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Broadcast Technology RTV 151


Broadcast Technology RTV 151 Telephony Internet & WWW Broadband & Wireless Digital Mobile Communication – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Broadcast Technology RTV 151

Broadcast TechnologyRTV 151
  • Telephony
  • Internet WWW
  • Broadband Wireless Digital
  • Mobile Communication

Internet Review
  • Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • Pentagon / University relationship
  • LANs and WANs
  • Single location / wide geographic area
  • ARPANET combined with LANs and WANs became the
    Internet in 1983
  • TCP/IP protocol (Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf)
  • Packet switching and IP addresses

Domain Name System (DNS)
  • IP address
  • Text-based DNS translates human language into the
    computers phone number
  • TLD -- .com , .net, .edu (sometime gTLD)
  • ccTLD -- country code -- .ca , .uk (list)
  • Determined by IANA, Internet Assigned Numbers
  • Organizational identifier tamuc , google
  • Domain names administered by ICANN -- Internet
    Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
  • Buy domains from registrars (Mad Dog, GoDaddy,

Programs on the Internet
  • WWW -- Tim Berners-Lee devised HTML language
    which led to Mosaic
  • A browser interprets the HTML
  • Web page creation...
  • XML--extensible markup language
  • SOAP--simple objects access protocol (based on
  • XHTML--another form of XML
  • VRML
  • App creation

Programs on the Internet
  • E-mail (now email)
  • Newsgroups / Usenet (link) see chapter
  • Chat / IM (AIM, iChat, Meebo)
  • Telnet (link)
  • FTP (Fetch, etc.)
  • Internet Phone (Skype, Google Voice)
  • Web 2.0 (blogs, Second Life, podcasts) Video
    streams (Bittorent, Veoh, Hulu, clicker)

Whats going on today
  • Blogs / moblogs / vlogs
  • Journalism / bloggers
  • RSS feeds
  • Podcasts, etc. / newsreader software
  • New economic models -- Google
  • Legal issues -- RIAA, MPAA
  • Other issues
  • Malware, Digital Divide, charging fees to
    Internet sites, net neutrality (Comcast)

Web 2.0?
  • Google Docs (YouTube tutorial) / Drive
  • Apple OS X development, Chrome, Windows
  • What is Digital Media? / New Media -- Canada
  • What is Internet 2? (chapter)
  • Increase speeds
  • Spread technologies and applications
  • Take advantage of digital libraries, virtual
    laboratories, tele-immersion
  • What is Web 2.0?

Web 2.0
What is
  • Digg?
  • Stumble Upon?
  • Photobucket?
  • Jumpcut?
  • The WayBack Machine?
  • The Machine is using us?
  • Otherwise going on. ?

Mobile Computing Devices
  • PDAs (personal digital assistant Newton)
  • Functions / changes through the years
  • GPS
  • Vehicle fixed / portable
  • Satellite connection vs. most others
  • Cell Phones
  • iPhone example (smart phone)
  • Portable Video Games
  • GameBoy, Nintendo DS, Sony PSP / music, movies
  • Ultra Mobile PCs -- Origami / Microsoft (site)
  • CES -- Microsoft focus on touch technologies
  • Wearable Computers?
  • Tablets

Broadcasting vs. streaming
  • DTV multicasting
  • DVB-H (digital video broadcasting - handheld)
    standard for broadcasting to handsets
  • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) for
    multimedia broadcasting -- not available in North
  • Streaming allows VOD -- ATT Mobile (MediaFlo),
    Verizon (ended 12/2012)
  • Backseat TV

Developing Technologies
  • 3G / 4G cell phones -- packet and circuit
  • Wi-Fi
  • 802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of
    specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless
    LAN technology.
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers, pronounced I-triple-E
  • WiMax
  • Also known as IEEE 802.16--intended for wireless
    "metropolitan area networks". Provides
    broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles
    (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 -
    15 km) for mobile stations.
  • WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard
    is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet
    (30 - 100m).

Why 802?
  • The 802 group is the section of the IEEE involved
    in network operations and technologies, including
    mid-sized networks and local networks. Group 15
    deals specifically with wireless networking
    technologies, and includes the now ubiquitous
    802.15.1 working group, which is also known as

(No Transcript)
Developing Technologies
  • Bluetooth
  • Name comes from Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark
    in the late 900s
  • There are lots of different ways that electronic
    devices can connect to one another--Component
    cables, Electrical wires, Ethernet cables, WiFi,
    Infrared signals
  • Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard
    that works at two levels
  • It provides agreement at the physical level --
    Bluetooth is a radio-frequency standard
  • AND, it provides agreement at the protocol level,
    where products have to agree on when bits are
    sent, how many will be sent at a time, and how
    the parties in a conversation can be sure that
    the message received is the same as the message
    sent. (cell phone, GPS, PDA--Starfield example)

Developing Technologies
  • ZigBee
  • The set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4
    wireless protocol.
  • Name "ZigBee" derived from the erratic zigging
    patterns many bees make between flowers when
    collecting pollen. The standard is regulated by a
    group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150
    members worldwide.
  • Bluetooth focuses on connectivity between large
    packet user devices--laptops, phones, major
  • ZigBee is designed to provide highly efficient
    connectivity between small packet devices.

Developing Technologies
  • WPAN
  • Wireless personal area network
  • Bluetooth and Zigbee
  • Personal hotspots
  • RFID
  • IBM Uses RFID to Track Conference Attendees
  • New chip promises to track kids from miles away
  • Tracks things and people
  • DTV? / HD Radio
  • Multicasting channels -- data transmission?
  • Two way interactivity
  • FCC approval

Technical changes
  • Copper wires to fiber optic cable
  • Circuit Switching to packet switching
  • Landline to wireless
  • Convergence of technologies and companies

Technical examples
  • Fiber Optic Technicians (jobs promotion)
  • Early telephones (women as operators)
  • Early telephones (dialing a rotary phone)
  • (push button phone)
  • Making free phone calls (discussion VoIP)
  • Skype
  • Netzero Voice / Messenger / iChat
  • Google Voice

Cell Phones
  • Early -- 2-way radio type service
  • Phone / cells / towers
  • Ugly towers?
  • Connects to Mobile Telephone Switching Office
  • Going to another cell phone in same area on same
    service, routed to another tower
  • To another service or a landline, routed to the
    Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

  • two-way radio style
  • cellular process developed by (old) ATT
  • IG -- analog -- 1983 -- AMPS -- advanced mobile
    phone service
  • 2G -- digital introduction -- early 1990s
  • CDMA, TDMA initially in the U.S. (CDMA Sprint,
  • GSM type adopted first in Europe (ATT / T-Mobile)

  • 3G -- higher data transmission speeds -- switch
    to packet switching (Interim -- 2.5G Edge)
  • Verizon, ATT, Sprint T-Mobile all offer high
    speed 3G wireless networks. All moving to
    4G...but, interim technologies
  • 3G -- about 3 mbps throughput 4G about 10 mbps
    (about 10x faster)
  • Based on phone AND network infrastructure

  • One standard

3G vs. 4G
  • Explanation
  • Direct link

Cell phone as hybrid medium
  • Delivery of video to cellular phones became
    widespread voice / data and
  • Verizons V-Cast service (3G EV-DO) MobiTV
  • Both use the cellular network to deliver the
  • New service and technology, MediaFlo, developed
    by Qualcomm, uses part of the television
    broadcasting spectrum (channel 55) to send
    multi-media content to mobile phones (as noted
  • Allows wireless carriers to offer video content
    without taking up much needed bandwidth in their
    cellular network.

What is broadband?
  • ITU -- minimum speed of 256 kilobits/second
  • FCC -- 1996 Telecommunications Act 200 Kb/s
  • Wired
  • Wireless
  • Satellite
  • Alternate DTV multicast channels (etc.)

Broadband delivery -- wired
  • DSL
  • DSLAM / extenders (digital subscriber line access
  • IPTV (ATT U-verse, Verizon FiOS)
  • Dedicated line (no slowdown)
  • Cable modem (DOCSIS -- 1.0 / 2.0 / 3.0)
  • Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
  • Shared down trunk line (slowdown)
  • Information service / no open access
  • Fiber to the home/premises (FTTH/P)
  • FTTN -- fiber to the node (last mile is coaxial
    cable for cable twisted-pair copper for DSL
  • Broadband over power line (BPL)
  • Interference
  • State approval

Broadband delivery -- wireless
  • Fixed wireless broadband (FWB) (from MMDS)
  • 3G mobile wireless (4G / pre-4G)
  • Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) (WLAN)
  • Wi-Max (802.16) (
  • Satellite
  • HughesNet WildBlue (several now)
  • Latency problem (VoIP, games) a time delay
    between the moment something is initiated, and
    the moment one of its effects begins or becomes

Broadband today
  • A recent article, a point of comparison
  • let's say, in 2002, you were asked what
    percentage of Americans would consume broadband
    video in a given month?
  • How many (or few!) of us would have predicted a
    whopping 75? (the correct answer according to
    comScore in July '07).
  • Better yet, how many of us would have guessed
    that over 25 of this consumption would be at
    just one site (YouTube) - a site that didn't even
    exist in 2002?
  • Given these examples, who's to predict what
    2012-2014 would bring?

Broadband today (3)
  • Sites like,, etc. driving a whole new category of
    video that could eventually be a more popular
    format than 30 or 60 min. programs.
  • Consumers themselves are driving this "broadband
    or TV" debate into irrelevance.
  • They're busy accessing programming on demand -
    whether "broadband" or "TV" - through a host of
    devices and services whose popularity is only
    going to skyrocket in the future. These include
    TiVo, Xbox, Netflix, Amazon Unbox and many others.

Broadband Today (4)
  • With the proliferation of available broadband
    video comes a massive user navigation challenge.
    Modern Feed launched (4/8/08) (became Clicker)
    to address this.
  • Part search engine, part aggregator, with a
    specific focus on indexing professionally-produced
    programming, not user-generated video. It's also
    focused on actual programs, not promotional

Broadband Today (5)
  • J.D. Heilprin, Modern Feed's founder/CEO
  • the company is targeting mainstream users
    providing the easiest way to find available,
    high-quality video.
  • It employs a team of "Feeders" charged with
    curating the best videos to include on the site.
    The result is approximately 550 "networks" and
    25,000 pieces of content now indexed
  • Networks" is a loose term ranging from
    traditional broadcasters to indies new entrants
    like Boston Symphony or Architectural Digest.
  • Name changed to Clicker
  • All My Children, One Life to Live examples

Go back and forward a bit
  • Games
  • HMD, virtual reality, immersive action
  • Automotive telematics
  • Smart car
  • Upcoming, smart home
  • E-Health
  • Wearables
  • Body monitor and communication

Home Networks
  • Residential gateway (aka - cable/DSL router)
  • the key device in most home networks
  • Wired (server / hub / router) LAN
  • Wireless (wi-fi / WLAN / 802.11)
  • Interconnects all computers and other IP devices
  • Connects the home network to the broadband

Specs Technical specifications or standards
  • Like all issues establish technical standards
  • HPNA -- Home Phoneline Networking Alliance --
    technology, built on Ethernet, allows all the
    components of a home network to interact over the
    home's existing telephone wiring without
    disturbing the existing voice or fax services
  • IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics

Proprietary or agreed-upon?
  • VHS vs. Beta (home)
  • DVD-R / DVD-RW vs. DVDR / RW vs. RAM
  • SD cards or compact flash cards
  • HD-DVD vs. BluRay
  • WMA vs. RealPlayer vs. Quicktime etc. codecs
  • HDTV (8-VSB / COFDM)

Home hot spot Applications?
  • Multiple networked computers
  • Computers share one printer
  • Integration of phone / cable or satellite systems
    / DVR, Slingbox, Netflix, digital linear
    channels, etc. with IP
  • Security system connections
  • Automotive telematics

Home hot spot Applications?
  • Control any IP device -- Microsoft has been
    working with Whirlpool to allow users to monitor
    their laundry with their home network, computer,
    TV, and cell phone.
  • Continuing growth in American homes operating a
    wireless network, making the US the leader in
    adoption of wireless home networks.

Wireless security
  • Wireless cloud -- public places
  • Encryption types
  • WEP -- Wired Equivalency Privacy
  • easily hacked -- do a Cracking wi-fi or
    cracking WEP search on YouTubeWireless Hacking /
    WEP hacking / Free wi-fi anywhere
  • WPA -- Wi-Fi Protected Access
  • 128 bit encryption
  • WPA Personal -- password protected
  • WPA-Enterprise -- server verified
  • Evil Twins
  • Phony hotspots to steal information

What else?
  • RFID (ubiquitous?)
  • Smart Home (video) / robotics
  • Speech recognition
  • Types Discrete, continuous complete
  • Speech recognition gone awry
  • Better success demo (click screen when page
  • Ultra HD video (cinema--replace film projection)
  • Electronic paper (Kindle, iPad) (e-paper demo)
  • Wikis
  • GIGO conundrum?
  • LA Times experiment
  • Google docs as collaborative authoring?

Virtual / Augmented Reality (RWWW)
  • Second Life (promo/commercial)
  • Google Earth and other competitors
  • Education, Entertainment, etc. in a virtual
  • Google Glass

Semantic web
  • Computer speed, power and storage
  • How to simulate touch, smell, taste
  • HMD, haptics, immersive environment
  • Human-computer interface
  • Thinking machines