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History of Psychology

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Title: History of Psychology


1
History of Psychology
  • Chapter 14 Psychoanalysis
  • After the Founding

2
I. The Neo-Freudians andEgo Psychology
  • A. In general
  • 1. adhered to Freuds central premises
  • 2.modified and selected aspects of his theory
  • B. Major change expansion of the ego concept
  • 1. to make it more independent of the id.
  • 2. the ego has its own energy
  • 3. Has functions separate from the id
  • 4. is free of conflict produced by id pressures.

3
The Neo-Freudians andEgo Psychology
  • C. Influences on personality
  • 1. de-emphasized biological forces
  • 2. emphasize social and psychological forces
  • 3. minimized the importance of infantile
    sexuality
  • 4. Minimized the importance of the Oedipus
    complex.

4
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
  • A. Her life
  • 1. the youngest of Freuds six children not a
    welcomed child
  • 2. early interest in her fathers work and became
    his favorite.
  • a. She attended meetings of the Society at 14

5
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
  • 3. Age 22 began a 4-year analysis with her
    father
  • 4. Age 29 read her first scholarly paper to the
    Society
  • a. "Beating fantasies and daydreams" (1924).
  • 5. Pioneered psychoanalysis of children

6
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
  • Contributions to psychoanalysis
  • 1. 1927 Introduction to the Technique of Child
    Analysis
  • a. considered childrens relative immaturity
  • b. considered childrens lack of verbal skills.
  • c. developed innovative methods
  • 1) the use of play materials
  • 2) the observation of the child in the home.

7
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
  • 2. She opened a clinic in London and established
    a training center for clinical psychologists.
  • 3. In The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense
    (1936)
  • a. she elaborated and clarified the use of
    defense mechanisms
  • b. It remains a core work in ego psychology.

8
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
  • 4. 1945 publication of The Psychoanalytic study
    of the Child begun
  • 5. substantially revised orthodox psychoanalytic
    theory
  • 6. expanded the role of the ego

9
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
  • C. Comment
  • 1. Ego psychology became the primary American
    form of psychoanalysis
  • 2. neo-Freudians
  • a. translated, simplified, and operationally
    defined concepts
  • b. encouraged experimental investigation of the
    hypotheses
  • c. modified psychoanalytic psychotherapy
  • d. fostered a relationship with academic
    psychology.

10
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • A. His life
  • 1. At critical times, Jung made decisions based
    on
  • a. what his unconscious told him
  • b. his dreams.
  • 2. 1900 MD from University of Basel
  • a. interested in psychiatry

11
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 3. 1905 appointed lecturer in psychiatry at U.
    of Zurich.
  • a. resigned the position to write, do research,
    and have a private practice.
  • b. extraordinary attitudes and behaviors toward
    clients
  • c. professional reputation established before he
    met Freud

12
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 4. interested in Freuds work
  • a. 1900 he read The Interpretation of Dreams
  • b. 1906 he began corresponding with Freud
  • c. 1907 their first meetings
  • d. 1909 lectures at Clark University with Freud
  • e. 1911 first president of the International
    Psychoanalytic Association
  • Freud insisted but Viennese members opposed it
    because Jung was not Jewish

13
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • f. 1912 The Psychology of the Unconscious
  • 1) Jung was never an uncritical disciple of
    Freud.
  • 2) the tenets in this book differed in major ways
    from Freud
  • 3) expected this book would strain his
    relationship with Freud
  • 4) After its publication Freud in fact terminated
    his relationship with Jung.
  • g. 1914 Jung resigned from the association

14
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 5. 1913-1916 intense emotional problems
  • a. Like Freuds crisis
  • 1) at about age 40
  • 2) confronted his unconscious through his dreams
  • 3) a time of immense creativity which led to the
    development of his personality theory
  • b. which led to the development of his
    personality theory.

15
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • B. Analytical psychology
  • 1. Libido
  • a. major difference with Freuds theory
  • b. the libido is a generalized life energy
  • c. the energy expresses itself in growth,
    reproduction, and other activities

16
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 2. Oedipus complex
  • a. Jung also rejected the Oedipus complex
  • b. childs attachment to its mother is a
    necessary dependence
  • c. Oedipus complex irrelevant to his own childhood

17
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 3. Role of sex
  • a. unlike Freud, no sexual anxieties or
    inhibitions as an adult
  • b. sex plays a minimal role in explaining human
    motivation

18
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 4. Forces that influence personality
  • a. Freud people are victims of their childhoods
  • b. Jung
  • 1) one is shaped by past as well as aspirations
  • 2) personality can be changed throughout life.

19
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 5. Unconscious
  • a. Jung tried to probed deeper into the
    unconscious
  • b. added the component of the collective
    unconscious.

20
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • C. The collective unconscious
  • 1. personal unconscious
  • a. comprised all suppressed or forgotten
    experiences in a persons life
  • b. is not a very deep level of unconscious
  • c.incidents can easily be recalled.

21
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 2. collective unconscious
  • a. a deeper level
  • b. unknown to the person
  • c. contains the cumulative experiences of prior
    generations
  • d. consists of universal evolutionary experiences
  • e. forms the basis of personality

22
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • D. Archetypes
  • Definition Inherited tendencies within the
    collective unconscious that dispose a person to
    behave similarly to ancestors who confronted
    similar situation.
  • Jung believed that self-actualization could not
    be attained until middle age.

23
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • E. introversion and extraversion (attitudes)
  • 1. extravert
  • a. libido direct outside the self
  • b. strongly influenced by forces in the
    environment
  • c. is sociable and self-confident

24
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • 2. Introvert
  • a. libido directed inward
  • b. is resistant to external influences.
  • c. is introspective, less confident in relations
    with others and the external world, less sociable
  • 3. No one is a complete extravert or introvert
  • 4. Impacted the development of Five-Factor
    Inventory

25
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • F. Psychological type
  • 1. Four functions of personality
  • 1) thinking provides meaning and understanding
  • 2) feeling process of weighting and valuing
  • 3) sensing conscious perception of physical
    objects
  • 4) intuiting perceiving in an unconscious way
  • 2. Later, impacted the developing of Myers-Briggs
    Type Indicator (MBTI)

26
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • G. comment
  • 1. Jungs influence on diverse fields
  • 2. Analytical psychology ignored by scientific
    psychology
  • a. his reliance on observation and interpretation
  • 3. Empirical support for Jungs ideas
  • a. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator the four
    functions
  • b. Eysencks Maudsley Personality Inventory the
    attitudes

27
II. Social Psychological Theories The Zeitgeist
Strikes Again
  • A. Revised conception of human nature
  • 1. De-emphasis of biological factors
  • 2. Emphasis on environmental influences
  • 3. TheoristsAlfred Adler and Karen Horney
  • 4. suggested that human behavior is determined by
    interpersonal relationships during childhood, not
    biological forces.

28
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • A. His life
  • 1. wealthy Viennese
  • 2. childhood was marked by illness and a close
    relationship with his father
  • a. core of his system inferiority feelings
  • b. no experience of an Oedipus complex

29
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • 3. 1895 MD from University of Vienna
  • 4. 1902 joined Freuds discussion group
  • a. openly criticized Freuds emphasis on sexual
    factors
  • b. 1910 Freud named Adler president of the
    Society in an attempt at reconciliation
  • 5. 1911 his relationship with Freud was
    terminated with bitterness.

30
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • 6. 1920s attracted many to his system
  • 7. 1926-1934 visits to U. S.
  • 8. 1934 professor of medical psychology at Long
    Island College of Medicine

31
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • B. Individual Psychology
  • 1. Social interest
  • a. is an innate potential to cooperate with
    others to achieve personal and societal goals
  • b. which develops through learning experiences in
    infancy

32
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • 2. Personality determinants
  • a. minimized the role of sex in determining
    behavior and rejected the Oedipus phase
  • b. focuses on conscious rather than unconscious
    factors.

33
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • 3. Emphasized that behavior is affected more by
    beliefs about the future than past experiences
  • 4. Striving for superiority
  • a. contain complete development, fulfillment, and
    realization of the self
  • b. is innate
  • c. is evident in every aspect of the personality

34
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • C. inferiority feelings
  • 1. generalized feeling of inferiority determines
    behavior
  • 2. are a result of infants smallness and
    helplessness
  • 3. lifelong push-pull between inferiority
    feelings and striving for superiority
  • 4. leads to continuous improvement
  • 5. inferiority complex
  • a. results from a failure to compensate
    adequately

35
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • D. Style of life
  • 1. Involves behaviors by which one compensates
    for inferiority
  • 2. Forms at ages 4 to 5
  • 3. Becomes fixed and resistant to change
  • 4. Provides the framework within which later
    experiences are dealt with
  • 5. Indicates one consciously creates ones
    lifestyle for oneself

36
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • E. the creative power of the self
  • 1. An active principle of human existence
  • 2. Ones attitude toward ones life and destiny
  • a. based on how one uses and interprets
    experiences
  • b. is consciously shaped

37
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • F. Birth order
  • 1. Different social experiences result in
    different personalities
  • 2. Distinctive behavior oldest, middle, youngest

38
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • G. Comment
  • 1. Adlers view of human nature is optimistic
  • 2.Criticisms
  • a. theories are superficial and system is too
    simple
  • b. did not explain methods of analysis and
    conclusion
  • c. he relied heavily on common observations

39
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • 3. Contributions
  • a. birth order research (most)
  • b. effects of early memories on adult style of
    life
  • c. influence on ego psychology
  • 1) emphasis on social forces
  • d. creative power of self influenced Maslow
  • e. stress on social variables influenced Rotter

40
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • A. Her life
  • 1. Born in Hamburg
  • 2. Childhood experiences influenced her system
  • 3. 1913 MD from U of Berlin
  • 4. 1914-18 took orthodox psychoanalytic training

41
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • 5. Faculty position at Berlin Psychoanalytic
    Institute and private practice
  • 6. 1932 associate director of Chicago Institute
    for Psychoanalysis
  • 7. Founded American Institute of Psychoanalysis

42
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • B. Disagreements with Freud
  • 1. Disagreed that personality depends on
    unchangeable biological forces
  • 2. Denied the preeminence of sexual factors
  • 3.Challenged the validity of the Oedipal theory
    and the concept of libido
  • 4. Opposed Freuds tenet that women are motivated
    by penis envy

43
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • 5. Posited that men are motivated by womb envy
  • 6. Basic views of human nature
  • a. Freud pessimistic, the death instinct
  • b. Horney optimistic humans capable of change
  • 7. Horney accepted
  • a. unconscious motivation
  • b. existence of emotional, nonrational motives

44
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • C. Basic anxiety
  • 1. The fundamental concept in Horneys theory
  • 2. Feelings of isolation and helplessness in a
    hostile world
  • 3. Results from parents behaviors toward the
    child
  • 4. Is not innate
  • 5. Basic motivation need for safety and freedom
    from fear

45
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • 6. Personality
  • a. develops in early childhood
  • b. can change throughout life
  • c. focus on parental behavior as determinants
  • d. denied universal developmental phases
  • e. everything depends on cultural, social, and
    environmental factors

46
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • D. Neurotic needs
  • 1. feelings of helplessness and insecurity
    provoke development of strategies for coping
  • 2. Neurotic need
  • a. a strategy that has become a fixed part of
    personality
  • b. a mode of defense against anxiety

47
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • 3. Horney identified 10 needs that make up three
    trends
  • a. the complaint personality (move toward others)
  • b. the detached personality (move away from
    others)
  • c. the aggressive personality (move against
    others)
  • 4. None is a realistic way to deal with anxiety
  • a. are too inflexible to permit alternative
    behavior

48
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • E. The idealized self-image
  • 1. Is a false picture of personality
  • 2. Prevents neurotics from understanding and
    accepting true self
  • 3. Neurotic conflicts
  • a. are denied
  • b. are neither innate nor inevitable
  • c. arise from undesirable situations in childhood

49
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • F. Comment
  • 1. Horneys optimism welcomed
  • 2. description of personality in terms of social
    forces
  • 3. Her system engendered little research
  • 4. Major contribution writings on feminine
    Psychology
  • a. clinical observations of patients
  • 1) non-replicable, non-validated, unsystematic
  • 2) non-experimental

50
III. The Psychoanalytic Tradition Today
  • A. Multiplicity of views and positions
  • B. Remains an important school and influence

51
IV. Humanistic PsychologyThe Third Force
  • A. In general
  • basic themes
  • a. emphasis on conscious experience
  • b. belief in the wholeness of human nature
  • c. focus on free will, spontaneity, and
    creativity
  • d.studies all factors relevant to the human
    condition

52
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • A. His life
  • 1. born in Brooklyn
  • 2. illustrated Adlers theory re unhappy
    childhood
  • 3. at Cornell, horrid first course in psychology
    (Titchener)
  • 4. transferred to Wisconsin Ph.D. in 1934

53
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • B. In general
  • 1. spiritual father of humanistic psychology
  • 2. garnered academic respectability for the
    movement
  • 3. goal to understand the highest achievements
    of which humans are capable

54
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • C. Self-actualization
  • 1. characteristics
  • a. an innate tendency
  • b. is the highest human need
  • c. involves active use of all of ones qualities
    and abilities
  • d. involves the development and fulfillment of
    ones potential

55
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • 2. the hierarchy of needs
  • a. physiological
  • b. safety
  • c. belonging and love
  • d. esteem
  • e. self-actualization
  • 3. research focus characteristics shared by
    self-actualized persons
  • 4. self-actualized persons free of neurosis,
    middle-aged or older

56
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • D. Comment
  • 1. criticism
  • a. small sample precludes generalizations
  • b. subjects selected according to his subjective
    criteria
  • c. terms are ambiguous and inconsistently defined
  • 2. rebuttal no other way to study
    self-actualization
  • 3 limited empirical laboratory support

57
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • A. His life
  • 1. born in Oak Park, Illinois
  • 2. parents strict fundamentalist religious views
  • 3. a lonely child relied on his own experiences
  • 4. age 22 freedom from parents belief system

58
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • 5. cornerstones of his theory
  • a. people must rely on their own interpretation
    of events
  • b. people can consciously and actively strive to
    improve
  • 6. 1931 Ph.D. from Teachers College at Columbia

59
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • B. In general
  • 1. developed person-centered therapy
  • a. client is responsible for change
  • b. assumes one can consciously and rationally
    alter ones thoughts and behavior
  • 2. personality
  • a. his theory focuses on a single motive
  • b. shaped by the present and how it is perceived
    in consciousness

60
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • C. Self-actualization
  • 1. drive to actualize the self
  • a. the major motive in personality
  • b. is innate
  • c. can be helped or hindered by childhood
    experiences
  • d. can be helped or hindered by learning

61
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • 2. the mother-child relationship
  • a. important with regard to its effect on the
    childs sense of self
  • b. positive regard child will become a healthy
    personality
  • 1) Child does not develop conditions of worth
  • 2) child will not have to repress any portion of
    the developing self.

62
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • c. conditional regard
  • 1) child develops conditions of worth
  • 2) childs self is not allowed to develop fully
  • 3. similar to Maslows concept of
    self-actualization
  • 4. Rogers and Maslow differ on the
    characteristics of the psychologically healthy
    person
  • 5. Rogers the person is actualizing rather than
    actualized

63
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • D. Comment
  • 1. criticisms
  • a. lack of specificity about innate potential for
    self-actualization
  • b. the emphasis on subjective conscious
    experiences
  • c. the exclusion of unconscious factors

64
V. The Fate of Humanistic Psychology
  • A. Growth
  • 1. 1961 Journal of Humanistic Psychology
  • 2. 1962 American Association for Humanistic
    Psychology
  • 3. 1971 became a division of APA
  • B. Not a school

65
The Fate of Humanistic Psychology
  • C. Not a part of the mainstream of psychological
    thought
  • 1. practitioners in private practice rather than
    academia
  • 2. comparatively little research and few
    publications
  • 3. no graduate training programs

66
The Fate of Humanistic Psychology
  • D. Contributions
  • 1. strengthened the idea one can consciously and
    freely change
  • 2. facilitated the return of the experimental
    study of consciousness
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