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The French Revolution and Romanticism

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Title: The French Revolution and Romanticism


1
The French Revolution and Romanticism
2
Roots of The Revolution
  • A. Absolute monarch
  • B. Philosophes
  • C. Infamous
  • D. Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • Bourbon
  • E. Marquis de Lafayette
  • F. Treaty of Alliance

3
Roots of the Revolution
  • 1700s
  • Paris is buzzing with new ideas
  • Salons
  • Attracted writers, poets, musicians, important
    government officials, liberal minded aristocrats,
    and members of the middle class
  • Talked about Ideas of the Enlightenment
  • Natural rights
  • Rights of man
  • Religious tolerance
  • Freedom of speech and press
  • Freedom to choose their own leaders

4
Ideas that were sweeping across Europe
  • All people have certain natural rights
  • People of a nation have the right to remove a
    government that takes away these rights
  • John Locke
  • People that believed in justice tolerance and
    freedom
  • Limit the power of the absolute monarch
  • Give people voice in government
  • Philosophes
  • Voltaire
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Montesqueiu

5
Ideas of the Philosophes
  • Advocate of Religious Freedom
  • Used humor and satire to make his points
  • The Catholic deliberately kept people in
    ignorance and superstition
  • Crush the Infamous thing
  • Voltaire
  • People are born free but usually end up enslaved
  • Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains
  • Kings should rule by the will of the people, not
    the by the will of God
  • Rousseau

6
More Ideas of the Philosophes
  • The Persian Letters
  • Praised England for establishing and preserving a
    balance of power between Parliament and the king
  • Montesquieu

7
Talk of Change
  • Salons were a place where ideas could be
    discussed freely and openly
  • People were not free to criticize the state in
    public
  • Speech and writings were censored
  • Books printed in other countries and smuggled
    into France
  • Some officials that were suppose to ban helped to
    circulate
  • Many people in the middle and upper class liked
    the idea of having a voice in the government.
  • Something that they never had under the rule of
    the Bourbon Kings

8
Late 1870s
  • Ideas of the Enlightenment had been simmering in
    the minds of the people
  • Reform was needed
  • England had done it
  • Glorious Revolution
  • Drastic steps were needed

9
The Influence of English Rights
  • Many French Thinkers had visited England
  • They were impressed
  • Parliament had passed a Bill of Rights
  • 1640 bloody civil war
  • 1688 Glorious Revolution
  • Limited Monarchy
  • High Officials in France worried
  • 1649 the English had executed their king
  • Many Frenchmen believed that the English system
    was better
  • Why not France?

10
Enlightenment and America
  • Meanwhile across the pond
  • Jefferson, Madison, Franklin
  • Well acquainted with the glorious revolution
  • Expected those rights for the colonists
  • Enlightenment ideas were the ammunition of the
    revolutionaries
  • A new government was formed
  • Far beyond what the French Philosophes imagined

11
Let me Volunteer
  • Marquis de Lafayette
  • Aristocrat
  • Believed in the ideals of the Enlightenment
  • Wanted to help America
  • Eager for military fame and glory
  • Bought his own ship and volunteered to help the
    colonist fight
  • Becomes a hero of the American Revolution
  • First Frenchman to help America to fight

12
France to the Rescue
  • King Louis XVI
  • Absolute monarch
  • French King
  • France had lost all of its territory in North
    America during the French Indian War
  • Wanted to see the British humiliated by the
    revolutionaries
  • February 1778
  • Treaty of Alliance is signed
  • France agrees to send
  • Money
  • Equipment
  • 12000 Soldiers
  • 32000 Sailors
  • And a large naval fleet

13
Impact of Helping the Revolution
  • Frenchmen fought side by side with
    revolutionaries
  • Admired the courage of the Americans
  • Saw how determination and ideals can defy an
    empire
  • Made the desire for liberty burn more brightly
    for the French
  • Helping in the Revolution was expensive
  • French Indian War was expensive
  • American Revolution emptied the treasury even
    further
  • Meant higher taxes for the people
  • This leads to the beginning of the revolution in
    France

14
The Three Estates
  • A. Ancien régime
  • B. Tithes
  • C. Versailles
  • D. Bourgeoisie
  • E. Corvée

15
The Three Estates
  • Thomas Jefferson spent 4 years in France
  • Observing
  • Out of the population of 20 million of people
    suppose to be in France, there are nineteen
    millions more wretched, more accursed in every
    circumstance of human existence, than the most
    conspicuously wretched individual of the whole
    United States.
  • Exaggeration
  • The French peasants were poor and hungry but they
    had a much better life than that of the most
    conspicuously wretched

16
Three Social Classes
  • Ancien régime
  • Old Regime
  • Rigid social ladder that has been in place since
    the middle ages
  • 3 social classes called the Three Estates
  • Clergy
  • Nobility
  • Peasants

17
The First Estate
  • Clergy
  • The Catholic church was the official church in
    France
  • Gap between the rich and poor clergymen
  • Poorparish priests
  • Rich-headed monasteries
  • Archbishops, bishops and abbots
  • Lived like princes in extravagantly furnished
    palaces
  • Spent most of their time doing things other than
    their church duties
  • One churchman astounded the aristocrats with his
    extravagant gambling

18
The First Estate
  • Wealth of the Clergy came from tithes and rent
  • Tithesone-tenth of a persons income paid to
    support a church
  • Land
  • Clergy made up 1 of the population
  • Owned 10 of the land
  • Clergy paid no taxes
  • Paid 2 of income as a gift to the state
  • Wealth and large landholdings gave the members of
    the clergy power to guide the affairs of the
    nation

19
The Second Estate
  • Nobility and the Aristocracy
  • No longer a warrior class
  • Owned 20 of the land
  • Some were poor most had modest wealth
  • Few were extremely rich
  • Hired managers to look after their property
  • Lived in luxury in Paris or Versailles
  • Didnt have to pay taxes
  • Allowed to hold the highest offices
  • Church, government, and military
  • Some members of the second estate were wiling to
    give up some privileges in exchange for more
    political power

20
Similarities between 1st and 2nd estates
  • Both held power and wealth
  • This meant that things stayed the same
  • Unless they could weaken the king and give
    themselves more power.

21
The Third Estate
  • Changed the most since feudal times
  • 98 of the people
  • Anyone who wasnt an aristocrat or clergy
  • Doctors, lawyers, business people, merchants,
    manufacturers, writers, government workers, and
    craftspeople
  • Classes within the 3rd estate
  • Bourgeoisie
  • Urban working class
  • Peasants

22
The Bourgeoisie
  • Wealthiest group of the 3rd estate
  • Much like the nobles
  • Powdered wigs, silk stockings, and tight fitting
    knee britches called culottes
  • Could not claim any privileges of the nobility
  • Some could purchase nobility
  • Had to pay taxes
  • Could not be promoted to the highest ranks in the
    Church or the army
  • Deep resentment
  • They were the ones who supplied most of the
    money, engaged in trade, and built the wealth of
    the country

23
The Urban Working Class
  • Almost as poor as the peasants
  • Lived miserably
  • Existed mainly on bread
  • 3 pounds per day
  • Became known as the sansculottes
  • Sansculottes- those without trousers
  • Wore red woolen hats to show support for the
    revolution

24
Life of a Peasant
  • Better off than peasants in other countries
  • Poorest members of the 3rd estate
  • Paid the most taxes
  • The wretched individuals Thomas Jefferson wrote
    about
  • Story from the life of a peasant
  • Corvée
  • A special tax were people worked for free for the
    government

25
The Absolute Monarchs
  • A. Courtier
  • B. King Louis XIV
  • C. Versailles
  • D. King Louis XV
  • E. Après nous, le déluge
  • F. King Louis XVI
  • G. Marie Antoinette

26
The Absolute Monarchs
  • How many of us would want to be friends with
    royalty
  • Courtier
  • An attendant at court, usually an aristocrat
  • Palace had 200 guest rooms
  • King Louis XIV
  • Center of the world
  • Everything revolved around him
  • He was the sun

27
Rules of Behavior
  • Falseness
  • Acting like a slave
  • Admiring glances
  • Flattery
  • The more extravagant the better
  • Bowing and removing of hat for everything that
    was the kings
  • You must be seen at court
  • Spend money
  • Wear expensive clothes
  • No gray
  • Elaborate rules of etiquette
  • Knocking on a door
  • If you were lucky you would receive the greatest
    of honors
  • Holding the candle while the king put on his
    nightgown.

28
King Louis XIV
  • Most Powerful monarch in Europe
  • Perfect example of an absolute monarch
  • Gods representative on earth
  • Ruled by divine Right
  • Said that he was is own chief minister at the age
    of 23
  • Unheard of
  • I am the state
  • Became king at the age of 7
  • At age 10 uprising by nobles in Paris
  • Failed, left its mark on the young king
  • Became determined to keep the nobles under his
    thumb

29
Versailles
  • Previous kings lived in the Tuileries in Paris
  • Luis XIV built a magnificent palace at Versailles
  • 7 football fields long
  • Gardens
  • 1 million red and yellow tulips
  • 1000 rooms
  • Library
  • Theater
  • Council rooms
  • Living quarters for the king and queen
  • Hall of Mirrors
  • 17 tall windows 17 huge mirrors 32 chandeliers

30
Versailles continued
  • Luis XIV insisted that the most powerful nobles
    live at least part of the year at Versailles
  • Did favors for them
  • The nobles became dependent on him
  • Nobles became idle, corrupt flatterers, gamblers,
    and gossips

31
The Reign of Louis XIV
  • 72 years long
  • France becomes on of the most prosperous nations
    and the center of European Culture
  • Art and Literature Flourished
  • Louis became involved in long and costly wars
  • Left France in deep debt

32
Louis XV
  • Great Grandson of the Sun King
  • Became ruler at the age of 5
  • Ineffective
  • More interested in having fun than governing
  • France becomes involved in more costly wars
  • French Indian War
  • Seven Years War
  • France loses all of its colonies in North America
    and India
  • Kept his court at Versailles
  • Continued to heavily tax the poor and spend
    extravagantly

33
More Louis XV
  • Knew that he was leaving France in a financial
    crisis
  • Après nous, le déluge
  • After us comes the flood
  • August 23, 1754 a baby boy is born
  • Grandson of Louis XV
  • Courier dies on the way to announce the birth
  • Louis Augustus is born
  • King Louis XVI

34
King Louis XVI
  • Kind and Generous
  • Trouble making decisions
  • Mostly interested in hunting
  • Flabby and nearsighted
  • Skilled and fearless hunter
  • Kept a detailed account of each hunt
  • Very shy when he was not hunting
  • Not very bright, talented or bold
  • At the age of 15 marries Marie Antoinette
  • Becomes King at the age of 20
  • I feel like the universe is going to fall on me

35
Queen Marie Antoinette
  • A. dauphin
  • B. Ancien Régime
  • C. Le Petit Trianon

36
Queen Marie Antoinette
  • The dauphin and Marie Antoinette visited Paris
    for the first time
  • Dauphin- the title given to the prince who is
    next in line to inherit the French throne
  • What people saw
  • Tall and slender woman
  • Blue eyes charming smile
  • Perfect complexion

37
What Marie Saw
  • We made our entrance into Paris . . . The poor
    people . . . In spite of the taxes with which
    they are overwhelmed, were transported with joy
    at seeing us. . .When we returned from our walk
    we went up to an open terrace and stayed there
    half an hour. I cannot describe to you, my dear
    mamma, the. . .joy and affection which every one
    exhibited toward us. Before we withdrew we
    kissed our hands to the people. Which gave them
    great pleasure. What a happy thing it is for
    persons in our rank to gain the love of a whole
    nation so cheaply. . . I felt it thoroughly, and
    shall never forget it.

38
Louis XVI
  • One year later King Louis XV dies of the smallpox
  • The search began for Louis XVI (20) and Marie
    Antoinette (19)
  • Found Praying
  • Protect us, O God. We are too young to reign.

39
King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
  • Many people hated Marie because she was an
    Austrian
  • Austria is an enemy of France
  • Others saw them as a breath of fresh air and a
    hope for the future
  • Both were virtuous
  • In love with each other
  • Kind and generous

40
Dangerous Advice
  • People believed that Marie Antoinette interfered
    with her husbands decisions
  • Not truestill a problem
  • Marie was a spoiled child and was determined to
    have things her way.
  • Louis indulged her
  • If people wanted things from the king they would
    ask the queen
  • Nation is nearly bankrupt because of extravagant
    spending
  • The poor could not pay enough taxes to pull out
    of debt

41
More Louis
  • King Louis XVs ministers were making reforms
    reforms
  • Tax the Aristocrats
  • The Aristocrats resisted
  • Louis Fires his grandfathers ministers
  • Aristocratshe is going to be a good king
  • Maintained the ancien régime
  • The attempted reforms of King Louis XV could have
    prevented the revolution

42
The Extravagant Queen
  • Marie Antoinette liked to spend money and have a
    good time
  • Allowance twice that of the previous queen
  • Constantly in debt
  • She wasnt well educated
  • Only interested in gossip and scandals
  • Good at gambling, gossip, and staging dramatic
    productions
  • Often lost hundreds of thousands of dollars in
    one night

43
Maries Wardrobe
  • Always buying new clothes
  • 2 million dollars in a year
  • Most of it in jewelryDiamonds
  • Personal dressmaker and beautician
  • Liked to have her hair piled high
  • Decorated with scenes of people, houses and
    animals

44
Le Petit Trianon
  • A small mansion on the grounds of Versailles
  • Enclosed with fences and gates to keep people out
  • Inside
  • Theater, gardens with a lake and a river
  • Peasant Village
  • People posing as peasants
  • Farm animals
  • She would dress in a white dress and pretend to
    be a peasant
  • Meanwhile the government is in debt, people went
    hungry, the real peasants suffered under the
    weight of taxes

45
Marie Antoinette and the Revolution
  • Many people believe that Marie Antoinette caused
    the Revolution
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Not all her fault
  • She did play a part
  • Extravagance didnt reduce debt
  • People began to hate her
  • She became the symbol of everything that the
    French people thought was wrong.
  • Give them Cake
  • Cold-hearted and cruel, loyalty to the king and
    queen began to weaken

46
The Third Estate Revolts
  • A. Estates-General
  • B. Abbé Sieyès
  • C. National Assembly
  • D. Vive lassemblée
  • E. Jean-Sylvain Bailly
  • F. The Tennis Court Oath

47
The Third Estate Revolts
  • May 1789
  • Louis XVI had been in power for 15 years
  • France was on the brink of financial collapse
  • One of the biggest reasons was because of wars
  • American Revolution
  • Colonies gained independence
  • Great Britain had been crippled
  • France was in deeper debt
  • Extravagant spending by the court
  • The French government spent half of its money
    paying off interest on loans

48
Reform is Needed
  • The only solution to all of Frances problems was
    reform
  • This would also means changes for the aristocracy
  • They knew the government was in trouble
  • We will agree to make some changes, but you must
    call a meeting of the Estates-General
  • The Estates-General
  • The legislative body before the French
    Revolution, made up of representatives from the
    Three Estates
  • Originated in medieval times
  • Purpose was to give advice to the king
  • Approve new taxes

49
The Estates-General
  • Had not met since 1614
  • Louis agreed for the meeting
  • Opened the door to revolution
  • Saturday, May 2, 1789
  • King Louis XVI is sitting in the Hall of Mirrors
    receiving representatives from the Three Estates
  • Deputies
  • First Estate
  • Rich, elegantly embroidered robes
  • Second Estate
  • Satin suits with lace cuffs, plumed hats, silver
    vests, silk cloaks
  • First and Second Estates Received Graciously

50
Enter the Third Estate
  • Third Estate
  • Plain simple clothes
  • Waited for three hours
  • Not in the Hall of Mirrors
  • Marched single file past a solemn king

51
Meeting of the Estates General
  • Ancient Rules
  • The Three estates met separately to vote on a
    proposal
  • Each Estate cast one vote based on the decision
    of its members
  • What is the Problem with this?
  • The First and Second Estates dominated the
    Estates-General
  • The Third Estate wanted to change the rules so
    that they would have a real voice
  • Had more deputies than the other two Estates
    combined
  • They knew that some member of the clergy might be
    sympathetic to their problem
  • The Third Estate wanted all of Three Estates to
    meet together.
  • Each deputy would be able to cast one vote.
  • The Third Estate would be able to control the
    outcome of the voting
  • The nobles objected and the king sided with them.

52
The Beginning of the Estates-General
  • The deputies in the Third Estate spent time
    getting to know each other
  • The public was admitted to the hall
  • Discussion Begins
  • Some were willing to settle for small changes
  • Others wanted nothing less than a constitution
    and an end of the Ancien régime
  • Abbé Sieyès
  • Clergy man who was a champion of the poor
  • Wrote a pamphlet to express his ideas about the
    Third Estate
  • What is the Third Estate? Everything! What has
    it been up to now in the political order?
    Nothing! What does it demand? To become
    something!

53
The Third Estate Looks For Help
  • The deputies of the Third Estate agreed that they
    should ask deputies of the First Estate to join
    them in their meeting
  • The gentlemen of the commons invite the
    gentlemen of the clergy, in the name of the God
    of Peace and for the national interest, to meet
    them in their hall to consult upon the means of
    bringing about the concord which is so vital at
    this moment for public welfare
  • Some of the clergy were excited others wanted to
    discuss the proposal
  • The delegation went back to wait for a reply
  • June 13 three priests arrived, more and more
    followed

54
The National Assembly is Formed
  • The Third estate was ready to begin its work
  • Abbé Sieyès
  • The third estate represents 98 of the population
  • New name
  • THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • Debates on the name began
  • A vote was taken
  • 491-89 in favor
  • The First Estate Joins
  • The Nobles would join eventually

55
The Tennis Court Oath
  • The king was furious about the news
  • Locked the doors of the National Assembly meeting
  • Wanted to declare their actions illegal
  • Put the commoners back in their place
  • The deputies would not back down
  • Moved their meeting to the nearby tennis courts
  • Vive lassemblée
  • Long live the Assembly
  • Jean-Sylvain Bailly
  • Chosen to lead the meeting
  • All that wanted change would take an oath to stay
    together until a constitution was written
  • Arms raised in a salute
  • Sign the paper that the oath was written on
  • Only one person did not sign the oath
  • Known as the Tennis Court Oath

56
A Time of Violence
  • Sanscullotes
  • Jacques Necker
  • Bastille
  • July 14 1789
  • Great Fear
  • Émigrés
  • archives

57
A time of Violence
  • King Louis XVI
  • Calls his Swiss Guards in to Paris to protect him
  • Rumors started to fly
  • The king was going to arrest the deputies of the
    Third Estate
  • The troops were arriving in preparation for the
    war
  • In Paris the sansculottes were becoming angry
  • Economy was failing
  • 150000 people were out of work
  • Bread was in short supply
  • The cost of bread was half a days wages
  • Speculation that aristocrats were withholding
    grain to sent the price higher

58
  • July 12 the King makes another mistake
  • Fires Jacques Necker
  • Jacques had encouraged Louis to give into the
    Third Estates Demands
  • Working people thought Jacques was their ally
  • They thought that he could control the price of
    bread , make tax reforms and save the country
    from bankruptcy
  • People thought King Louis the XVI would use force
    to disband the Assembly
  • Angry mobs
  • Looting
  • Threatening

59
To The Bastille
  • 14th Century Fortress
  • Five-foot-thick stone walls
  • 8 stone towers
  • Outer moat with a draw bridge
  • Inner moat with a drawbridge
  • Represented the Tyranny of the Bourbon Kings
  • Only had seven prisoners
  • 4 lunatics
  • Others were not political prisoners
  • Bastille had been used to store 250 barrels of
    gunpowder for safekeeping

60
July 14 1789
  • Rioters had broken into the military storage
    facility
  • 30,000 muskets
  • Canons
  • No Gun Powder
  • The Rioters heard that there was gunpowder in the
    Bastille
  • to the Bastille! To the Bastille!
  • Launay could hear the noisy mob approaching
  • A delegation was sent to speak with Launay
  • Remove the canons
  • Hand over the fortress

61
Attack on the Bastille
  • Launay agreed to remove the cannons
  • More sansculottes joined the crowd
  • Men broke the pulleys holding the drawbridges
  • Down with the Bridges
  • Luanay opened the gates
  • Killed by the mobs
  • Heads cut off and put on pikes
  • THE BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION

62
The next day
  • Louis is awakened early
  • is this a rebellion
  • no sire, this is a Revolution
  • Journal Rien
  • Necker is returned to office
  • Violence and rioting continued
  • Millers were killed
  • Game was killed in private estates
  • Broke into the home of nobles
  • Sometimes killed the lord and his family
  • Some nobles fled to other countries
  • Called Émigrés

63
The Great Fear
  • The violence continued
  • Rumors
  • People in the pay of nobles were roaming the
    countryside
  • Burning crops
  • Murdering peasants
  • The peasant armed themselves with whatever they
    could find
  • The fear disappeared when nothing happened
  • The kings officials abandoned their offices
  • Replaced by mayors and officials that were
    friendly to the revolution

64
The National Assembly is at work
  • In Versailles
  • Working on reforms and on a constitution
  • News of the riots and looting
  • In several provinces the whole people forms a
    kind of league for the destruction of the manor
    houses, the ravaging of the lands, and especially
    for the seizure of the archives where the deed to
    feudal properties are kept. It seeks to throw
    off at last a yoke that for centuries weighted it
    down.
  • Archives- the place where records related to an
    institution or organization are stored.
  • What should be done about the violence?

65
Toward a New Government
  • A. August 27, 1789
  • B. Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • C. National Guard
  • D. Marquis de Lafayette

66
Toward a New Government
  • What should be done?
  • Give up some of the nobilitys ancient priveleges
  • Pay taxes according to income
  • Peasants be allowed to hunt
  • All citizens should be allowed to hold offices
    and positions in the army
  • a contagion of sentimental feeling
  • Clergy gave up rights to tithes
  • Lord gave up the right to collect land rents
  • Suspend the session. They have all gone quite
    mad
  • By morning the Ancien régime was gone.

67
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • For a constitution to be a good one, it must be
    based on the rights of man and must protect these
    rights we must understand the right which are
    granted to all men by natural justice we must
    recall all the principles which are at the base
    of human society.

68
DORM continued
  • Some people didnt think that the constitution
    was a good idea because they felt like France
    might not be ready for freedom.
  • They had lived under the feudal system for
    centuries
  • August 27 1789
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man is issued
  • Men are born and remain free and equal in
    rights
  • these rights are liberty, property, security,
    and resistance to oppression,

69
DORM
  • New provisions of the Declaration of the Rights
    of Man
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Right to have a say in how they were governed
  • Absolute Monarchy was abolished
  • Not quite ready to write a constitution.
  • There were still disagreements
  • How much power the king should have
  • The Poor People Speak again

70
Women March on Versailles
  • Shortage of bread is reaching a crisis in Paris
  • Bakers are threatened with hanging
  • Fights break out in bread lines
  • Women were in charge of getting the bread
  • October 5 1789
  • Angry women demanding bread
  • Told they would have to go see the king
  • SO THEY DID
  • Marched to Versailles
  • Armed with pikes
  • Imagined horrible tortures for the queen
  • Crowd of 6000

71
Women March on Versailles
  • The rain began to fall
  • Reached Versailles in the late afternoon soaked
    and muddy
  • The National Guard
  • The citizens militia
  • Commanded by Marquis de Lafayette
  • The marching women demanded that Lafayette lead
    them to Versailles
  • Pushed their way into the meeting hall where the
    National Assembly was meeting
  • Foul language shouting at the deputies

72
Women March on Versailles
  • A delegation of 6 women were allowed to meet with
    the king
  • Sire, we want bread
  • You know my heart, I will order all of the bread
    in Versailles to be collected and given to you.
  • King went to sleep
  • 6am the queen is awakened
  • Women had broken into the palace looking for her
  • 2 bodyguards killed
  • We want to cut off her head, tear out her heart,
    hack up her intestines

73
  • The queen was scared
  • Fled through an empty staircase to the kings room
  • The empty room
  • Slashed her bed sheets with knives
  • Lafayette arrives and clear the place of the
    rioters
  • The women were in the courtyard
  • Body guards heads on the pikes
  • The king to Paris! The king to Paris!
  • My friends, I will go to Paris with my wife and
    children.
  • National Guard in front
  • Women walked along
  • Pikes included
  • We are bringing the baker, the bakers wife, and
    the bakers boy now we shall have bread!

74
Reforms and the Constitution
  • Deputies of the NA followed the king to Paris
  • Announcing reforms
  • 18 months laws were passed that formed the basis
    of a new constitution
  • Limited constitutional monarchy
  • Assembly makes the laws
  • The king and ministers are responsible for
    enforcing them
  • Took over lands of the Catholic Church
  • Sold to pay off debts
  • Clergy would be elected by voters
  • Paid by the state
  • Angered religious officials
  • The king approved the Declaration of the Rights
    of man and the Constitution

75
From Monarchy to Republic
  • A. Conservative
  • B. Radical
  • C. Republic
  • D. The Marseillaise
  • The National Convention
  • E. Louis Capet
  • F. Guillotine

76
From Monarchy to Republic
  • Every night a duke leaves the Tuileries at the
    same time
  • June 21 1791
  • Something is different
  • A plump man in a dark cloak leaves and enters the
    carriage
  • Inside there is one woman and 2 girls
  • Another woman enters the carriage dressed in a
    simple dress and hat.

77
Escape
  • The Carriage begins its trip to Austria
  • In the town of Varennes a man recognizes the face
    of the man in the carriage
  • His face was on the money
  • Chubby man in cloak
  • King Louis the XVI
  • Woman in the carriage
  • Louis Sister
  • 2 Girls
  • Louis son and daughter
  • Plainly dressed woman
  • Marie Antoinette

78
Busted
  • The king and his family are returned in
    humiliation
  • Streets are lined with soldiers of the National
    Guard
  • Huge crowds watched the carriage in silence
  • Whoever applauds the king shall be flogged
    whoever humiliates him shall be hanged.
  • The king had lost the love and trust of his
    people
  • If his attempt was successful he could have
    persuaded Austria to invade France
  • The king becomes a prisoner in Tuileries

79
A New Legislative Assembly
  • September 1791 the National Assembly is done
  • A new Legislative Assembly is formed
  • Younger men with different ideas
  • Solid members of the middle class, many lawyers
  • The old problems remained
  • No jobs and no bread
  • The Legislative Assembly held its meetings in the
    riding school in the gardens at Tuileries

80
Divided Legislative Assembly
  • Radical
  • Conservative
  • Favored extreme change
  • Wanted to get rid of the king
  • Left-wingers
  • Opposed rapid change and hold traditional values
  • Wanted to keep the limited monarchy
  • Right-wingers

81
Divisions in other places in France
  • Radical
  • Conservative
  • Wanted to get rid of all the old rules and
    traditions
  • Establish complete equality and democracy
  • Wanted to go back to the absolute monarchy
  • Most of them had left the country

82
France at War
  • Leopold II
  • Austrian Emperor
  • Supported the right-wingers
  • Wanted to overthrow the revolution
  • France set a bad example for other Europeans
  • Austria threatens to attack
  • The assembly responds
  • hooray
  • Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,
  • The National Assembly declares war on Austria

83
The War goes bad for France
  • I am not able to understand, how we could ever
    get into war without the slightest preparation
  • Marquis de Lafayette
  • The French Soldiers Fled at the sight of the
    Austrian Army
  • Rumors spread
  • The king and queen are traitors! They have
    betrayed us to the enemy!
  • The sansculottes turned to violence

84
August 10, 1792
  • The king and queen had been awake all night
  • The Swiss Guards stood by to defend their king
    and queen
  • The sansculottes had taken over the city
    government
  • They approached the Tuileries
  • Muskets and cannons fired
  • New sound
  • Marching
  • Militia from the province of Marseille
  • Coming to fight against the Austrians
  • They sang The Marseillaise

85
Attack on Tuileries
  • The mob forced its way into the palace
  • One member of the assembly tried to protect the
    royal family
  • All 500 of the Swiss guards are slaughtered
  • And anyone else that could be found (more than
    1000 people)
  • The king and queen become prisoners
  • In September a new radical assembly is elected
  • The National Assembly

86
The National Assembly
  • September 22 1792
  • Declared France a republic
  • The end of the Monarchy
  • Louis Capet
  • The king must be killed
  • Antoine de Saint-Just

87
The Fate of the King
  • Put on trial for conspiracy against the nation
  • Found guilty
  • Now what
  • Vote
  • Death
  • Most shocking vote was that of Philippe Egalite
  • January 21, 1793
  • Louis has a date with the guillotine
  • October 16 1793
  • Marie Antoinette has a date with the guillotine
  • I beg your pardon, I did not do it on purpose

88
Religion Culture and Art
  • A. Festival of the Supreme Being
  • B. Maximilien Robespierre
  • C. NeoClassicism
  • D. Jacques Louis David

89
Religion, Culture and Art
  • The radical leaders wanted to destroy everything
    from the ancient regime
  • They shared Voltaires dislike of the Catholic
    Church
  • Doubted the doctrine
  • Hated the bishops
  • The attack on the Church
  • All of the churchs land was taken and sold
  • Tried to change the name of the Church to the
    French national church
  • Priests had to make an oath of loyalty to support
    the new constitution

90
The Attack on the Church
  • Many of the Catholics in France became angry
  • Not just the priests
  • Began to turn against the revolution
  • The pope condemned the revolution
  • After the execution of the king
  • Radicals took over the Cathedral of Notre-Dame
  • Tore out the statues of Saints
  • Replaced them with statues of Voltaire and
    Rousseau
  • The radical leaders wanted to get rid of the old
    Christian religion.

91
The Festival of the Supreme Being
  • Announced to introduce the people of France to
    the new civic religion.
  • Paris was excited
  • Houses were decorated with flowers and colors of
    the revolution
  • The best artists worked to prepare for the
    festival
  • Tuileries
  • Thousands gathered
  • Maximilien Robespierre explains his belief
  • The idea of a supreme being and the immorality of
    the sould reminds us always of justice
  • Set fire to wooden statues that represented
    Atheism, Folly and Vice

92
A New Calendar
  • Mr Gs Birthday Fructidor 17 186
  • The radicals wanted to remove all traces of
    Christianity
  • The old calendar counted dates from the birth of
    Christ
  • New Calendar began September 22, 1792
  • The day the National Convention took power
  • 12 months
  • Each had 30 days
  • 3 ten-day weeks
  • Festival celebrating the Sansculottes
  • The months were named after natural events.

93
  • Autumn
  • Vendémiaire (from Latin vindemia, "grape
    harvest") Starting Sept 22, 23 or 24
  • Brumaire (from French brume, "fog") Starting Oct
    22, 23 or 24
  • Frimaire (From French frimas, "frost") Starting
    Nov 21, 22 or 23
  • Winter
  • Nivôse (from Latin nivosus, "snow") Starting Dec
    21, 22 or 23
  • Pluviôse (from Latin pluviosus, "rain") Starting
    Jan 20, 21 or 22
  • Ventôse (from Latin ventosus, "wind") Starting
    Feb 19, 20 or 21
  • Spring
  • Germinal (from Latin germen, "germination")
    Starting Mar 20 or 21
  • Floréal (from Latin flos, "flowering") Starting
    Apr 20 or 21
  • Prairial (from French prairie, "pasture")
    Starting May 20 or 21
  • Summer
  • Messidor (from Latin messis, "harvest") Starting
    Jun 19 or 20
  • Thermidor (or Fervidor) (from Greek thermos,
    "heat") Starting Jul 19 or 20
  • Fructidor (from Latin fructus, "fruit") Starting
    Aug 18 or 19

94
New Styles in Clothing and Speech
  • No more powdered wigs and elaborate, heavy
    dresses
  • Men
  • Plain clothes with simple decoration
  • Women
  • Soft cotton dresses and sandals
  • Imitating the Greeks
  • The new styles reflected modesty and virtue which
    were expected in the new republic
  • Monsieur, Madmoiselle, madame
  • Replaced with citizen and citizeness

95
The Art of the Revolution
  • The Revolutionaries encouraged new styles of art
  • Looked at the ancient Greeks and Romans
  • Models of modesty, piety, and devotion to duty
  • Contrasted with the Ancien régime aristocracy
  • Immorality and vice
  • Paintings and sculptures
  • Contemporary Figures in Classical Garb
  • Used figures from ancient times to make
    statements about contemporary events
  • The style was very formal with crisp outlines and
    cool colors

96
Neo Classicism
  • Influential
  • Encouraged the discover and excavation of ancient
    Roman Cities
  • Herculaneum and Pompeii
  • Neoclassical paintings mimicked actual pictures
    found on the walls of the ruins
  • Jacques-Louis David
  • The most famous neoclassical artist of the
    revolution
  • Member of the National Convention
  • Voted for the death of the king

97
The Tennis Court Oath
  • Emphasized the heroism of the delegates to never
    part until a constitution had been written

98
The Death of Marat
  • Depicts one of the most famous events of the
    revolution
  • Marat was a radical journalist and hero of the
    sansculottes
  • Stabbed by a young woman while taking a bath
  • These paintings inspired the people with
    revolutionary fire

99
The Reign of Terror
  • Tumbrels
  • Royalist
  • Suspect
  • The Jacobins
  • The Committee of Public Safety
  • Maximilien Robespierre
  • The Law of Suspects

100
The Reign of Terror
  • When the French Revolution Started in 1789
    liberal minded people were applauding it.
  • 1793 the world was horrified
  • Tumbrels could be heard every afternoon
  • Tumbrel-A two wheeled wooden cart used to
    transport prisoners to the guillotine
  • Reasons someone might be in the Tumbrel
  • Crying while husband was being executed
  • Chopping down a tree
  • Not caring a fig for the revolution
  • Using monsieur or madame

101
The Jacobins and the Committee of Public Safety
  • 1791 The legislative assembly took office
  • Formed clubs to discuss ideas
  • The most radical of these clubs was the Jacobins
  • When the National Convention took power with the
    sansculottes the revolution turned down a violent
    path
  • The Jacobins had demanded the deaths of King
    Louis and Marie Antoinette
  • Declared war against Austria
  • Took Control of the Government

102
France was in trouble
  • France was surrounded by enemy forces
  • Many uprisings and civil wars
  • Many people in France would welcome the invasion
    of enemy troops
  • Royalists-supporters of the king and queen.
  • Prices increased and food was in short supply
  • People felt that the country was filled with
    traitors
  • Something had to be done

103
The Committee of Public Safety
  • Established in July of 1793
  • Lead by Maximilien Robespierre
  • Favorite Color was green
  • Sculptured bust of himself in his room
  • Lots of paintings and engravings as well
  • Kept the book Social Contract next to his bed
  • Fanatical towards the revolution

104
Robespierres plan for safety
  • All opposition to the revolution must be rooted
    out
  • Let terror be the order of the day
  • Terror would allow virtue to flourish
  • September 1793
  • The Law of Suspects is introduced
  • People were condemned for being suspected to
    not agree with the revolution
  • People were brought by the thousands to the
    guillotine
  • October 1, 2400 people
  • December, 4500
  • People were tried up to 50 at a time
  • Final death toll 40,000

105
  • The flow of blood did not solve the real problem
  • Paris was experiencing a near famine
  • There is no butcher shop in Paris except in this
    square
  • Robespierre turned on his fellow Jacobins
  • July 27 1794
  • Meeting for Robespierre to accuse deputies of
    being suspect
  • Down with the Tyrant! Long Live the
    Republic!
  • Robespierre and friends are taken to jail
  • Robespierre attempts suicide
  • The next day he has a date with Madame Guillotine
  • Along with his friends
  • Antoine de Saint-Just
  • The Revolution had spun out of control

106
Napoleon Empire Builder
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Directory
  • November 9, 1799
  • The Napoleonic Code
  • Cossacks
  • Exile
  • Waterloo

107
The End of Terror
  • Robespierre and his supporters were overthrown in
    1794
  • A moderate bourgeoisie takes control
  • New Constitution
  • Directory- 5 men that were in control of the
    government
  • Same Problems
  • No food
  • Rising prices
  • Foreign wars
  • October 1795
  • Royalist and émigrés feel like it is a good time
    to restore the ancien régime
  • Mobs attacked the Tuileries

108
Attack on the Tuilleries
  • National Convention is in a meeting
  • Napoleon is an officer in the French army
  • Called on to defend the Convention
  • Fires cannons point blank into the crowds
  • Puts and end to the uprising
  • Napoleon was a supporter of the revolution
  • Member of the Jacobins
  • 1796- given command of the French forces
  • Defeats several armies and increases Frances
    Territory

109
Napoleon Takes Control
  • Napoleon always wanted to have political power
  • 1799 the people had lost faith in the Directory
  • Window of opportunity for Napoleon
  • November 9, 1799
  • Napoleon makes his move
  • Forces the five directors to resign
  • Ends the Directory
  • 3 consuls
  • One of them was Napoleon
  • THE END OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

110
  • 1800 a new constitution is approved
  • Gave real ruling power to Napoleon
  • Consul for Life in 1802
  • Napoleon has the power of a dictator
  • War still plagued France
  • Frenchmen, you want peace your governments
    wants it even more than you.
  • At war with the British
  • Not willing to be humiliated again
  • Afraid of Enlightenment ideals
  • France defeats the Austrians
  • 1802 Britain signs a peace treaty

111
Beginning of Order in France
  • After 10 years of Revolution
  • People longed for stability
  • Napoleon began to make reforms
  • Established a national bank
  • Balanced the national budget
  • Stopped rising prices
  • People could now afford bread
  • Builds roads and bridges

112
The Napoleonic Code
  • The Napoleonic Code
  • Ensures several principles of the revolution
  • Equality of male citizens
  • The end of the Three Estates
  • The right to own property
  • Practice the religion of choice
  • Popular with bourgeoisie and peasants
  • Made him irresistible
  • 1804 Napoleon is voted as emperor
  • 15 years after the beginning of the revolution

113
The Grand Empire
  • Napoleon was one of historys greatest military
    geniuses
  • 1805-1809
  • Won battle after battle
  • Gave pieces of Europe as gifts to his friends
  • JosephNaples and later Spain
  • LouisHolland
  • JeromeWestphalia
  • Elisathe Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Italy
  • All of Europe was under the control of the
    Bonapartes
  • Except Great Britain, Russia, and the Ottoman
    Empire

114
A Disastrous Mistake
  • June 1812
  • Napoleon Decides to invade Russia
  • 600,000 Troops
  • Russia Retreats burning everything along the way
  • September
  • Napoleon reaches a burning Moscow
  • Puts out the fire and waits for five weeks
  • The Czar lets him wait
  • The French Troops retreat

115
Retreat
  • The men were wearing summer attire
  • No more food
  • Cold and Snow
  • Horses died
  • Food source for the men
  • Wagons and artillery left behind
  • Bloody footprints in the snow
  • Cossacks appeared and attacked the French
  • One of Historys greatest military defeats.
  • 30,000 men returned to their homelands

116
Ultimate Humiliation
  • 1814 enemy armies marched in to Paris and
    Occupied the city.
  • Napoleon is Exiled to Elba
  • Exile- to force a person to leave his or her own
    country and live somewhere else.
  • King Louis the XVIII becomes the new King

117
Return From Exile
  • A few months later
  • Napoleon escapes Elba.
  • March 1st
  • 1000 men
  • Greeted by people who remember the days of glory
  • Already tired of Louis XVIII
  • Royal Troops had been ordered to stop Napoleon
  • Napoleons soldiers played the Marseillaise
  • Outlawed by the new king
  • There he is! Fire
  • If you want to kill your emperor, here I am.
  • Long live the Emperor!.
  • Louis the XVIII Flees

118
Waterloo
  • Napoleon easily took control of the government
    and raised and army.
  • June 12 leaves Paris
  • June 18, 1815 Napoleon takes his army to
    Waterloo
  • Small farming village near Brussels, Belgium
  • Heavy rain the night before
  • Too muddy for horses and artillery to move about
  • Napoleon surveys his troops
  • 74,000
  • Duke of Wellington has about as many soldiers.
  • We have ninety chances in our favor,

119
More Waterloo
  • 1130 The French begin to move
  • Fierce fighting with the roar of cannons
  • 430 50,000 Prussian troops arrive
  • Support for Wellington
  • The battlefield becomes soaked with blood
  • Napoleon is overwhelmed and suffers defeat
  • Wellington loses ¼ of his forces
  • Napoleon looses half of his forces
  • Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena off the coast of
    Africa

120
What do we learn from the French Revolution?
  • One of the bloodiest Revolutions in History
  • The fall of the French Monarchy and the rise of
    the middle class
  • Napoleons armies carried the ideas of the French
    Revolution throughout Europe
  • 1800s are marked with revolutions as the ideas
    of liberty and equality spread

121
The Romantic Revolution
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • The Noble Savage
  • Romanticism
  • William Wordsworth
  • John Constable
  • Ludwig van Beethoven

122
The Romantic Revolution
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau is one of the fathers of
    the Romantic Revolution
  • man is born free and everywhere he is in chains
  • Helped spark the Revolution
  • Rousseau was famous for claiming that human
    beings are born good but are made worse by
    civilization and society.
  • Shocking idea
  • To be civilized is good to be uncivilized is
    bad

123
Noble Savages
  • Noble Savages
  • American Indians of North America.
  • No fancy carriages and palaces
  • They appreciated streams and fields around them
    and the sun and stars above them
  • Did not rely on servants to do their work for
    them
  • They lived a more healthy life
  • Very few people agreed with Rousseau.
  • He lived his life in accordance with his ideas
  • His books influenced the whole generation of
    Romantic writers, painters and musicians

124
Neoclassicism and Romanticism The romantic
artists of the late 1700s and early 1800s
rebelled against the artistic ideas that were
accepted in their day
  • Romanticism
  • Doing their own thing
  • Everyday Subjects
  • More emphasis on feeling.
  • The heart is more important than the head in
    reasoning
  • Placed less emphasis on order and more on
    spontaneity
  • Neoclassicm
  • Imitation
  • Heroes and leaders
  • Influenced by the Enlightenment
  • They valued thought reason and the life of the
    mind
  • Very orderly and systematic

125
William Wordsworth
  • English poet
  • Wrote poems about everyday people
  • Including Peasants and beggars
  • Did not use fancy words and poetic phrases
  • Used spoken language
  • Tried to bring emotions and feelings into his
    poems
  • good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of
    powerful feeling
  • Get back in touch with nature
  • One can learn more about life than walking in the
    woods on a spring day than by reading all the
    books ever written
  • Wordsworth felt the same way about children as
    Rousseau and Indians

126
I WANDERED LONELY AS A CLOUD
  • I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high
    over vales and hills, When all at once I saw a
    crowd, A host of golden daffodils Beside the
    lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing
    in the breeze.
  • Continuous as the stars that shine and twinkle on
    the Milky Way, They stretched in never-ending
    line along the margin of a bay Ten thousand saw
    I at a glance, tossing their heads in sprightly
    dance.
  • The waves beside them danced but they Out-did
    the sparkling waves in glee A poet could not but
    be gay, in such a jocund company I gazed - and
    gazed - but little thought what wealth the show
    to me had brought
  • For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in
    pensive mood, They flash upon that inward
    eye Which is the bliss of solitude And then my
    heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the
    daffodils.

127
John Constable
  • The Wordsworth of painting
  • Tried to capture the beauties of nature in his
    landscape paintings
  • Loved to walk the roads and paths near his home,
    studying the shapes of everything
  • Painting is but another word for feeling

128
  • Hay Wain of 1821
  • The Hay Wain is an oil on canvas painting by John
    Constable. It was
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