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Women in Sport

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Title: Women in Sport Author: ERS Last modified by: Dennis Roscoe Created Date: 6/15/2005 6:17:42 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Women in Sport


1
(No Transcript)
2
INDEX
  • 3 - EXERCISE, HEALTH AND FITNESS
  • 4 - FITNESS
  • 5 - METABOLISM
  • 6 - MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY BALANCE
  • 7 - TOTAL METABOLIC RATE
  • 8 - FACTORS AFFECTING METABOLIC RATE
  • 9 - POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH -
    WELL-BEING
  • 12 - POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON SKELETAL
    HEALTH
  • 13 - POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH -
    NEUROMUSCULAR
  • 16 - OBESITY
  • 17 - OBESITY AND ENERGY BALANCE
  • 20 - DIABETES
  • 21 - TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT
  • 23 - RISK FACTORS FOR CHD
  • 24 - CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD)
  • 25 - CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD) - CORONARY
    THROMBOSIS
  • 26 - POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH - CHD
    AND OBESITY
  • 27 - ENERGY INTAKE
  • 28 - A BALANCED DIET

3
EXERCISE, HEALTH AND FITNESS
  • EXERCISE
  • physical exertion of the body done to achieve a
    good level of health and fitness both mentally
    and physically
  • exercise can vary from light (for example, a
    steady walk) to intense (for example, vigorous
    cycling or running)
  • HEALTH
  • a state of complete physical, social and mental
    well-being, free from mental and physical
    disease
  • FITNESS
  • the ability to carry out our daily tasks without
    undue fatigue
  • or the successful adaptation to the stressors of
    ones lifestyle

4
FITNESS
  • PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • the capability to meet physical demands
  • and physiological demands made by a sporting
    activity
  • HEALTH RELATED FITNESS
  • a state of the body (including mind)
  • compatible with an active and enjoyable life
  • including aspects of physical fitness associated
    with improving health
  • MOTOR OR SKILL RELATED FITNESS
  • the capability to perform successfully
  • at a particular game or activity

5
METABOLISM
  • ENERGY METABOLISM
  • total intake of food sufficient to supply enough
    energy to
  • keep cells alive
  • keep systems working
  • meet demands of life
  • BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)
  • this is the least rate of energy usage needed to
    carry out basic body functions
  • measured after lying down after 8 hours sleep and
    12 hours fasting
  • TOTAL METABOLIC RATE
  • sum of BMR energy required for all daily
    activities
  • total average energy usage for 18 year olds in
    the USA is
  • females 8,000 kj per day males 12,000 kJ per
    day.

6
MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY BALANCE
  • BODY COMPOSITION
  • relative percentage of muscle, fat and bone
  • measured using
  • skinfold measurements using the J-P nomogram
  • body composition scales using bioelectrical
    impedance analysis
  • underwater weighing
  • BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)
  • measures the relationship between weight and
    height
  • measured using
  • BMI weight in kilogrammes
  • square of body height in metres
  • a person 1.83m tall weighing 110 kg has
  • BMI 110 110 32.8
  • 1.832 3.35

7
TOTAL METABOLIC RATE
  • TOTAL METABOLIC RATE
  • sum of BMR energy required for all daily
    activities
  • the total average energy usage for 18 year olds
    in the USA is 8,000 kJ per day for females, and
    12,000 kJ per day for males.
  • metabolic rate contribution by different
    activities
  • activity energy expenditure over BMR
  • (kJ kg-1 min-1)
  • sitting at rest 0.10
  • walking 0.26
  • jogging and swimming (moderate) 0.60
  • cycling (moderate) 0.46
  • vigorous exercise 1.09

8
FACTORS AFFECTING METABOLIC RATE
  • factors
  • height
  • muscle mass
  • hormones
  • age
  • pregnancy
  • caffeine
  • smoking
  • alcohol
  • it is important to keep BMR elevated by eating
    regularly and exercising

9
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
10
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
  • CARDIOVASCULAR
  • exercise slows down degenerative diseases (CHD)
  • exercise increases High Density Lipoproteins HDL
  • and decreases Low Density Lipoproteins LDL (LDL
    are responsible for depositing cholesterol and
    narrowing lumen of artery)
  • hence stable blood pressure (BP)
  • thus preventing hypertension
  • RESPIRATORY
  • exercise slows down decline in VO2max and hence
    aerobic capacity remains higher than it otherwise
    would be
  • hence the capability for long duration low
    intensity work remains higher

11
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
  • BODY COMPOSITION
  • exercise reduces obesity by burning off excess
    fat during and after activity when MR remains
    elevated
  • cardiac workload (hence risk of CHD) less with
    lower body mass
  • capability to move around (walk, run and climb)
    therefore better with lower body mass
  • exercise relieves symptoms of osteoarthritis
  • exercise prevents osteoporosis

12
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON SKELETAL HEALTH
  • OSTEOPOROSIS
  • if bones are mechanically loaded (by applying
    forces to the bones along their length)
  • then they tend to respond by becoming stronger
  • greater bone cell wall thickness
  • better calcification of bone tissue
  • hence weight bearing activities will reduce the
    risk of this condition
  • walking, jogging, weight training, aerobics

13
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
  • NEUROMUSCULAR
  • exercise sustains strength and coordination
    levels
  • exercise enhances tensile strength and
    flexibility of tendons and ligaments
  • thus allowing for a fuller range of joint movement

14
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL
  • immediately following activity a person
    experiences a feeling of well being, reduction in
    anxiety
  • long term increase in work performance, hence a
    more positive attitude to work
  • improved self-esteem
  • benefits of social interaction
  • hence aerobics as fun for health

15
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
16
OBESITY
17
OBESITY AND ENERGY BALANCE
  • CAUSE OF OBESITY
  • the main cause of obesity is a positive energy
    balance
  • ENERGY INTAKE gt ENERGY OUTPUT
  • or more food than exercise
  • excess carbohydrate (CHO) is stored as glycogen
  • when glycogen stores are filled, CHO together
    with excess fat intake, is converted to fatty
    acids and glycerol, and then is stored as
    triglycerides or fat in adipose tissue
  • adipose tissue is situated around major organs
    such as the heart and stomach, underneath the
    skin, and in skeletal muscle
  • upper body obesity poses a significantly greater
    risk to disease
  • health conditions such as coronary heart disease
    and hypertension
  • with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity

18
OBESITY AND ENERGY BALANCE
  • CONTROLLING OBESITY
  • the only method of controlling obesity is to
    shift the energy relationship
  • so that energy output exceeds energy intake
  • known as a negative energy balance and expressed
    as
  • ENERGY OUTPUT gt ENERGY INTAKE
  • a negative energy balance can be achieved with
    the help of a Weight Loss Plan

19
OBESITY AND ENERGY BALANCE
  • WHAT IS A GOOD LEVEL OF FAT?
  • a minimum requirement which would allow full body
    functions body fat percentage for men is between
    2 and 3 and for women between 8 and 12
  • normally only healthy elite athletes attain these
    percentages
  • relative body fat is a major concern of
    sportspeople
  • achieving a desired weight goal can lead to
    clinical eating disorders such as anorexia
    nervosa
  • caused by a person restricting food intake to
    levels well below energy expenditure
  • it is important to have a diet that maintains
    appropriate weight and body composition to
    maximise physical performance

20
DIABETES
  • DIABETES
  • this happens because the Islets of Langerhans
    situated within the pancreas stop functioning
    properly and therefore do not produce enough
    insulin
  • or the insulin does not facilitate blood glucose
    to be transferred into cells where metabolism
    occurs - the cells have insulin resistance
  • hence cells (particularly muscle cells) will not
    have enough glucose to function properly - and
    the person feels exhausted
  • other symptoms are
  • lack of circulation to the hands and feet
  • extremes of thirst or hunger
  • unexplained weight loss

21
TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT
  • when exercise is continued through middle-age and
    old-age (from 40 onwards), blood glucose is
    broken down and hence the proportion of glucose
    carried by blood is reduced and the chances of
    type 2 diabetes reduced
  • muscle cell walls in people with type 2 diabetes
    become less permeable to glucose needed for
    exercise
  • therefore normal levels of insulin cannot
    transfer blood glucose into the cells for
    metabolism
  • this is insulin resistance

22
TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT
  • during exercise, muscle contraction increases
    cell membrane permeability to glucose
  • hence glucose can pass naturally into the cells
  • this in turn means that cell requirement for
    insulin is reduced (called insulin sensitivity)
  • and so acute bouts of exercise reduce the effects
    of type 2 diabetes

23
RISK FACTORS FOR CHD
24
CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD)
  • CHD
  • is one of Britains greatest killers and
    encompasses diseases such as angina and heart
    attacks or coronary thrombosis
  • angina is pain or discomfort felt in the chest
  • usually caused by coronary heart disease
  • angina is normally treated and controlled with
    drugs and relaxation
  • a person suffering from this condition has a
    higher risk of suffering from a coronary
    thrombosis

25
CHD
  • CORONARY THROMBOSIS
  • heart attack is a sudden severe blockage in one
    of the coronary arteries, completely cutting off
    the blood supply to part of the myocardial
    (heart) tissue
  • this blockage is often caused by a blood clot
    formed within slowly moving blood in an already
    damaged, partially obstructed coronary artery
  • heart attacks can be severe or mild, depending on
    the positioning of the blockage
  • in 2008, Coronary heart disease accounted for 30
    of all UK deaths in people aged less than 75 years

26
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON HEALTH
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVD)
  • include diseases of the heart and blood vessels
  • physical activity reduces LDL (responsible for
    depositing cholesterol and narrowing the lumen of
    arteries)
  • fat stores are used during activity and
    post-activity (to refuel muscle glycogen stores)
  • hence reduce bodyweight
  • OBESITY AND CHD
  • cardiac workload (hence risk of CHD) is less with
    lower body mass
  • capability to move around (walk or run or climb)
    therefore better with lower body mass

27
CHD
  • CORONARY THROMBOSIS
  • heart attack is a sudden severe blockage in one
    of the coronary arteries, completely cutting off
    the blood supply to part of the myocardial
    (heart) tissue
  • this blockage is often caused by a blood clot
    formed within slowly moving blood in an already
    damaged, partially obstructed coronary artery
  • heart attacks can be severe or mild, depending on
    the positioning of the blockage
  • in 2008, Coronary heart disease accounted for 30
    of all UK deaths in people aged less than 75 years

28
ENERGY INTAKE
  • ENERGY INTAKE
  • total intake of food sufficient to supply enough
    energy to
  • keep cells alive
  • keep systems working
  • meet demands of life

29
A BALANCED DIET
  • A BALANCED DIET
  • contains proportions of
  • carbohydrates, fats and proteins
  • minerals, vitamins, water and roughage (fibre)
  • needed to maintain good health
  • CARBOHYDRATE - 60
  • principal energy giver
  • FATS - 20-25
  • storage of energy
  • another source of energy
  • carrier of fat soluble vitamins
  • PROTEIN - 10-15
  • essential for growth, body building and repair

30
THE NEED FOR A BALANCED DIET
  • ENERGY BALANCE
  • when energy input (via food) is equal to energy
    output (via metabolism including exercise)
  • a neutral energy balance is achieved
  • ENERGY INTAKE ENERGY OUTPUT
  • as a result of this body weight will remain
    constant
  • ACHIEVING A BALANCED DIET
  • decrease dietary fat, especially saturated fats
  • decrease the amount of salt (sodium)
  • increase complex carbohydrates
  • increase minerals such as calcium and iron
  • iron is especially important for females

31
A FOOD PYRAMID
fat, butter, margarine, cooking oil
fats
milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, red meat, chicken,
fish
protein and some fat
vegetables and fruit - 5 per day
fibre, vitamins minerals
carbohydrate and fibre, the bulk of food eaten
cereal, pasta, bread, biscuits, cake,
32
STORAGE AND RELEASE OF FOOD FUELS
  • CARBOHYDRATES
  • glucose is absorbed in the small intestine
  • GLUCOSE
  • is utilised as fuel in the liver
  • then stored as liver glycogen
  • transported as glucose in the blood to other
    tissues (for example skeletal muscle)
  • used as an immediate source of energy
  • or converted and stored as muscle glycogen

33
STORAGE AND RELEASE OF FOOD FUELS
  • FATS
  • absorbed as fatty acids or glycerol in the small
    intestine
  • FATTY ACIDS
  • utilised as fuel in the liver
  • stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue or
    skeletal muscle
  • recalled from fat deposits to the liver
  • converted to glucose (this is a slow process)
  • enters the Krebs cycle in aerobic respiration

34
COMPARISON OF DAILY ENERGY INTAKE
  • Activity daily energy daily energy
  • intake kJ intake kJ
  • females males
  • Tour de France 25000
  • Triathlon 20000
  • Rowing 12600 14700
  • Swimming 8400 15500
  • Hockey 9200 13400
  • Soccer 14700
  • Running 9200 13000
  • Gymnastics 6000
  • body building 5900 14500
  • average USA
  • 18 year olds 8000 12000
  • figures are approximate and for elite athletes
  • Int.J Sports Med 19891053
  • MALE FEMALE DIFFERENCES
  • note that these differences can be mostly
    accounted for by differences in body mass, with
    the values of energy expenditure per day per
    kilogramme of body mass would be similar

35
WHEN AND WHAT SHOULD YOU EAT BEFORE AN EXERCISE
PERIOD?
  • food should be eaten between 3-4 hours prior to
    the competition to aid digestion and absorption
    of nutrients into the bloodstream
  • the meal needs to be high in carbohydrates, low
    in fat and moderate in fibre to aid the digestive
    process
  • an example meal could be pasta bake with spinach,
    a banana and a still flavoured drink
  • a drink (ideally an isotonic drink or water) is
    essential during this period
  • with fluid to be taken in sips (to maintain
    hydration) right up to the time of start of the
    exercise

36
DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT ATHLETES
  • BALANCED DIET
  • a balanced diet from a regular food intake will
    provide the nutrient requirements for all
    sportspeople
  • CHO REQUIREMENT
  • a high CHO diet significantly improves
    performance
  • immediate post-exercise CHO supplements, and high
    glycemic index (GI) foods such as bananas and
    raisins
  • will start reloading depleted muscle glycogen
    stores
  • CARBOLOADING
  • carboloading can augment endurance performance in
    events lasting longer than 90 minutes by
    increasing muscle glycogen stores above normal
    levels
  • FAT REQUIREMENTS
  • fat intake should be restricted for both power
    and endurance athletes
  • except for power events such as sumo wrestling

37
PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT ATHLETES
  • ENDURANCE ATHLETES
  • the recommended protein intake is 1.2 - 1.4 grams
    per kilogram of body mass per day
  • STRENGTH AND POWER ATHLETES
  • need additional protein
  • 1.4 - 1.8 grams per kilogram of body mass per day
  • this need for extra protein is because after
    heavy resistance training the rate of protein
    breakdown and resynthesis is greater
  • because of muscle hypertrophy

38
VITAMINS, MINERALS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WATER
REQUIREMENTS
  • VITAMINS AND MINERALS
  • a regular intake of vitamins and minerals is
    required for all performers
  • research has shown that a normal well balanced
    diet provides all necessary vitamins and minerals
    to support elite performances
  • dietary fibre is also needed at a balanced level
    and must not be neglected for the elite performer
  • SUPPLEMENTS
  • glutamine has been shown to help immune systems
    after exercise
  • creatine has been shown to increase muscle
    creatine levels to help sustain power output in
    power events
  • a balanced normal diet will contain sufficient
    glutamine and creatine for this
  • amino acid or CHO supplementation is often taken
    in liquid form following exercise - see next
    slide
  • WATER
  • exercise is thirsty work, see the following later
    slides for details

39
WATER BALANCE
  • WATER BALANCE
  • water is 60 of total body mass
  • water balance at rest
  • water loss occurs via evaporation and excretion,
    with the majority lost as urine
  • water intake depends on climate and body mass
  • water balance during exercise
  • more water produced during tissue respiration
  • water loss mainly as sweat determined by external
    temperature, body mass and metabolic rate and
    intensity of exercise
  • this also includes mineral loss which must be
    replaced
  • increased water loss via expired air due to
    increased breathing
  • age and fitness or acclimatisation levels also
    affect water loss
  • kidneys decrease urine flow in an attempt to
    decrease dehydration

40
WATER BALANCE
  • WATER BALANCE
  • during a marathon 6-10 of body water content is
    lost, hence the need for water intake during
    exercise
  • this means that during 1 hours exercise an
    average person could expect to lose around 1
    litre of fluid
  • and even more in hot conditions
  • this could represent as much as 2 litres an hour
    in warm or humid conditions

41
HYDRATION
  • DEHYDRATION AND LOSS OF PERFORMANCE
  • excessive loss of fluid impairs performance
  • as blood plasma volume decreases
  • and body temperature rises
  • extra strain is placed on the heart, lungs and
    circulatory system
  • which means that the heart has to work harder to
    pump blood around the body
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