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Brief Introduction to Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

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Brief Introduction to Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Anne Todd, Steve Newton, & Rob Horner, University of Oregon Kate Algozzine & Bob Algozzine, – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Brief Introduction to Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)


1
Brief Introduction toTeam-Initiated Problem
Solving (TIPS)
  • Anne Todd, Steve Newton, Rob Horner, University
    of Oregon
  • Kate Algozzine Bob Algozzine,
  • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  • APA Citation
  • Todd, A. W., Newton, J. S., Algozzine, K.,
    Horner, R. H., Algozzine, B. (2013). The Team
    Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Training
    Manual. Educational and Community Supports,
    University of Oregon. www.uoecs.org

.
2
Goals
  • Foundations of an effective meeting
  • Identifying problems effectively
  • Building useful solutions
  • Implementation, follow-up and adaptation of
    solutions.

3
People arent tired from solving problems they
are tired from solving the same problem over and
over.
4
Team-Initiated Problem Solving II (TIPS II) Model
Identify Problem with Precision
Make Summative Evaluation Decision
Identify Goal for Change
Collect and Use Data
Monitor Impact of Solution and Compare
Against Goal
Identify Solution and Create Implementation Plan
with Contextual Fit
Implement Solution with High Integrity
Meeting Foundations
5
Improving Decision-Making
Solution
Problem
From
To
Action Planning
Problem
Solution
Problem Solving
Information
6
Newton et al., 2012 Effects of TIPS Training on
Team Meeting Foundations
TIPS I Study
DORA Foundations Score
Pre TIPS Training
Post-TIPS Training
7
Newton et al., 2012 Effects of TIPS Training on
Team Decision-making
DORA Thoroughness of Decision Making Score
(Simple)
Pre TIPS Training
Post-TIPS Training
8
Meeting Foundations
  • Clear Purpose/ Authority
  • How will we know if the meeting is effective?
  • What is the impact we are to have on students/
    families/ School?
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Facilitator
  • Minute Taker
  • Data Analyst
  • Member
  • Agreement about process
  • Start time/stop time
  • Schedule
  • Respect and commitment
  • Electronic Meeting Minutes/Agenda

9
Define roles for effective meetings
  • Core roles
  • Facilitator
  • Minute taker
  • Data analyst
  • Active team member
  • Administrator
  • Backup for each role

Typically NOT the administrator
Can one person serve multiple roles? Are there
other roles needed?
10
Who is Responsible?
Action Person Responsible
Reserve Room Facilitator
Recruit items for Agenda Facilitator
Review data prior to the meeting Data Analyst
Reserve projector and computer for meeting Minute Taker
Keep discussion focused Facilitator
Record Topics and Decisions on agenda/minutes Minute taker
Ensure that problems are defined with precision Facilitator
Ensure that solutions have action plans Facilitator
Provide drill down data during discussion Data Analyst
End on time Facilitator
Prepare minutes and send to all members Minute taker
11
Your Turn
  • Define who will be
  • Facilitator
  • Minute Taker
  • Data Analyst
  • Backup

12
Organizing for an effective problem solving
conversation
A key to collective problem solving is to provide
a visual context that allows everyone to follow
and contribute
Problem
Use Data
Out of Time
Solution
13
Using Meeting Minutes
  • Documentation
  • Logistics of meeting
  • Agenda items for todays meeting ( and next
    meeting)
  • Discussion items, decisions made, tasks and
    timelines assigned
  • Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks
  • Reviewing Meeting minutes
  • Snapshot of what happened at the previous meeting
    and what needs to be reviewed during the current
    meeting
  • Visual tracking of focus topics
  • Prevents side conversations
  • Prevents repetition
  • Encourages completion of tasks

14
Agenda for Next Meeting
15
  • Where in the Form would you place
  • Schedule for hallway monitoring for next month
  • Too many students in the intensive support for
    literacy
  • 3. Status of fights on playground in last month.
  • 4. Next meeting date/time.
  • 5. Todays agenda
  • 6. Solutions for a new problem

16
  • Where in the Form would you place
  • Staff will complete weekly fidelity checks
  • Three students are not meeting daily CICO goal
  • Parents are not signing CICO home report
  • ORF scores are too low for third graders
  • Plan for school board report

17
At end of each meeting, conduct a BRIEF
assessment of the meeting by asking 4 questions
Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an X) Our Rating Our Rating Our Rating
Yes No So-So
1. Was todays meeting a good use of our time?
2. In general, did we do a good job of tracking whether were completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings?
3. In general, have we done a good job of actually completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings?
4. In general, are the completed tasks having the desired effects on student behavior?
18
Defining problemsThe first step to effective
problem solving
  • A Problem
  • Any significant difference between what is
    expected/desired and what is actually observed
    (academic, behavior).
  • Define Problems is Precision
  • What is the behavior (and discrepancy)?
  • Where is it most likely?
  • When does it occur?
  • Who performs the behavior?
  • Why does the behavior keep happening in this
    situation?

19
Using Data to Refine Problem Statement
  • The statement of a problem is important for
    team-based problem solving.
  • Everyone must be working on the same problem with
    the same assumptions.
  • Problems often are framed in a Primary form,
    that creates concern, but that is not useful for
    problem-solving.
  • Frame primary problems based on initial review of
    data
  • Use more detailed review of data to build
    Solvable Problem Statements.

20
Precise Problem Statements(What are the data we
need for a decision?)
  • Precise problem statements include information
    about the following questions
  • What is the problem behavior?
  • How often is the problem happening?
  • Where is the problem happening?
  • Who is engaged in the behavior?
  • When is the problem most likely to occur?
  • Why is the problem sustaining?

21
What
When

Where
Why
Who
Designing Effective Behavior Support
22
Primary versus Precision Statements
  • Primary Statements
  • Too many referrals
  • September has more suspensions than last year
  • Gang behavior is increasing
  • The cafeteria is out of control
  • Student disrespect is out of control
  • Precision Statements
  • There are more ODRs for aggression on the
    playground than last year. These are most likely
    to occur during first recess, with a large number
    of students, and the aggression is related to
    getting access to the new playground equipment.

23
Primary versus Precision Statements
  • Primary Statements
  • Too many referrals
  • September has more suspensions than last year
  • Gang behavior is increasing
  • The cafeteria is out of control
  • Student disrespect is out of control
  • Precision Statements
  • There are more ODRs for aggression on the
    playground than last year. These are most likely
    to occur during first recess, with a large number
    of students, and the aggression is related to
    getting access to the new playground equipment.

24
Precise or Primary Statement?
  • Children are using inappropriate language with a
    high frequency in the presence of both adults and
    other children. This is creating a sense of
    disrespect and incivility in the school.
  • ODRs during December are higher than in any other
    month.

Primary
Primary
25
Precise or Primary Statement?
  • James D. is hitting others in the cafeteria
    during lunch, and his hitting is maintained by
    peer attention.
  • Boys are engaging in sexual harassment.
  • Three 5th grade boys are name calling and
    touching girls inappropriately during recess in
    an apparent attempt to obtain attention.

Precise
Primary
Precise
26
Precise or Primary Statement?
  • Minor disrespect and disruption are increasing
    over time, and are most likely during the last 15
    minutes of our block periods when students are
    engaged in independent seat work. This pattern
    is most common in 7th and 8th grades, involves
    many students, and appears to be maintained by
    escape from work.

Precise
27
Examples Primary to Precise
  • Gang-like behavior is increasing
  • Texting during school is becoming more negative
  • Bullying (verbal and physical aggression) on the
    playground is increasing during first recess,
    is being done mostly by four 4th grade boys, and
    seems to be maintained by social praise from the
    bystander peer group.
  • A large number of students in each grade level
    (6, 7, 8) are using texting to spread rumors,
    and harass peers. Texting occurs both during the
    school day, and after school, and appears to be
    maintained by attention from others.

28
Your Turn
  • Define a primary problem you have encountered.
  • Transform that primary problem statement into a
    precise problem statement.

29
Using Data to Build Precise Problem Statements
  • STEP ONE
  • Do we have a problem? (compare observed with
    expected)
  • What and How Often
  • STEP TWO
  • Define the problem with precision (which
    behaviors?)
  • Where
  • When
  • Who
  • Why

30
Total Office Discipline Referrals as of January 10
Total Office Discipline Referrals
31
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32
Transforming Data into Information
  • Look first at your patterns (tell the story)
  • Level, Trend
  • Peaks
  • Match data to current perceptions
  • Compare your data
  • With national median
  • With last year
  • With what your staff/students/ families want

33
SWIS summary 2011-12 (Majors Only)5194 schools
2,663,221 students 2,033,426 ODRs
Grade Range Number of Schools Mean Enrollment per school Mean ODRs per 100 stud/ school day Median ODRs per 100 per stud/ school day 25th Percentile ODR/100/ school day 75th Percentile ODR/100/ school day
K-6 3310 446 .34 (.41) .22 .11 .42
6-9 972 614 .61 (.65) .44 .25 .76
9-12 477 853 .78 (.86) .53 .30 .94
PreK-8 285 336 .51 (.57) .36 .18 .64
PreK-12 71 431 1.07 (1.19) .44 .21 .88
34
Questions to Ask What is happening? What is
typical? What is possible? What is needed?
Elementary School with 150 Students
35
Elementary School
36
Middle School 765 students
37
Describe the narrative for this elementary school
38
Describe the narrative for this Middle school
39
Median Line based on 2010-11 Data
Describe the narrative for this High school
Year One Year Two
40
What are the SWIS reports you need to move from a
Primary to a Precise statement?
  • What problem behaviors are most common?
  • ODR per Problem Behavior
  • Where are problem behaviors most likely?
  • ODR per Location
  • When are problem behaviors most likely?
  • ODR per time of day
  • Who is engaged in problem behavior?
  • ODR per student
  • Why are problem behaviors sustaining?
  • Custom graph

41
Data lead to asking the right questions
  • If many referrals in classroom
  • Which classes?
  • Which students?
  • What problem behaviors?
  • When?
  • If many referrals in cafeteria
  • Which students?
  • What times? (beginning or end of lunch period?)
  • What problem behaviors?

42
Questions to ask about Referrals by Problem
Behavior
  • Is there one major problem behavior or multiple
    problem behaviors?
  • Do they appear to be student-student problem
    behaviors or student- adult? 
  • Are there similarities in the types of behaviors?
  • Are they major or minor problem behaviors?

43
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46
Questions to ask about Referrals by Location
  • Where are the problems occurring?
  •  
  • Are there problems in many locations, clusters of
    locations, or one location?

47
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49
Questions to ask about Referrals by Time
  • When are the problem behaviors most likely?
  • How do those times match with the daily
    activities?
  • How does this information match up to Referrals
    by Location?

50
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53
WHOQuestions to ask about Referrals by Student
  • Who is engaging in problem behavior?
  • What proportion of students has 0-1 ODR?
  • What proportion of students has 2-5 ODRs?
  • What proportion of students has 6 ODRs?

54
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57
Why? The hardest question
  • Given a specific behavior in a specific context
  • What consequence is perceived as maintaining the
    problem behavior?
  • Always assess motivation AFTER you have defined
    who, what, where?
  • You always ask WHY the students misbehave in a
    specific context
  • Look for the primary motivation if there are
    multiple possibilities.

58
Motivation for Many students engaging in
Disruption in the Cafeteria
This Year
59
Motivation for many students engaging in
Disruption in the Classroom Elementary
This Year
60
Motivation for Non-compliance and Insubordination
in the Classroom All students/ Middle School
This Year
61
Motivation for Brians Disrespectful Behavior in
the Classroom
This Year
62
Meeting Video 1
  • Check if you identified the
  • ____ minute taker
  • ____ facilitator
  • ____ data analyst
  • ____ school administrator
  • What was one problem (old or new) addressed by
    the team?
  • Was it defined with precision?

63
Building Goals
  • Define the problem with precision
  • Define the measure of the problem (level, amount)
  • Define what would be considered good
  • Use the Goal to guide the Solution.
  • How can we move from where we are to where we
    want to be?

64
Building Goals
Problem Level Goal
Many students are leaving garbage in cafeteria resulting in conflict and ODRs. The behavior is maintained because it is easy to do. 22 ODRs per month from Cafeteria Heidi (sup) rates Cafeteria as 1 (low) on a 1-5 scale of Cleanliness lt5 ODRs per month from Cafeteria Heidi rates Cafeteria as gt4 for cleanliness two weeks in a row.
65
Building Goals
Problem Level Goal
7th Grade students are tardy for 5th period classes after their lunch. Tardiness is rewarded by peer attention, and no consequences in class. 5 of 6 7th grade teachers indicate they have gt3 students tardy on a regular basis for 5th period. Estimated 18, 7th grade students tardy for 5th period last week. ??
66
Building Goals
Problem Level Goal
Phil is engaging in physical/verbal aggression toward three younger students during non-structured times, and we believe this is maintained by social positives from his peer group, and responses from the 3 students. Phil has received 4 ODRs this week for bullying, teasing, or aggression. ??
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Using Data to Build Solutions
  • Prevention How can we avoid the problem context?
  • Who, When, Where
  • Schedule change, curriculum change, etc
  • Teaching How can we define, teach, and monitor
    what we want?
  • Teach appropriate behavior
  • Use problem behavior as negative example
  • Recognition How can we build in systematic
    reward for desired behavior?
  • Extinction How can we prevent problem behavior
    from being rewarded?
  • Consequences What are efficient, consistent
    consequences for problem behavior?
  • How will we collect and use data to evaluate (a)
    implementation fidelity, and (b) impact on
    student outcomes?

69
Solution Development
Prevention
Teaching
Recognition
Extinction
Corrective Consequence
Safety (if needed)
Data Collection
70
Solution Implementation Plan Elements
Solution Action Elements Solution Action Elements Defined
Prevent Focus on prevention first. How could we reduce the situations that lead to these behaviors?
Teach How do we ensure that students know what they SHOULD be doing when these situations arise?
Reward How do we ensure that appropriate behavior is recognized?
Extinguish How do we work to ensure that problem behavior is NOT being rewarded.
Correct How will you correct errors?
Safety Are additional safety precautions needed?
71
How are we going to solve the problem?
  • Research to Practice Fact
  • To be effective, solution actions should address
    the function of the problem behavior.

Internal External
Obtain Something Feeling of Success Choice of Activity/Tangible Reward
Avoid Something Anxiety Triggers/Panic Peer Ridicule
Implications for solution being appropriate for
problem AND likely to produce desired change
72
Solution Action Elements Possible Generic Solution Actions
Prevent What can we do to prevent the problem? Adjust physical environment. Define document expectations and routines. Assure consistent clear communication with all staff.
Teach What do we need to teach to solve the problem? Explicit instruction linked to school wide expectations. Teach what to do, how to do it and when to do it. Model respect .
Reward What can we do to reward appropriate behavior? Strengthen existing school wide rewards. Include student preferences.
Extinguish What can we do to prevent the problem behavior from being rewarded? Use signal for asking person to stop. Teach others to ignore (turn away/look down) problem behavior.
Correct What will we do to provide corrective feedback? Intervene early by using a neutral, respectful tone of voice to tell the student what he/she is doing wrong and what he/she should be doing.
Safety Do we need additional safety precautions? Separate student from others if he/she is unable to demonstrate self-control. Make sure adult supervision is available.
73
Identify Problem with Precision
Team-Initiated Problem Solving II (TIPS II) Model
Reassess and Revise Solution(s) As Needed
Establish Solution Goal(s)
Collect and Use Data
Monitor Impact Of Solution(s) Compare with Goal
Develop Solution(s)
Implement Solution(s) with High Integrity
Meeting Foundations
74
Trevor Test Middle School
  • 565 students
  • Grades 6,7,8

75
Trevor Test Middle SchoolIs there a problem? If
so, what is it?
76
Lang. Defiance Disruption
Harass Skip
1145
Cafeteria Class Commons Hall
77
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78
Perceived motivation for inappropriate language
and disruption in the cafeteria (all students)
79
Precise Problem Statement Hypothesis Development
  • Many students from all grade levels are engaging
    in disruption, inappropriate language and
    harassment in cafeteria and hallway during lunch,
    and the behavior is maintained by peer attention
  • A smaller number of students engage in skipping
    and noncompliance/defiance in classes, (mostly in
    rooms 13, 14 and 18), and these behaviors appear
    to be maintained by escape.

80
Solution Development For disruption in hall and
cafeteriaGoal To reduce referrals for
disruption in the hall cafeteria by 50
Prevention Teach behavioral expectations in cafeteria Maintain current lunch schedule, but shift classes to balance numbers.
Teaching Teach behavioral expectations in cafeteria Maintain current lunch schedule, but shift classes to balance numbers.
Recognition Establish Friday Five Extra 5 min of lunch on Friday for five good days.
Extinction Encourage all students to work for Friday Five make reward for problem behavior less likely
Corrective Consequence Active supervision, and continued early consequence (ODR)
Data Collection Maintain ODR record and supervisor weekly report
81
Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan
Precise Problem Statement Solution Actions Who? When? Goal, Timeline, Rule Updates
Many students from all grade levels are engaging in disruption, inappropriate language and harassment in cafeteria and hallway during lunch, and the behavior is maintained by peer attention Prevention Teach behavioral expectations in cafeteria Maintain current lunch schedule, but shift classes to balance numbers Teachers will take class to cafeteria Cafeteria staff will teach the expectations Principal to adjust schedule and send to staff Rotating schedule on November 15 Changes begin on Monday Goal Reduce cafeteria ODRs by 50 per month (Currently 24 per month average) Timeline Review Data Update Monthly
A smaller number of students engage in skipping and noncompliance/defiance in classes, (mostly in rooms 13, 14 and 18), and these behaviors appear to be maintained by escape. Recognition Establish Friday Five Extra 5 min of lunch on Friday for five good days Extinction Encourage all students to work for Friday Five make reward for problem behavior less likely School Counselor and Principal will create chart staff extra recess Principal to give announcement on intercom on Monday
Corrective Consequence- Active supervision and continued early consequence (minor/major ODRs) Hall and Cafeteria Supervisors Ongoing
Data Collection Maintain ODR record supervisor weekly report SWIS data entry person Principal shares report with supervisors Weekly
82
Phoenix Elementary
  • 265 Students K-5

83
Phoenix Elementary
National Median Line is for 2010-11
Year One Year Two
84
Primary Problem Statement
  • Our rates of problem behavior are above the
    national average for 8 of past 10 months, almost
    double the number from last year, and there is an
    increasing trend from November April
  • Use what, where, when, by whom, why reports to
    define problem with precision

85
Phoenix Elementary Problem Behaviors
86
Phoenix Elementary - Locations
Year One Year Two
87
Phoenix Elementary - Time
88
Phoenix ElementaryReferrals Per Student (2
Referrals)
89
Phoenix Elementary Referrals by Motivation
Year One Year Two
90
Problem Statement
  • Do we have one or more problems?
  • Based on location, time, problem behavior, and
    students involved
  • Build a precise problem statement for one problem
    at a time
  • Give best guess on hypothesis
  • Other information sources lead to sharing
    equipment, taking turns on swings, different
    games rules for soccer during recess and during
    soccer games.

91
Precision Statements
  1. We have high rates of physical aggression,
    disrespect and inappropriate language on the
    playground at 1000, 1015, 1215, 1230, 145
    200. Many students are involved and it appears
    that students are trying to get access to
    equipment/games.
  2. We have lower rates of disruption and disrespect
    in classrooms throughout the day with many
    students, some of whom are also having problems
    on the playground. Problems are occurring with
    grades 3-5 students.

92
Solution Development Precise Problem
StatementWe have high rates of physical
aggression, disrespect and inappropriate language
on the playground at lunch break times. Many
students are involved and it appears that
students are trying to get access to
equipment/games.GOAL We want to reduce the
number of referrals on the playground for each of
the remaining months of the school year.
Prevention
Teaching
Reward
Extinction
Corrective Consequence
Safety/ Data
93
Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan Problem Solving Action Plan
Precise Problem Statement Solution Actions Who? When? Goal, Timeline, Rule Updates
We have high rates of physical aggression, disrespect and inappropriate language on the playground at 1000, 1015, 1215, 1230, 145 200. Many students are involved and it appears that students are trying to get access to equipment/games. Reduce Playground referrals each month from now until the end of the school year. Progress monitor SWIS data weekly



94
Implement/Follow-up/ Adapt
95
Agenda for Next Meeting
96
Your Turn
  • Define a current problem with precision
  • Define a goal
  • Use the Solution Development Matrix to identify
    possible solution elements
  • Define how you would determine if the solution
    was implemented (fidelity) and if it was
    effective.

97
Solution Development
Prevention
Teaching
Recognition
Extinction
Corrective Consequence
Safety (if needed)
Data Collection
98
TIPS Fidelity of Implementation Checklist
  • 18 item checklist
  • 3 point rating scale
  • Single response per team
  • Meeting Foundations, items 1-9
  • Problem Solving, items 10-18
  • Results for overall implementation and subscale
    scores for Meeting Foundations and Problem
    Solving
  • Use checklist criteria for each item to rate
    current level of implementation

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102
TIPS Fidelity of Implementation Checklist
Meeting Foundations (Items 1-9)
  1. Primary and backup individuals are assigned to
    defined roles and responsibilities of
    Facilitator, Minute Taker, and Data Analyst.
  2. Meeting participants have the authority to
    develop and implement problem-solving solutions.
  3. Meeting started on time.
  4. Meeting ended on time, or members agreed to
    extend meeting time.
  5. Team members attend meetings promptly and
    regularly.

103
TIPS Fidelity of Implementation Checklist
Meeting Foundations (Items 1-9)
  • Public agenda format was used to define topics
    and guide meeting discussion and was available
    for all participants to refer to during the
    meeting.
  • Previous meeting minutes were present and
    reviewed at start of the meeting.
  • Next meeting was scheduled by the conclusion of
    the meeting.
  • 9. Meeting Minutes are distributed to all team
    members within 24 hours of the conclusion of the
    meeting.

104
Your Turn Use the TIPS Fidelity Checklist
  • What do we already do well?
  • Meeting Foundations Purpose/ Roles/ Meeting
    Agenda
  • Do we have an adequate data system?
  • Do we define problems with precision?
  • Do we build comprehensive and efficient
    solutions?
  • Do we implement/following up/ Adapt
  • What would work well in our school?
  • What are the next steps for improving our team
    meetings?
  • For Sept
  • For Oct
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