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Soil Degradation

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SOIL DEGRADATION Impacting The Environment Mr. Stewart SOIL ACIDIFICATION SYMPTOMS Reducing Yield Stunted root growth Abnormal leaf color Poor nodulation of legumes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 31 October 2019
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Title: Soil Degradation


1
Soil Degradation
  • Impacting The Environment

Mr. Stewart
2
what is soil?
3
Soil
  • Soil is the earths fragile skin that anchors all
    life on Earth. It is comprised of countless
    species that create a dynamic and complex
    ecosystem and is among the most precious
    resources to humans.
  • Soil is the end product of the influence of the
    climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and
    slope of terrain) , biotic activities
    (organisms), and parent materials (original
    minerals) acting over periods of time.

4
Soil Profile
5
Identify
6
what is soil Degradation?
7
Soil degradation
  • Soil degradation may be viewed as any change or
    disturbance to the soil perceived to be
    deleterious or undesirable.
  • Soil Degradation are broken down to
  • One (Physical)
  • Two (Chemical)
  • Three (Biological) subgroups

8
Soil degradation
9
what is Soil compaction?
10
Soil compaction
  • Soil compaction is the process in which a stress
    applied to a soil causes densification as air is
    displaced from the pores between the soil grains.
    When stress is applied that causes densification
    due to water (or other liquid) being displaced
    from between the soil grains then consolidation.

11
Densification
12
Soil compaction
  • Soil compaction is usually a combination of both
    engineering compaction and consolidation, so may
    occur due to a lack of water in the soil, the
    applied stress being internal suction due to
    water evaporation as well as due to passage of
    animal feet and other factors such as heavy
    machinery.

13
Compacting Methods
  • Static - a large stress is slowly applied to the
    soil and then released.
  • Impact - the stress is applied by dropping a
    large mass onto the surface of the soil.
  • Vibrating - a stress is applied repeatedly and
    rapidly via a mechanically driven plate or
    hammer. Often combined with rolling compaction
    (see below).
  • Gyrating - a static stress is applied and
    maintained in one direction while the soil is a
    subjected to a gyratory motion about the axis of
    static loading. Limited to laboratory
    applications.
  • Rolling - a heavy cylinder is rolled over the
    surface of the soil. Commonly used on sports
    pitches. Roller-compactors are often fitted with
    vibratory devices to enhance their ability.
  • Kneading - shear is applied by alternating
    movement in adjacent positions. An example,
    combined with rolling compaction, is the
    'sheepsfoot' roller used in waste compaction at
    landfills.

14
measured
  • A soil penetrometer can be used as a diagnostic
    tool to measure the extent and depth of
    subsurface soil compaction.

15
PENETROMETER
16
Tire COMPACTION
17
Compaction
18
Compaction
19
Advantage
  • Roads
  • Housing
  • Lawns

20
disadvantages
  • Causes soil pore spaces to become smaller
  • reduces water infiltration rate into soil
  • Decreases the rate that water will penetrate into
    the soil root zone and subsoil
  • Increases the potential for surface water
    ponding, water runoff, surface soil waterlogging
    and soil erosion
  • Reduces the ability of a soil to hold water and
    air, which are necessary for plant root growth
    and function
  • Reduces crop emergence as a result of soil
    crusting
  • Impedes root growth and limits the volume of soil
    explored by roots
  • limits soil exploration by roots and decreases
    the ability of crops to take up nutrients and
    water efficiently from soil
  • Reduces crop yield potential

21
management
  • Traffic control
  • -Reduce overall soil compaction in a field
  • -Improve soil structure
  • -Increase water infiltration
  • -Increase soil water storage
  • -Increase moisture use efficiency
  • -Improve nutrient use efficiency

22
management
  • Crop rotation
  • -Promote plant roots to grow through and break up
    compacted soils
  • -Increase soil organic matter
  • -Improve soil structure, improve water
    infiltration and penetration into soil
  • -Promote biological diversity

23
what is waterlogging
24
Water logging
  • Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil
    with water. Soil may be regarded as waterlogged
    when the water table of the groundwater is too
    high to conveniently permit an anticipated
    activity, like agriculture.

25
Water logging
26
Advantages
  • Planting of WATER LOVING plants.
  • Rearing of aquaculture
  • Irrigation method

27
Disadvantage
  • Insect harboring

28
Disadvantage
  • Flooding

29
Advantage
  • Hinder of Agriculture

30
disadvantage
  • LEACHING
  • Damaging of plant roots

31
Management
  • Consider a drainage
  • Choice of crop
  • Fertilizer
  • Weed control
  • Proper farming planning

32
Acidification
33
Soil Acidification
  • Soil acidification is the buildup of hydrogen
    cations, also called protons, reducing the soil
    pH. This happens when a proton donor is added to
    the soil. The donor can be an acid, such as
    nitric acid and sulfuric acid (these acids are
    common components of acid rain). It can also be a
    compound such as aluminium sulfate, which reacts
    in the soil to release protons. Many nitrogen
    compounds, which are added as fertilizer, also
    acidify soil over the long term because they
    produce nitrous and nitric acid when oxidized in
    the process of nitrification.

34
Soil acidification
35
Symptoms
  • Reducing Yield
  • Stunted root growth
  • Abnormal leaf color
  • Poor nodulation of legumes

36
Benefits
  • Raises soil pH.
  • A well balanced soil pH is important for soil
    fertility and nutrient availability plant species
    that can be grown biological activity of the soil

37
benefits
  • Livestock health
  • Increased calcium and magnesium levels in the
    plant helps to overcome problems such as grass
    tetany in cattle.

38
benefits
  • Economics
  • Research data shows that responses to lime can be
    profitable
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