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ADULT LEARNING THEORIES

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Title: ADULT LEARNING THEORIES


1
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
CRYSTAL BLUE
FEBRUARY 25, 2004
2
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
3
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
HUMANISM
The Humanist Learning Theory is also viewed as
phenomenology and it emphasizes the total
person. Humanism is the study of immediate
experiences as ones reality and is influenced
by, and perhaps even based on, an existentialist
philosophy.
4
HUMANIST THEORY
This theory considers learning from the
perspective of the humans unlimited potential
for growth, human beings can control their own
destiny people are inherently good and will
strive for a better world people are free to
act, and behavior is the consequence of human
choice. (Rogers, 1983Maslow, 1970).
  • The humanist theory according to Rogers has the
    following characteristics
  • Personal involvement.
  • Self-initiated.
  • Pervasive.
  • Evaluated by the learner.
  • Essence is meaning.

Humanistic theory has the potential for
designing a true learning Society, since there is
a natural tendency for people to learn and
that Learning will flourish of nourishing,
encouraging environments are provided. (Cross,
1981).
5
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
BEHAVIORISM
The behavior approach includes increased
dependence on standardized measures of
achievement, offering rewards for learning as a
way of shaping student behavior and are very much
alive in especially education classes and in most
forms of remedial programs.
6
BEHAVIORISM THEORY
  • Behaviorism is well-known orientation of
    learning that encompasses
  • A number of individual theories. This theory was
    developed by John B.
  • Watson in the twentieth century. There are three
    basic assumptions to this
  • theory
  • Observable behavior rather then internal thought
    process is the focus.
  • Learning is manifested by a change in behavior.
  • The environment shapes behavior what one learns
    is determined by
  • the environment, not by the individual learner.
  • The principles of contiguity and reinforcement
    are central to explaining
  • The learning process. (Grippin Peters, 1984)

7
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
COGNITIVISM
Perception, insight, and meaning are key
contributions to Cognitivism. According to
cognitivists, The human mind is not simply a
Passive exchange terminal system where the
stimuli arrives and the Appropriate response
leaves. Rather, the thinking person
interprets Sensations and gives meaning to the
events that impinge upon his Consciousness.
(Grippen Peters, 1984).
8
COGNITIVISM THEORY
  • The cognitive theory is directed towards
    miniature models of
  • Specific facets of cognition such as
  • Models of discourse analysis.
  • Models of comprehension.
  • Ways of aiding understanding and meaningful
    learning.
  • The nature of the schemata.
  • The memory system.
  • The development of cognitive skills. (Di Vista,
    1987).
  • The cognitive theory encompass a wide range of
    topics with
  • The common focus on internal mental process that
    the learners control.

9
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
CONSTRUCTIVISM
10
CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY
Constructivism theory maintains that learning is
a process of Constructive meaning it is how
people make sense of this experience. The
constructivist view of learning is particularly
compatible with the notion of self-direction,
since it emphasizes the combined
characteristics of active inquiry, independence,
and individuality in a leaning tasks. (Candy,
1991).
11
ADULT LEARNING THEORIES
SOCIALISM
12
SOCIALISM THEORY
  • As in the behaviorism perspective, reinforcement
    and shaping of
  • responses are important factors in social
    learning because the learner actively
  • adds something to the process. This is sometimes
    hypothesized to be the
  • existence of a mediating response. (Glover
    Burning, 1990).
  • The social learning theory suggest that people
    learn from observing
  • Others. Observational learning is influenced by
    four processes
  • Attention.
  • Retention or memory.
  • Behavior rehearsal
  • Motivation.

13
REFERENCES
Candy, P.C. (1991). Self-Direction for Life Long
Learning. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
Di Vesta, F.J. (1987). Cognitive Movement and
Education. In J. Glover And R. Ronning (eds.),
Historical Foundation of Education, New
York Plenium.
Glover, J.A.and Bruning, R.H. (1990). Education
Psychology Principles And Applications (3rd ed.)
Glenview, Foresman Co.
Grippen, P. and Peters, S. (1984) Learning Theory
and Learning Out comes. Lanham, MD University
Press of America.
Maslow, A.H. (1970 Motivation and Personality.
(2nd ed.) New York Harper Row.
Rogers, C.R. (1983). Freedom to Learn for the
80s. Columbus, Ohio.
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