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The European Union (EU)

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The European Union (EU) The World s Strongest Supranational Organization – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 31 May 2019
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Title: The European Union (EU)


1
The European Union (EU)
  • The Worlds Strongest Supranational Organization

2
What is it?
  • The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic
    European countries, committed to working together
    for peace and prosperity.
  • It is not a State intended to replace existing
    states, but it does represent a greater
    compromise of sovereignty than any other
    international organization.
  • The EU is unique its Member States have set up
    common institutions to which they delegate some
    of their sovereignty so that decisions on
    specific matters of joint interest can be made
    democratically at European level.
  • This pooling of sovereignty is also called
    "European integration" 

3
History of the EU
  • The historical roots of the European Union lie in
    the Second World War.
  • Idea of European integration conceived to prevent
    such killing and destruction from ever happening
    again
  • First proposed by the French Foreign Minister
    Robert Schuman in a speech on 9 May 1950. This
    date, the "birthday" of what is now the EU, is
    celebrated annually as Europe Day
  • Phases of growth
  • Initially, the EU consisted of just six
    countries Belgium, Germany, France, Italy,
    Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
  • Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined in
    1973,
  • Greece in 1981
  • Spain and Portugal in 1986
  • Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995
  • biggest ever enlargement took place with 10 new
    countries joining In 2004. May 9 was the day
    selected for the expansion of the EU from 15 to
    25 members

4
GROWTH OF THE EU
5
GROWTH OF THE EU
6
D O M A I N
?
CORE
ANTICIPATED EXPANSION
?
7
CONFIRMATION OF CORE-DOMAIN MODEL
8
How does it work?
  • There are five EU institutions, each playing a
    specific role
  • European Parliament (elected by the peoples of
    the Member States) 
  • Council of the European Union (representing the
    governments of the Member States) 
  • European Commission (driving force and executive
    body) 
  • Court of Justice (ensuring compliance with the
    law) 
  • Court of Auditors (controlling sound and lawful
    management of the EU budget)
  • These are flanked by five other important bodies
  • European Economic and Social Committee (expresses
    the opinions of organized civil society on
    economic and social issues)  
  • Committee of the Regions (expresses the opinions
    of regional and local authorities)  
  • European Central Bank (responsible for monetary
    policy and managing the euro)  
  • European Ombudsman (deals with citizens'
    complaints about maladministration by any EU
    institution or body) 
  • European Investment Bank (helps achieve EU
    objectives by financing investment projects) 

9
The Euro
  • The Treaty of Rome (1957)
  • Declared a common market as a European objective
  • Aim increase economic prosperity and contribute
    to "an ever closer union among the peoples of
    Europe"
  • The Single European Act (1986) and the Treaty on
    European Union (1992) built on this
  • introduced Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
  • laid the foundations for a single currency
  • name Euro was selected in 1995
  • in January 1999, the exchange rates of the
    participating currencies were irrevocably set and
    Euro area Member States began implementing a
    common monetary policy
  • in January 2002, 12 States in the EU introduced
    the new euro banknotes and coins

10
The Euro
  • Jan 1, 2002
  • Belgium
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Spain
  • France
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Austria
  • Portugal
  • Finland

11
Why have bills different sizes colors?
What values are reflected in these artifacts
that are not found in American money?
12
Switzerland
  • an island

13
What about Switzerland?
  • Swiss are traditionally suspicious of other
    countries
  • Swiss tradition of neutrality (WWI WWII)
  • self-imposed
  • permanent
  • armed
  • In some ways Switzerland is like the US
  • Nationalistic government not interested in ceding
    sovereignty
  • Economic policies are currently designed to
    protect local industries (esp. agriculture) from
    foreign competition
  • Initial cost of joining EU (progressive financial
    redistribution policy would cost the Swiss)
  • Switzerland has embarked on a policy of building
    bilateral agreements with the EU rather than
    joining outright

14
Costs of staying out
  • Export problems
  • Access to EU markets is not guaranteed
  • Inflation problems
  • Europeans nervous about the Euro due to expansion
    of the EU invest in Swiss Francs, inflating the
    value of the currency and inhibiting Swiss
    exports
  • Capital flight
  • High construction costs, expensive labor, and
    skill shortages already make investment in
    Switzerland unattractive
  • Several multinational corporations, such as
    Roche, Sulzer and Alusuisse, have frozen planned
    investment projects in Switzerland
  • Large Swiss companies, including Nestle, are
    shifting activities out of Switzerland in fear of
    discrimination by other nations
  • Already four out of five employees of the top 15
    Swiss companies work in other countries
  • Scientific information lag
  • EU scientific exchange programs accept Swiss
    citizens only if they fail to fill such exchanges
    with persons from EU countries
  • Accumulated bilateral agreements and cooperation
    may create de-facto incorporation in the EU for
    Switzerland

15
Questions
  • Is Switzerlands situation in the EU similar to
    that of the US, in the global political system?
  • Does resisting international cooperation cost
    more than accepting it?
  • Do countries that guard their sovereignty
    jealously ironically end up losing power relative
    to other countries?
  • What is the wave of the future
  • Strong, EU-style cooperation (multidimensional
    political, economic, military and environmental)
  • Limited, US-style cooperation (free-trade-ism,
    political insularity, and unilateral military and
    environmental policy)

16
The EU in comparative perspective
17
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21
US dominates entertainment industry in Europe
Cultural hegemony?
22
The Euro vs the Dollar
23
SUMMARY
  • The European Union is the strongest supranational
    organization in the world
  • shared currency financial management
  • legislative, judicial, and executive bodies
  • regulatory and planning bodies
  • The EU is growing geographically, and its growth
    suggests a core-domain model
  • core and domain are borne out by distribution of
    income
  • The EU does not appeal to all Europeans (at least
    not yet)
  • small states in particular seem skeptical
  • Roughly comparable to the US in some ways
  • population slightly larger than that of the US
  • somewhat more densely settled than the US
  • economy is at least as strong as the American
    economy
  • other social statistics (e.g. literacy, infant
    mortality homicide) are as good or better than
    the US
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