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Chapter 6: Perception

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Chapter 6: Perception ... 1. When two or more lights blink on and off in quick succession, ... Step Up To: Psychology Author: John J. Schulte – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6: Perception


1
Chapter 6 Perception
Deprivation Adaptation
I was expecting something else!
Rules of Organization
Its a mirage!
Imagine that!
100
2
1. When two or more lights blink on and off in
quick succession, it gives the appearance of
movement. This is called the
  • A) movement illusion.
  • B) phi phenomenon.
  • C) visual capture.
  • D) optical tracking illusion.

3
2. Even though these two figures are identical in
size, one looks larger due to the ___ illusion.
  • A) visual capture
  • B) Müller-Lyer
  • C) Ponzo
  • D) parallax

4
3. The Müller-Lyer illusion is caused by
  • A) cultural experience.
  • B) light and shadow.
  • C) shape constancy.
  • D) size constancy.

5
4. The St. Louis arch appears taller than it is
wide. This is due to
  • A) relative height.
  • B) size constancy.
  • C) shape constancy.
  • D) nothing, it really is taller.

6
Because of motion parallax, when you are moving
and fixate on something in the distance
  • A) more distant objects appear to be standing
    still.
  • B) the fixation point starts to move faster.
  • C) it becomes more difficult to stay awake.
  • D) closer objects appear to be moving in the
    opposite direction.

7
6. We sometimes reverse images because of changes
in the relationship of
  • A) light and shadow.
  • B) figure-ground.
  • C) size and dimension.
  • D) connectedness.

8
7. We see this as two figures together rather
than as many curved and straight lines because of
the rule of
  • A) connectedness.
  • B) proximity.
  • C) continuity.
  • D) similarity.

9
8. Relative Clarity helps us to determine ___
because
  • A) size clear objects appear larger.
  • B) depth clear objects appear farther.
  • C) luminescence nearer objects are brighter.
  • D) depth distant objects appear hazy.

10
9. If we assume that two objects are similar in
size, the one that casts the smaller retinal
image is assumed to be
  • A) closer.
  • B) smaller.
  • C) farther away.
  • D) larger.

11
10. Pablo is a landscape artist who was known
for the depth of his paintings. After an
accident, he had vision only from one eye. Since
then, his paintings
  • A) will have less depth.
  • B) will have just as much depth.
  • C) will have no depth.
  • D) may have depth but will lack in accuracy.

12
11. If a person were to wear glasses that
distorted vision upside down, that person
  • A) would eventually adapt.
  • B) would never adapt.
  • C) would have his vision permanently distorted.
  • D) would adapt but now must always wear the
    glasses to see.

13
12. Psychics who claim to be clairvoyant are able
to
  • A) aid police departments in catching criminals.
  • B) locate missing persons.
  • C) sense when something bad will happen.
  • D) make many guesses, some of which may be true.

14
13. Dave was listening to sad music when he
heard the word, morning, which he mistook for,
mourning. He was influenced by
  • A) clinical depression.
  • B) context effect.
  • C) depressogenic schemas.
  • D) a low level of serotonin.

15
14. Children who are visually impaired at birth,
but are allowed to see clearly years later have
difficulty perceiving because
  • A) their brains were irreparably damaged.
  • B) they missed a critical period in visual
    development.
  • C) their eyes have to fully mend.
  • D) none of the above.

16
15. When watching a movie, we see the actors as
moving because
  • A) the film is moving.
  • B) the pictures move in front of us.
  • C) motion is constructed in our heads.
  • D) of strobe lights.

17
16. The whole is greater than the sum of its
parts, has been most associated with a
  • A) Clinical psychologist.
  • B) Gestalt psychologist.
  • C) Cognitive-Behavioral psychologist.
  • D) Perceptual psychologist.

18
17.Retinal disparity refers to the
  • A) tendency to see parallel lines as coming
    together in the distance.
  • B) tendency to see stimuli that are near each
    other as parts of a unified object.
  • C) somewhat different images our two eyes receive
    of the same object.
  • D) extent to which our eyes turn toward each
    other when looking at an object.

19
18. The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in
order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole
object is called
  • A) closure.
  • B) constancy.
  • C) interposition.
  • D) convergence.

20
19. All of the following are monocular cues of
depth perception except
  • A) motion parallax.
  • B) linear perspective.
  • C) convergence.
  • D) relative height.
  • E) texture gradient.

21
20. We perceive the moon on the horizon as being
larger than when it is overhead because
  • A) it seems farther away on the horizon.
  • B) it seems closer on the horizon.
  • C) it seems brighter high in the sky.
  • D) it seems brighter on the horizon.

22
21. When we expect to see something because of
prior learning experiences, such as seeing clouds
as UFOs, it is because of
  • A) bottom-up processing.
  • B) previous abductions.
  • C) hypnotic suggestion.
  • D) perceptual set.

23
22. Human factors psychologists may use a
technique called, natural mapping, which is
  • A) drawing a plan of attacking a problem.
  • B) moving your eyes in a repeated pattern.
  • C) arranging controls to make them easier to
    understand.
  • D) moving in precise directions.

24
23. Even though a door may reflect quite a
different retinal image when it is open than when
it is closed, we still see it as the same,
rectangular door because of
  • A) illusory contours.
  • B) shape constancy.
  • C) retinal disparity.
  • D) perceptual closure.

25
24 The fact that the Amazing Randi has never
paid off on his claim illustrates that
  • A) while ESP phenomena exist, replicating them in
    a laboratory is not possible.
  • B) he fails to be convinced even though the
    evidence is obvious.
  • C) he is a non-believer and a cheapskate.
  • D) ESP phenomena have never been proven to be
    anything more than chance events or fakery.

26
25. As she gazed down from a bridge at the
rapidly flowing river, Nancy felt as thought she
were moving. Her experience best illustrates the
phenomenon of
  • A) retinal disparity.
  • B) perceptual adaptation.
  • C) location constancy.
  • D) visual capture.

27
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
28
1. When two or more lights blink on and off in
quick succession, it gives the appearance of
movement. This is called the
  • A) movement illusion.
  • B) phi phenomenon.
  • C) visual capture.
  • D) optical tracking illusion.

250
29
2. Even though these two figures are identical in
size, one looks larger due to the ___ illusion.
  • A) visual capture
  • B) Müller-Lyer
  • C) Ponzo
  • D) parallax

251
30
3. The Müller-Lyer illusion is caused by
  • A) cultural experience.
  • B) light and shadow.
  • C) shape constancy.
  • D) size constancy.

252
31
4. The St. Louis arch appears taller than it is
wide. This is due to
  • A) relative height.
  • B) size constancy.
  • C) shape constancy.
  • D) nothing, it really is taller.

247
32
Because of motion parallax, when you are moving
and fixate on something in the distance
  • A) more distant objects appear to be standing
    still.
  • B) the fixation point starts to move faster.
  • C) it becomes more difficult to stay awake.
  • D) closer objects appear to be moving in the
    opposite direction.

248
33
6. We sometimes reverse images because of changes
in the relationship of
  • A) light and shadow.
  • B) figure-ground.
  • C) size and dimension.
  • D) connectedness.

243
34
7. We see this as two figures together rather
than as many curved and straight lines because of
the rule of
  • A) connectedness.
  • B) proximity.
  • C) continuity.
  • D) similarity.

244
35
8. Relative Clarity helps us to determine ___
because
  • A) size clear objects appear larger.
  • B) depth clear objects appear farther.
  • C) luminescence nearer objects are brighter.
  • D) depth distant objects appear hazy.

247
36
9. If we assume that two objects are similar in
size, the one that casts the smaller retinal
image is assumed to be
  • A) closer.
  • B) smaller.
  • C) farther away.
  • D) larger.

246
37
10. Pablo is a landscape artist who was known
for the depth of his paintings. After an
accident, he had vision only from one eye. Since
then, his paintings
  • A) will have less depth.
  • B) will have just as much depth.
  • C) will have no depth.
  • D) may have depth but will lack in accuracy.

249
38
11. If a person were to wear glasses that
distorted vision upside down, that person
  • A) would eventually adapt.
  • B) would never adapt.
  • C) would have his vision permanently distorted.
  • D) would adapt but now must always wear the
    glasses to see.

256
39
12. Psychics who claim to be clairvoyant are able
to
  • A) aid police departments in catching criminals.
  • B) locate missing persons.
  • C) sense when something bad will happen.
  • D) make many guesses, some of which may be true.

265
40
13. Dave was listening to sad music when he
heard the word, morning, which he mistook for,
mourning. He was influenced by
  • A) clinical depression.
  • B) context effect.
  • C) depressogenic schemas.
  • D) a low level of serotonin.

260
41
14. Children who are visually impaired at birth,
but are allowed to see clearly years later have
difficulty perceiving because
  • A) their brains were irreparably damaged.
  • B) they missed a critical period in visual
    development.
  • C) their eyes have to fully mend.
  • D) none of the above.

255
42
15. When watching a movie, we see the actors as
moving because
  • A) the film is moving.
  • B) the pictures move in front of us.
  • C) motion is constructed in our heads.
  • D) of strobe lights.

250
43
16. The whole is greater than the sum of its
parts, has been most associated with a
  • A) Clinical psychologist.
  • B) Gestalt psychologist.
  • C) Cognitive-Behavioral psychologist.
  • D) Perceptual psychologist.

243
44
17.Retinal disparity refers to the
  • A) tendency to see parallel lines as coming
    together in the distance.
  • B) tendency to see stimuli that are near each
    other as parts of a unified object.
  • C) somewhat different images our two eyes receive
    of the same object.
  • D) extent to which our eyes turn toward each
    other when looking at an object.

246
45
18. The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in
order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole
object is called
  • A) closure.
  • B) constancy.
  • C) interposition.
  • D) convergence.

238
46
19. All of the following are monocular cues of
depth perception except
  • A) motion parallax.
  • B) linear perspective.
  • C) convergence.
  • D) relative height.
  • E) texture gradient.

246
47
20. We perceive the moon on the horizon as being
larger than when it is overhead because
  • A) it seems farther away on the horizon.
  • B) it seems closer on the horizon.
  • C) it seems brighter high in the sky.
  • D) it seems brighter on the horizon.

251
48
21. When we expect to see something because of
prior learning experiences, such as seeing clouds
as UFOs, it is because of
  • A) bottom-up processing.
  • B) previous abductions.
  • C) hypnotic suggestion.
  • D) perceptual set.

257
49
22. Human factors psychologists may use a
technique called, natural mapping, which is
  • A) drawing a plan of attacking a problem.
  • B) moving your eyes in a repeated pattern.
  • C) arranging controls to make them easier to
    understand.
  • D) moving in precise directions.

262
50
23. Even though a door may reflect quite a
different retinal image when it is open than when
it is closed, we still see it as the same,
rectangular door because of
  • A) illusory contours.
  • B) shape constancy.
  • C) retinal disparity.
  • D) perceptual closure.

250
51
24 The fact that the Amazing Randi has never
paid off on his claim illustrates that
  • A) while ESP phenomena exist, replicating them in
    a laboratory is not possible.
  • B) he fails to be convinced even though the
    evidence is obvious.
  • C) he is a non-believer and a cheapskate.
  • D) ESP phenomena have never been proven to be
    anything more than chance events or fakery.

267
52
25. As she gazed down from a bridge at the
rapidly flowing river, Nancy felt as thought she
were moving. Her experience best illustrates the
phenomenon of
  • A) retinal disparity.
  • B) perceptual adaptation.
  • C) location constancy.
  • D) visual capture.

242
53
Answers
1. B
2. C
3. A
4. A
5. D
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. C
10. B
11. A
12. D
13. B
14. B
15. C
16. B
17. C
18. A
19. C
20. A
21. D
22. C
23. B
24. D
25. D
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