious tolerance in 1787.

The Dutch Reformation
  • The low countries were a breeding ground for
    early humanists (Erasmus) and devotional
    movements (Devotio Moderna Thomas a Kempis).
  • The Reformation was at first humanistic, but then
    Lutheran as Lutherans were martyred in 1520s.
  • The Anabaptists emerged in the 1530s and remained
    throughout the 16th and 17th century. Emperor
    Charles instituted the full Spanish Inquisition
    in the Netherlands in the 1540s.
  • By 1560, the Calvinists had emerged as the
    leading Protestant party.
  • Belgic Confession was written in 1561 the author
    was burned at the stake in 1571.
  • Dutch Reformed Church adopted the Heidelberg
    Catechism as their confessional stance in 1571.
  • Calvinism present in the Netherlands due to the
    English and French refugees and the support of

Dutch-Spanish War in Netherlands
  • Philip II of Spain (1555-98), son of Emperor
    Charles V, reigned over the Netherlands by virtue
    of an earlier Hapsburg marriage.
  • Charles V had ruled the low provinces because his
    grandmother was the Queen of Burgundy
  • When Charles V abdicated in 1555, he secured the
    Holy Roman Empire for his brother Ferdinand and
    gave the rule of Spain and low countries to his
    son Philip.
  • The low countries were divided ethnically,
    linguistically and religiously
  • Netherland was Germanic, Dutch-speaking and
  • Belgium was Flemish, French-speaking and
  • Philip wanted a fully Catholic stateincreased
    number of bishops, taxed the provinces to finance
    wars, stepped up persecution of Protestants.
    Philip was generally disliked as a outsider or
  • Calvinists were iconoclastic, particularly in
  • Philip sent troops to oppose the Calvinists and
    suppress them.

Militant Calvinism
  • The Dutch requested religious tolerance in the
    northern Provinces where the Calvinists were
    located, but the Spanish refused and mocked them
    as beggars.
  • Some Calvinists seized control of cities. Philip
    sends the Duke of Alba to suppress (1567-1568).
    He executes 18 nobles.
  • In 1572, William of Orange leads a revolt and by
    1579 the northern provinces (Netherlands) had
    formed an alliance. Though nominally a
    Calvinist, William wants religious toleration and
    to restore the rights of nobles.

Netherlands and Belgium
  • In 1581 Protestant Holland declared independence
    and wars ensued till the Spanish retreated in
    1609. The truce ended in 1621 and war was
    renewed till the final peace came in 1648 at the
    Peace of Westphalia where Spain relinquished all
    rights to the Northern Provinces (Netherlands).
  • However, the southern region, called Flanders,
    remained in Spanish Catholic hands. The Jesuits
    reinvigorated Catholicism in what would later
    become Belgium (which did not become an
    independent state until 1830).

Thirty Years War in Central Europe
  • In 1590, roughly half of Europe was Protestant,
    but in 1690 that ratio was reduced to one-fifth.
  • The war started with the defenestration of two
    Catholic magistrates in Prague after the Emperor
    Mattias (1557-1619) appointed a Catholic King
    over Bohemia, his cousin Ferdinand (1578-1637).
  • Upon becoming Emperor in 1619, Ferdinand invaded
    Bohemia and banned Protestantismall who were
    unwilling to convert had to leave by Easter 1626.

Bohemian War (1618-1625)
  • Persecution against Protestant Hussites
  • Hapsburgs refused to allow them to elect their
    own king
  • Government placed under 10 governors, 7 Catholic
  • Group of Protestant noblemen threw Catholic
    representatives of emperor out of palace window
  • The Defenestration of Prague

Progress of the War
  • Protestants led by Count Thurn and Count Mansfeld
  • Catholics led by Tilly
  • Initial victories for Protestants
  • Protestants decisively defeated at Battle of
    White Mountain Nov. 8, 1520
  • Emperor Ferdinand II, Jesuits, and inquisition
    ended Protestantism in Bohemia

The Danish War (1625-1629)
  • Protestant leader King Christian IV of Denmark
  • Catholic leader Albert of Wallenstein (1538-1634)
  • Catholic victory at Bridge of Dressau 1626
  • Edict of Restitution, Mar. 29, 1629
  • Treaty of Lubeck restored Christians lands but
    he agreed not in interfere in Germany
  • Wallenstein dismissed in 1630 for being too severe

King Christian IV of Denmark
Albert of Wallenstein
Thirty Years War
  • England, Netherlands and Denmark then invaded
    Germany to cripple Ferdinand but were defeated
    and hostilities ended with a treaty in 1629.
  • Sweden, under Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632),
    invaded Germany in 1630 to punish the Catholics
    and regain central Europe for Protestantism as
    well as thwart the power of Catholic Hapsburg.
  • The Swedes crushed the Catholic League and
    occupied Prague. However, Adolphus was killed in
    1632 and fortunes were slowly reversed.
  • By 1648 central Europe was exhausted from
    hostilities. Adolphus friend and chancellor
    remarked Behold with what little wisdom the
    world is ruled.

The Swedish War (1630-1635)
  • Protestant leader Gustav II Adolphus King of
    Sweden (1594-1632)
  • Invaded Germany to support Protestants
  • Wanted Prussia and Pomerania for Sweden (control
    of Baltic Sea)
  • Made treaty with the French
  • Won several victories
  • Tilly captured and sacked Magdeburg 1631

Gustav II Adolphus of Sweden
Count Tilly
Progress of War
  • Gustav Adolphus won great victory at Leipzig of
    Breitenfeld Sept. 17, 1631
  • Tilly against Gustav
  • 40,000 in each army
  • Wallenstein brought back in Tilly killed
  • Gustav and Wallenstein fought at Lutzen
  • Nov. 16, 1632
  • Gustavs army won, but he was killed
  • Wallenstein again fired and later assassinated
  • War settled by Treaty of Prague, May 30, 1635
  • Lutherans alone granted freedom of worship

Battle of Lutzen
Swedish-French War (1635-1648)
  • Germans against Swedes
  • Swedes against Danes
  • French against Germans
  • Spanish against French, Dutch, Swedes
  • Initial victories for Protestants
  • Germany devastated
  • Emperor called for truce 1648

Map of Thirty Years War
Devastating Effects
  • Example Magdeburgs 30,000 inhabitants were
    reduced to 5,000 survivors on May 19, 1631.
  • 3,000,000 Bohemians shrunk to less than 800,000
    by the end of the war.
  • Germanys population decreased from 21 to 13.5
    million in the course of the war (a reduction of

Treaties of Westphalia (1648)
  • Independence for Netherlands Switzerland
  • Gains for French Swedes
  • Germany remained fragmented
  • Reformed church recognized under Peace of
  • Catholic Protestant states had equal status in
  • Land ownership set by norm date Jan. 1, 1624
  • No rights for Protestants in Bohemia or Austria

The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Retained the conclusion of the Peace of Augsburg
    (1555) the religion of the state is determined
    by the religion of the ruler.
  • Territorial adjustments Sweden gained in the
    Baltic, France along the Rhine, German princes
    gained greater authority at the expense of the
    Emperor, Hapsburgs gained control of Bohemia, and
    the Brandeburg-Prussian rulers arose as
    independent German-speaking princes in north
    central Europe.
  • War in the future was more about the balance of
    power and commercial interests than religion.
  • Established the religious contours of Europe for
    the rest of the millennium.

Europe After Westphalia
Leipzig Debate (1519)
  • After Luther pointed out that the Greek Church
    had never recognized any papal supremacy, Eck
    responded that the Greek Church was not only
    schismatic but, by rejecting the Roman primacy,
    had made itself heretical the Greeks had
    severed themselves from the Church and from the
    Christian faith itself.
  • A year later, Luther declared that Muscovites,
    White Russians, Greeks, Bohemians, and many other
    great lands in the world...believe as we do,
    baptize as we do, preach as we do, live as we

  • The opportunity came for Melanchthon to approach
    the Eastern Church when he received into his home
    in the summer of 1559 a Serbian deacon from the
    Patriarchate of Constantinople. This deacon,
    Demetrios Myros, remained for about six months
    with Melanchthon in Wittenberg, where he learned
    first-hand information about the Reformation and
    the Lutheran Church. He, in turn, was able to
    acquaint Melanchthon with the piety and ethos of
    the Orthodox Church.

Augustana Graeca (1559)
  • When Patriarch Josaph II examined the Lutheran
    Confession, he immediately recognized that many
    of its distinctive doctrines were at odds with
    the Orthodox Church. To avoid the risk of
    controversy with the German Lutherans, and
    thereby thwart the Sultans political relations
    with the Protestant States, the Patriarch simply
    declined to respond -- fairly typical of
    Byzantine diplomacy.

Jeremias and Augsburg Confession
  • Upon receiving the Greek Confession, the
    Patriarch requested five more copies and promised
    to provide a point-by-point response to the
    document. This whole process took some time, but
    the first doctrinal response of Jeremias II to
    the Augustana Graeca was received at Tübingen on
    18 June 1576.

German-Greek Discussion
  • The leading participants in the 16th-century
    dialogue included Jakob Andreae, the Chancellor
    of the University of Tübingen in the duchy of
    Würtemberg, and Patriarch Jeremias II of

  • Scripture and Tradition
  • Opposition to filioque
  • Synergistic Free Will
  • The Role of Works
  • 7 Sacraments
  • Sola Scriptura
  • Defense of Filioque
  • Total Depravity
  • Justification by Faith Alone
  • 2 Sacraments

Eastern Soteriology
  • Orthodoxy sees human nature as fallen and
    mortal, but as retaining its fundamental
    orientation toward God and not as inheriting some
    type of juridical guilt we are redeemed from
    this fallen human nature by the incarnation of
    the Son of God, who assumes and shares this
    fallen, mortal nature in every aspect except sin,
    even unto death, restoring it to its former
    potentiality (i.e., justifying us) through his
    resurrection, in which we share. But restoration
    to the potentiality of Adam and Eve is just a
    starting point in Orthodox theology we are
    called to communion with God, to grow and mature
    into the likeness of God, to become deified by
    participation in Gods own life through the Holy

Augustinian Soteriology
  • Augustinianism sees human nature as fallen and
    mortal, having lost its fundamental orientation
    toward God and inheriting some type of juridical
    guilt we are forgiven of the original guilt of
    this fallen human nature by baptism through the
    atonement of Christ. Justification by faith is
    the juridical gift of divine righteousnessthe
    imputation of Christs righteousness. By
    sanctification humanity is restored to the former
    status of Adam and Eve in creation as they
    communed with God. We are restored to the
    perfection in which God created us as we are
    fully restored into the image of God through the
    sanctifying work of the Spirit.