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Anatomical Introduction: Life Functions, Body Planes and Terminologies

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Anatomical Introduction: Life Functions, Body Planes and Terminologies 8 Life Functions: Maintaining Boundaries Movements Responding to Changes Taking in Nutrients ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomical Introduction: Life Functions, Body Planes and Terminologies


1
Anatomical Introduction Life Functions, Body
Planes and Terminologies
2
8 Life Functions
  • Maintaining Boundaries
  • Movements
  • Responding to Changes
  • Taking in Nutrients (Digestion)
  • Metabolism
  • Waste Disposal
  • Reproduction and Growth

3
1.) Why do we need to maintain a boundary?
  • You keep the good stuff in and the bad stuff
    out
  • Inside? Cell Membranes protect the contents
  • of the cell
  • Outside? Skin protects the body as a whole

4
2.) Why is movement important for humans?
  • Activity is promoted by the muscular system
  • Muscles work to move things around
  • Smooth muscle (food movement)
  • Cardiac muscle (blood movement)
  • Skeletal muscle (body movement)

5
3.) Responding to the environmental stimuli
  • Iritability is the ability to sense change and
    react
  • to it without thinking about it
  • Nervous system directs the body actions!!
  • Example If you walk into a hot/humid room
  • you will sweat automatically
  • Example If you reach for a pan on the stove
  • and its hot---you pull your hand away

6
4.) Take in and digest nutrients
  • Dont Forget All nutrients are taken from the
    foods you eat
  • In the Mouth foods are broken down into
    smaller pieces
  • In the Stomach small food pieces are broken
    down chemically into nutrients
  • In the Small Intestines nutrients are absorbed
    into the bloodstream and flow to cells

7
5.) What is Metabolism?
  • Metabolism? the sum of all the chemical reactions
    occurring in your body at one time
  • Temperature? a way to measure your own
    metabolism
  • Types of Chemical Reactions in the body
  • Decomposition? break down large substances
  • Synthesis? build large substances from
    smaller ones

8
6.) Disposal of Wastes is very imortant!!!
  • Cellular Level? Cells must get rid of waste to
    maintain homeostasis
  • Human Body?The body must get rid of wastes
    to maintain homeostasis also
  • Excretion of Wastes depends on two body systems
  • 1.) Digestive System
  • 2.) Urinary System

9
7.) Reproduction
  • It is important to remember that reproduction
    occurs at the cellular level first, in order for
    the body to grow
  • Human body cells are specialized
  • Blood cells, Nerve cells and Muscle cells all
    have a specific function in the body and need to
    be replaced by those exact cells
  • Humans need to reproduce for the species to
    continue!

10
8.) Growth
  • Growth means to increase in size, so.
  • Cells will continue to grow larger (then divide)
  • The human body will grow larger as a direct
    result of the cellular reproduction going on
    inside their bodies

11
  • Anatomical
  • Terminologies

12
Anatomical Position
  • Stand with your arms at your sides, with palms
  • facing forward

13
  • Directional Terms on the body (think opposites)
  • Anterior toward the front of the body
  • Posteriortoward the back of the body

14
  • Medial ? Toward the midline of the body
  • Lateral? Away from the midline of the body
  • Proximalclose to the body
  • Distalaway from the body

15

  • Superiortoward the top

    of the body

  • Inferioraway from the

    top of the body

16
  • Superficialtoward the surface of the body
  • Deepaway from the surface

Superficial (close to the skin)
Deep (away from skin)
17
  • Body
  • Planes and
  • Cavities

18
  • Median/Sagittal Plane?divides into right and left
    halves
  • Frontal Plane? divides into Anterior and
    Posterior
  • Transverse Plane? divides into Superior and
    Inferior

19
Body Cavities
  • Cavity? an empty space in the body housing vital
    organs
  • Dorsal Cavity? Posterior Cavity can be subdivided
    into Cranial Cavityhousing the Brain Spinal
    Cavityhousing the Spinal Column

20
Body Cavities
  • Ventral Cavity? Anterior Cavity (chest
    abdomen) Thoracic CavityAbove the Diaphragm
    houses the Heart
    Lungs AbdominopelvicBelow the Diaphragm Cavity
    houses the Digestive, Urinary
    Reproductive Structures

21
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