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Unit 1 Exam Review

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Title: Unit 1 Exam Review


1
Unit 1 Exam Review
  • Take a few minutes to review your exam. In a
    section of your notebook, take notes on the
    concepts/questions that you struggled with.
  • In addition, answer the following question
  • When you signed up for this course, what did you
    think psychology would be all about? How has
    that changed since Unit 1?
  • Looking back over Unit 1, what learning
    strategies have you used to help you prepare for
    the Unit 1 exam? What might you do differently
    to better prepare you for the next exam?

2
Learning
A relatively permanent change in an
organisms behavior due to experience.
(Behavior change cannot be explained on the
basis of innate response tendencies, maturation,
or temporary states of the subject fatigue,
drugs, etc)
We connect events that occur in sequence
Why does Dentist Pain?
3
Types of Learning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Observation

Forget the mind Psychology should based on
observable behavior
Albert Bandura
Behaviorism
4
Types of Learning
  • Classical Conditioning learning an association
    between two stimuli that the organism does not
    control (EX a bell and food, a white rat and a
    loud noise, a product and a celebrity)
  • Behavior occurs as an automatic response
    (reflexive responding) to stimulus. (Stimulus ?
    Behavior/Response)
  • Operant Conditioning learning an association
    between a response (behavior) and its consequence
    (EX studying hard and a high test-grade, bar
    pressing and food)
  • Action that operates on environment to produce
    rewarding or punishing stimulus instead of
    simply reacting to stimuli (Behavior/Response ?
    Stimulus)
  • Observational Learning imitating the behavior
    of a role model

5
Learning By Observation
Albert Bandura the Bobo doll
Both () and (-) actions can be learned by
observing others
6
Observational Learning
  • Banduras Bobo-Doll Experiments (1961-1963)
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?vvdh7MngntnI
  • Study 3-5 yr. old children in 4 experimental
    conditions
  • 1) Live, aggressive model
  • 2) Filmed, aggressive model
  • 3) Cartoons with aggressive acts
  • 4) No exposure to aggression (control condition)
  • Results Groups 1, 2 3 showed significantly
    greater no. of aggressive acts (i.e. hits against
    bobo doll) than the control condition

7
Observational Learning
  • Watch the video clip Mirror Neurons from NOVA
    scienceNOWand take notes on the following
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3204/01.ht
    ml
  • What are mirror neurons? Explain the role that
    mirror neurons may play in how we understand and
    connect with each other.
  • Describe the experiment with the monkeys and what
    it suggests about mirror neurons
  • Describe the use and purpose of mirror neurons by
    humans
  • Describe the experiment involving pictures of
    different facial expressions and what it suggests
    about mirror neurons
  • The connection between mirror neurons and autism
  • How mirror neurons have enhanced humans'
    evolutionary process and survival success.

8
Observational Learning
Mirror Neurons set of brain cells that fires
both when an animal acts and when the animal
observes the same action performed by another.
Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the
other, as though the observer were itself acting.
  • the neurons that "fire" when a monkey does an
    activity also "fire" when the monkey observes the
    activity, suggesting that neurologically doing
    and watching are the same.
  • humans use a similar "mirroring" response to
    translate what we see, so that we can relate to
    each other and the world. Mirror neurons tie us
    to each other's feelings as well as actions
    thereby, potentially enhancing humans'
    evolutionary process and survival success y
    helping humans connect with and learn quickly
    from each other.
  • May be a connection between autism and mirror
    neurons, a developmental disorder that impairs
    language, communication and social interaction.

9
Observational Learning
  • Conclusions
  • Learning can occur through observation and
    imitation (i.e. without conditioning or direct
    reinforcement)
  • Applications
  • Parents role as models for children
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vX_s9pG5CWXMfeature
    related
  • Rodney Atkins Watching You http//www.youtube.c
    om/watch?v4K-wmQuWfrs
  • Ugly Kid Joe Cats in the Cradle
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?vT3bht7S-3vI
  • Media violence
  • fMRI studies
  • Exposure to violent movies linked to brain area
    involved in the inhibition of aggressive impulses
    (lowered activation)
  • Violent video games
  • Reduces sensitivity to violence and suffering of
    victims
  • Players more hostile, less forgiving and believe
    violence is normal
  • Can increase likelihood of aggression
  • Conversely, prosocial models can have positive
    effects
  • Prosocial video games
  • Players get into fewer fights at school and found
    to be more helpful

10
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11
Types of Conditioning
Classical Process of associating two stimuli
Operant Process of associating a response
its consequence
Lightning
Pulling candy machine lever
Thunder
Delivery of candy bar
12
Classical Conditioning
Short Biography 20 years studying digestive
system 30 years studying learning 1904 Nobel
Prize in Medicine
Noticed that dogs would drool in anticipation of
food. What were dogs thinking or feeling?
13
Classical Conditioning
What were dogs thinking or feeling? Pointless!
Examine the phenomenon more objectively using
Experiments!
14
Classical Conditioning
Will the dog learn to associate the arrival of
food with a neutral stimulus (e.g., a bell)?
15
Classical Conditioning
Terms
Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditio
ned Stimulus Conditioned Response Conditioned
Stimulus
NS - bell UCR - drool in response to food (not
learned) UCS - food (triggers drool reflex) CR -
drool in response to sound of bell (learned) CS -
sound of bell (triggers drool reflex)
16
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20
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • http//www.bukisa.com/videos/63827_the-pavlov-alto
    id-theory
  • The Office
  • NS (rebooting computer noise) ? no response
  • UCS (altoid) ? UCR (salivation/refreshes taste in
    mouth)
  • NS (rebooting computer noise) UCS (altoid) ?
    UCR (salivation/refreshes taste in mouth)
  • CS (rebooting computer noise) ? CR
    (salivation/need to refresh taste in mouth)

21
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • http//video.google.com/videoplay?docid-833116807
    2486928717
  • http//www.thepsychfiles.com/2008/02/episode-47-th
    e-little-albert-study-what-you-know-ismostly-wrong
    /
  • Little Albert
  • NS (white rat) ? no response
  • UCS (loud noise) ? UCR (fear)
  • NS (white rat) UCS (loud noise) ? UCR (fear)
  • CS (white rat) ? CR (fear)

22
Conditioning Processes
  • Acquisition initial learning of the response
  • At first, the white rat by itself caused no
    special response. After repeated pairings of the
    white rat with the loud noise, the white rat by
    itself gradually became more and more likely to
    cause a learned response
  • Short-delayed conditioning the NS begins just
    before the UCS and stops at the same time as the
    UCS
  • The white rat is presented just before the loud
    noise and is taken away as the loud noise ends.

23
Conditioning Processes
  • Extinction decrease in CR without CS or
    unlearning a conditioned association
  • The learned response (fear) probably became less
    common after Little Albert left John Watsons lab
    and the white rat was not presented with the loud
    noise

24
Conditioning Processes
  • Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of the CR
    after some time period. Need additional
    extinction trials to breaks association
    completely
  • After extinction, the presentation of the white
    rat may still have caused a learned response
    (fear) following a long period in which the loud
    noise was not heard.

25
Conditioning Processes
  • Generalization the tendency for organisms to
    respond similarly to similar stimuli as the CS.
  • Little Alberts fear of anything white and furry.

26
Conditioning Processes
  • Discrimination the ability to distinguish
    (discriminate) between the CS and other stimuli
  • Little Albert only being afraid of white rats
    not brown rats or any other white animals.

27
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHSCotdOh5WY
  • Food/Taste Aversion
  • NS (sight and taste of pickles) ? no response
  • UCS (contamination/sickness) ? UCR
    (aversion/disgust)
  • NS (sight and taste of pickles) UCS
    (contamination/sickness) ? UCR (aversion/disgust)
  • CS (sight and taste of pickles) ? CR
    (aversion/disgust)
  • Conditioned Taste Aversion (Sauce Bernaise
    Phenomenon) readily learn an aversion to the
    taste (not to the sight of the associated
    restaurant, the plates, people you are with),
    even if you got sick hours after eating the food
  • Violates the notion that for conditioning to
    occur, the UCS (sickness) has to immediately
    follow the NS/CS (food)
  • Biological Preparedness degree to which biology
    has made it more easy or difficult to learn an
    association. Biological predispositions of each
    species dispose it to learn the particular
    associations that enhance its survival.

28
Psych Demonstration
  • Air Horn
  • NS (saying word can) ? no response
  • UCS (horn/loud noise) ? UCR (cringe/jump out of
    seat)
  • NS (saying word can) UCS (horn/loud noise) ?
    UCR (cringe/jump out of seat)
  • CS (saying word can) ? CR (cringe/jump out of
    seat)

29
Other Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • Michigan Fight Song
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vH-fc5os23mI
  • NS (Michigan Fight Song) ? no response
  • UCS (being pinched) ? UCR (cry)
  • NS (Michigan Fight Song) UCS (being pinched) ?
    UCR (cry)
  • CS (Michigan Fight Song) ? CR (cry)
  • Slasher Movies
  • NS (violence) ? no response
  • UCS (nude women) ? UCR (sexual arousal)
  • NS (violence) UCS ( nude women) ? UCR (sexual
    arousal)
  • CS (violence) ? CR (sexual arousal)
  • Advertising
  • NS (alcohol) ? no response
  • UCS (lots of friends, attractive people people) ?
    UCR (happy, desire)
  • NS (alcohol) UCS (lots of friends, attractive
    people) ? UCR (happy, desire)
  • CS (alcohol) ? CR (happy, desire)
  • Politics
  • NS (politician)
  • UCS (apple pie) ? UCR (feelings of warmth)

30
Other Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • Every time you take a shower, someone in the
    house flushes the toilet causing the water to
    turn cold and you become cold. Now every time
    you hear a toilet flush, you get cold
  • NS (toilet flush) ? no response
  • UCS (cold water) ? UCR (feel cold)
  • NS (toilet flush) UCS (cold water) ? UCR (feel
    cold)
  • CS (toilet flush) ? CR (feel cold)
  • Fred has a fluffy down pillow with some of the
    down sticking out of the fabric. When he first
    tries out the pillow, a piece of down tickles his
    nose and he sneezes. This happens every time he
    goes to bed. Soon he sneezes every time he lays
    down on any kind of pillow.
  • NS (pillow) ? no response
  • UCS (down tickles nose) ? UCR (sneeze)
  • NS (pillow) UCS (down tickles nose) ? UCR
    (sneeze)
  • CS (pillow) ? CR (sneeze)
  • It is springtime and the pollen from the flowers
    causes you to sneeze. Soon you are sneezing
    every time you see a flower
  • NS (flower) ? no response
  • UCS (pollen) ? UCR (sneeze)
  • NS (flower) UCS (pollen) ? UCR (sneeze)
  • CS (flower) ? CR (sneeze)

31
Other Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • In order to treat bedwetting, a pad that is
    sensitive to dampness is placed under sheets.
    When this pad becomes wet, it sounds an alarm and
    you wakeup. Eventually you dont need the alarm
    to wake up, your bladder will wake you up
  • NS (full bladder) ? no response
  • UCS (alarm) ? UCR (wake up)
  • NS (full bladder) UCS (alarm) ? UCR (wake up)
  • CS (full bladder) ? CR (wake up)
  • The smell of food makes you hungry. Soon every
    time you go into the kitchen, you feel hungry
  • NS (kitchen) ? no response
  • UCS (smell of food) ? UCR (hungry)
  • NS (kitchen) UCS (smell of food) ? UCR (hungry)
  • CS (kitchen) ? CR (hungry)
  • When you see a scary movie, you always eat a box
    of thin mints. Now you find that eating a box of
    thin mints makes you feel scared.
  • NS (thin mints) ? no response
  • UCS (watching a scary movie) ? UCR (feeling
    scared)
  • NS (thin mints) UCS (watching a scary movie) ?
    UCR (feeling scared)
  • CS (thin mints) ? CR (feeling scared)

32
Other Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • An MIT student spent an entire summer going to
    the Harvard football field every day wearing a
    black and white striped shirt, walking up and
    down the field ten or fifteen minutes throwing
    birdseed all over the field, blowing a whistle
    and then walking off the field. At the end of
    the summer, it came time for the first Harvard
    home football game, the referee walked onto the
    field and blew the whistle, and the game had to
    be delayed for a half hour to wait for the birds
    to get off of the field. The guy wrote his
    thesis on this and graduated.
  • NS (whistle/black-white striped shirt) ? no
    response
  • UCS (birdseed) ? UCR (birds eating)
  • NS (whistle/black-white striped shirt) UCS
    (birdseed) ? UCR (birds eating)
  • CS (referee blowing whistle and wearing
    black-white striped shirt) ? CR (birds eating)

33
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vQO253RicE-E
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vwwx-Q1tXlxM
  • Jaws
  • Note This is an example of second order
    conditioning a conditioned stimulus functions
    as it were an unconditioned stimulus. 
  • First Order
  • NS (sharks) ? no response (Easy to condition
    however due to sharp teeth and evolutionary
    predator cues our visual system processes)
  • UCS (Blood Carnage - pictures, images, stories) ?
    UCR (fear)
  • NS (sharks) UCS (carnage) ? UCR (fear)
  • CS (sharks) ? CR (fear)
  • Second Order CS can become a new UCS
  • NS (soundtrack - Dudah!..... Dudah! Dudah!)
  • UCS (shark) ? UCR (fear)
  • NS (soundtrack) UCS (shark) ? UCR (fear)
  • CS (soundtrack) ? CR (fear)

34
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • Drug Use
  • NS (syringe) ? no response
  • UCS (drug) ? UCR (bio change, creates pleasure)
  • NS (syringe) UCS (drug) ? UCR (bio change)
  • CS (syringe) ? compensatory CR (prepares for bio
    change reduce bodys normal amount of NT to
    prepare for extra NT by drug)
  • However, this is one reason for tolerance (need
    larger and larger amounts of the drug to feel the
    same effect and reasons for overdose change
    scene or method, lose compensatory effect

35
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36
Better Applications of Classical Conditioning
Rats Snakes Enclosed Places Open
Places Dirt Walrus
Treatment of Phobias
37
Mrs. Walengas Phobia
  • Acquisition
  • NS (ocean) ? no response
  • UCS (jelly fish sting) ? UCR (pain/fear)
  • NS UCS ? UCR
  • CS (ocean) ? CR (pain/fear)
  • Extinction
  • Systematic desensitization
  •  Generalization
  • Fear response to any ocean, any time of year,
    photos
  • Discrimination
  • Fear response is only to Gulf of Mexico at
    specific time of year
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • Need numerous extinction trials to get rid of
    link

38
Classical Conditioning Behavior Therapies
  • Counter-conditioning uses classical
    conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli
    that are triggering unwanted behaviors
  • EX Fear of being in a confined space, such as
    elevators
  • Pairs the trigger stimulus (elevator) with a new
    response (relaxation)
  • NS (elevator) ? no response (response of fear at
    least)
  • UCS (listening to music) ? UCR (relaxation/upbeat
    mood)
  • NS (elevator) UCS (listening to music) ? UCR
    (relaxation/upbeat mood)
  • CS (elevator) ? CR (relaxation/upbeat mood)
  • Exposure Therapies treats anxieties by exposing
    people (in imagination or actuality) to the
    things they fear and avoid. With repeated
    exposure, people can become less anxious to
    things that once petrified them.
  • Systematic Desensitization associates a
    pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing
    anxiety-triggering stimuli.
  • EX Fear of public speaking
  • Construct a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering
    speaking situations, speaking up in a small group
    of friends to panic provoking situations, such as
    having to address a large audience
  • Next, using progressive relaxation, the therapist
    would train you to relax one muscle group after
    another, until you achieve a drowsy state of
    complete relaxation and comfort.
  • Therapist pairs each anxiety arousing situation
    on hierarchy with relaxation, until you can move
    to a real situation.
  • Virtual reality exposure therapy - anxiety
    treatment that progressively exposes people to
    simulations of their greatest fears virtually,
    such as airplane flying, spiders, or public
    speaking.

39
Classical Conditioning Behavior Therapies
  • Counter-conditioning uses classical
    conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli
    that are triggering unwanted behaviors
  • Aversive Conditioning - associates an unpleasant
    state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior
    (such as drinking alcohol)

40
Classical Conditioning Practice (pgs 28-29)
  • 1. NS (dog bark) ? no response
  • UCS (bitten) ? UCR (whimper)
  • NS (dog bark) UCS (bitten) ? UCR (whimper)
  • CS (dog bark) ? CR (whimper)
  •  
  • NS (jar of pickles) ? no response
  • UCS (eating pickles) ? UCR (salivate)
  • NS (jar of pickles) UCS (eating pickles) ? UCR
    (salivate)
  • CS (jar of pickles) ? CR (salivate)
  •  
  • NS (mutton sheep meat) ? no response
  • UCS (poison) ? UCR (nausea)
  • NS (mutton) UCS (poison) ? UCR (nausea)
  • CS (sheep) ? CR (fear because expect to get
    nauseous)
  •  
  • 4 . NS (saccharine flavored water) ? no
    response
  • UCS (drug) ? UCR (weakened immune system)
  • NS (saccharine flavored water) UCS (drug) ? UCR
    (weakened immune system)
  • CS (saccharine flavored water) ? CR (weakened
    immune system)

41
Classical Conditioning Practice (pgs 30-31)
  • NS (song tonight) ? no response
  • UCS (popped eardrum) ? UCR (pain)
  • NS (song tonight) UCS (popped
    eardrum) ? UCR (pain)
  • CS (song tonight or any other song by
    Smashing Pumpkins) ? CR (pain)
  • illustrates generalization
  • NS (Mr. Williams) ? no response
  • UCS (yelled at) ? UCR (nervous)
  • NS (Mr. Williams) UCS (yelled at) ?
    UCR (nervous)
  • CS (Mr. Williams) ? CR (nervous)
  • illustrates discrimination only
    nervous when he sees Mr. Williams
  •  
  • NS (Pavlov) ? no response
  • UCS (lemonade mix) ? UCR (salivate)
  • NS (Pavlov) UCS (lemonade mix) ? UCR
    (salivate)
  • CS (Pavlov) ? CR (salivate)
  • illustrates discrimination only
    salivate at Pavlovs name, not Watsons or
    Skinners name
  •  
  • NS (Space Mountain) ? no response
  • UCS (ill) ? UCR (queasy stomach)
  • NS (Space Mountain) UCS (ill) ? UCR
    (queasy stomach)
  • CS (Space Mountain or any other roller
    coaster) ? CR (queasy stomach)
  • illustrates generalization
  •  
  • NS (Abe) ? no response
  • UCS (love) ? UCR (beating heart)
  • NS (Abe) UCS (love) ? UCR (beating
    heart)
  • CS (Abe seeing him or seeing a
    picture of him) ? CR (love)
  • illustrates generalization can see
    him or see a picture of him and her heart starts
    to beat

42
Different Types of Behavior
Classical Respondent Behavior Behavior
occurs as an automatic response to stimulus.
Associating different stimuli that the organism
does not control.
Operant Operant Behavior Action that operates
on environment to produce rewarding or punishing
stimulus. Associating your behavior with its
consequences (e.g., teaching a child to say
Please)
Fear response to a white beard
Saying Please to elicit praise
versus
43
Operant Conditioning
  • Discovering Psychology Learning start at
    1130 or 1530. http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_wi
    ndow.html?pid1529
  • Take notes on the following
  • B.F. Skinners beliefs about free will!
  • Psychologys ABCs
  • Skinner Box
  • Operant Conditioning

44
Operant Conditioning ? Operant Behavior
  • Learning an association between a response
    (behavior) and its consequence (EX studying
    hard and a high test-grade, bar pressing and
    food)
  • Action that operates on environment to produce
    rewarding or punishing stimulus instead of
    simply reacting to stimuli (Behavior/Response ?
    Stimulus)
  • Also called Instrumental Learning learning is
    controlled by consequences
  • Based on Law of Effect - actions that were
    rewarded become more likely to occur and actions
    that were punished or not reinforced become less
    likely to occur (Behavior ? Consequence ?
    decrease or increase in behavior in future)
  • Acquisition is based on shaping - gradual
    rewarding the organism as it approaches the
    desired behavior.
  • Skinners ABCs

45
Operant Conditioning ? Operant Behavior
  • Skinners ABCs
  • A (antecedent) stimulus/environmental cues
    (situation) present at time of reinforcement.
    What is happening before behavior occurs?
  • B (behavior - accidental)
  • C (consequence) reinforcement
  • D (determines the frequency of deliberate
    behavior in future)
  • Behavior is most likely to occur in
  • situations similar to the one in
    which it has
    been reinforced

46
B. F. Skinner
Skinner elaborated on Thorndikes Law of
Effect Rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur
External influences, not internal thoughts
feelings, govern behavior.
47
Skinners Experiments
Shaping Guiding current behavior toward some
desired behavior through successive approximations
48
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49
Principles of Reinforcement
Reinforcer - any event that increases the
frequency of the preceding event
Positive Reinforcers Introduce ()
stimulus (e.g., food)
Negative Reinforcers Remove (-) stimulus (e.g.,
electric shock)
Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior!
50
Operant Conditioning versus Punishment Matrix
Stimulus Type Supply a stimulus () Remove a stimulus (-)
Appetitive Stimulus (something desired/good)
Aversive Stimulus (something not desired/bad)
51
Operant Conditioning versus Punishment Matrix
Stimulus Type Supply a stimulus () Remove a stimulus (-)
Appetitive Stimulus (something desired/good) Positive Reinforcement (Adding a good/desired stimulus strengthens or encourages behavior in future. EX presenting food, money, praise, attention, or other rewards)
Aversive Stimulus (something not desired/bad)
52
Operant Conditioning versus Punishment Matrix
Stimulus Type Supply a stimulus () Remove a stimulus (-)
Appetitive Stimulus (something desired/good) Positive Reinforcement (Adding a good/desired stimulus strengthens or encourages behavior in future. EX presenting food, money, praise, attention, or other rewards) Negative Punishment (Subtracting a good/desired stimulus weakens behavior or discourages behavior in future. EX time-out, removing some pleasant stimulus or taking away privileges such as TV watching or use of automobile)
Aversive Stimulus (something not desired/bad)
53
Operant Conditioning versus Punishment Matrix
Stimulus Type Supply a stimulus () Remove a stimulus (-)
Appetitive Stimulus (something desired/good) Positive Reinforcement (Adding a good/desired stimulus strengthens or encourages behavior in future. EX presenting food, money, praise, attention, or other rewards) Negative Punishment (Subtracting a good/desired stimulus weakens behavior or discourages behavior in future. EX time-out, removing some pleasant stimulus or taking away privileges such as TV watching or use of automobile)
Aversive Stimulus (something not desired/bad) Positive Punishment (Adding a bad stimulus weakens behavior or discourages behavior in future. EX delivering a pain-producing or otherwise aversive stimulus, such as a spanking or an electric shock)
54
Operant Conditioning versus Punishment Matrix
Stimulus Type Supply a stimulus () Remove a stimulus (-)
Appetitive Stimulus (something desired/good) Positive Reinforcement (Adding a good/desired stimulus strengthens or encourages behavior in future. EX presenting food, money, praise, attention, or other rewards) Negative Punishment (Subtracting a good/desired stimulus weakens behavior or discourages behavior in future. EX time-out, removing some pleasant stimulus or taking away privileges such as TV watching or use of automobile)
Aversive Stimulus (something not desired/bad) Positive Punishment (Adding a bad stimulus weakens behavior or discourages behavior in future. EX delivering a pain-producing or otherwise aversive stimulus, such as a spanking or an electric shock) Negative Reinforcement (Subtracting a bad stimulus strengthens behavior or encourages behavior in future. EX removing or terminating some pain-producing or otherwise aversive stimulus, such as an electric shock, buzzer, )
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56
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
  • Scenario 1
  • Negative reinforcement Since you cleaned your
    room, you will no longer have to stay inside! 
  • Punishment Since you did not clean your room,
    you will have to stay inside!
  • Scenario 2
  • Negative reinforcement Since you got to AP
    Psych on time, you will not get a tardy
    detention! 
  • Punishment Since you got to AP Psych late, you
    will get a tardy detention!

Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior!
Punishments ALWAYS weaken behavior!
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58
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
  • PR
  • NP
  • PP
  • PR
  • PR
  • NR
  • NR
  • NP
  • PR
  • NP or PP (However, time out is usually considered
    NP)
  • NR
  • NR

Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior!
Punishments ALWAYS weaken behavior!
59
More Reinforcement
Primary Reinforcers Innately satisfying, not
learned (e.g., getting food, water, warmth,
relief from pain)
Secondary Reinforcers Associated with
primary reinforcers learned (e.g., can buy
food, praise leads to feeling happy)
Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior!
60
POSITIVE REINFORCERS NEGATIVE REINFORCERS
PRIMARY SECONDARY PRIMARY SECONDARY
Food Money Electric shock Rejection
Water Grades Intense heat Failure
Sex Status Pain of any sort Criticism
Warmth Praise Suffocation Avoidance
61
Still More Reinforcement
Immediate Reinforcement Reinforce immediately
preceding behavior (e.g., nicotine)
Delayed Reinforcement Reinforcement at some
point after behavior occurs (e.g., paychecks)
Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior!
62
Reinforcement Schedules
Continuous - every time behavior occurs (rare)
or Partial - not every time behavior
occurs (learning is slower but more resistant to
extinction)
63
Partial Reinforcement
(a pigeon will peck 150,000 times without reward)
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vI_ctJqjlrHAfeature
PlayListp483DE7E9D04B2BFFplaynext1playnext_f
romPLindex3
64
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Behavior-based reinforcers (ratio of
    responses)
  • Fixed Ratio reinforce every n responses
  • Factory workers make 10 clocks earn 100
  • Every time you get a 100 on a test get 5
  • Buy 3 sandwiches get 4th free
  • Variable Ratio reinforce after ?? responses)
  • Finding parking in busy mall (you need to drive
    and look, not just wait)
  • Most gambling behaviors (slot machines)
  • Fly-fishing
  • Perfect golf shot
  • Selling vacuums door to door

65
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Time-based reinforcers (interval time period to
    pass before you complete a behavior and get
    reinforcer (does not matter how many times you
    complete the action)
  • Fixed Interval reinforce after fixed time
  • Students waiting near door at end of class,
    shuffling books near end of class
  • Watching Gilmore Girls every Tuesday
  • Doing extra credit before end of quarter
  • Known quizzes and tests
  • Work for salary get paid on the 15th of every
    month
  • Low Response Rate rapid responding near time of
    reinforcement (cognitive processes - animals
    learn predictability)
  • Variable Interval reinforce after ?? time
  • pop quizzes
  • regular fishing
  • raising hand in class
  • pacing while waiting for phone to ring
  • waiting for doctor

66
Comparisons of Schedules of Reinforcement
TYPE MEANING OUTCOME
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement depends on a definite number of responses Activity slows after reinforcement and then picks up
Variable Ratio Number of responses needed for reinforcement varies Greatest activity of all schedules
Fixed Interval Reinforcement depends on a fixed time Activity increases as deadline nears
Variable Interval Time between reinforcement varies Steady activity results
67
Reinforcement Schedules
  • VR
  • FR
  • VI
  • FI
  • VI
  • VR
  • FI
  • FR
  • VR
  • VI
  • FR
  • FI

68
Comparisons of Schedules of Reinforcement
FORM OF REWARD
INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE
EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR
SCHEDULE
Fixed interval
Reward on fixed time basis
Leads to average and irregular performance
Fast extinction of behavior
Fixed ratio
Reward tied to specific number of responses
Leads quickly to very high and stable
performance
Moderately fast extinction of behavior
Variable interval
Reward given after varying periods of time
Leads to moderately high and stable performance
Slow extinction of behavior
Variable ratio
Reward given for some behaviors
Leads to very high performance
Very slow extinction of behavior
69
FI, VI, FR, or VR?
  1. When I bake cookies, I can only put one set in at
    a time, so after 10 minutes my first set of
    cookies is done. After another ten minutes, my
    second set of cookies is done. I get to eat a
    cookie after each set is done baking.
  2. After every 10 math problems that I complete, I
    allow myself a 5 minute break.
  3. I look over my notes every night because I never
    know how much time will go by before my next pop
    quiz.
  4. When hunting season comes around, sometimes Ill
    spend all day sitting in the woods waiting to get
    a shot at a big buck. Its worth it though when I
    get a nice 10 point.
  5. Today in Psychology class we were talking about
    Schedules of Reinforcement and everyone was
    eagerly raising their hands and participating.
    Miranda raised her hand a couple of times and was
    eventually called on.
  • FI
  • FR
  • VI
  • VI
  • VR

70
FI, VI, FR, or VR?
  • 6. Madison spanks her son if she has to ask him
    three times to clean up his room.
  • 7. Emily has a spelling test every Friday. She
    usually does well and gets a star sticker.
  • 8. Steves a big gambling man. He plays the
    slot machines all day hoping for a big win.
  • Snakes get hungry at certain times of the day.
    They might watch any number of prey go by before
    they decide to strike.
  • Mr. Vora receives a salary paycheck every 2
    weeks.
  • Christina works at a tanning salon. For every 2
    bottles of lotion she sells, she gets 1 dollar in
    commission.
  • 12. Mike is trying to study for his upcoming
    Psychology quiz. He reads five pages, then takes
    a break. He resumes reading and takes another
    break after he has completed 5 more pages.
  • 6. FR
  • 7. FI
  • 8. VR
  • VI
  • FI
  • FR
  • FR

71
FI, VI, FR, or VR?
  • 13. Megan is fundraising to try to raise money so
    she can go on the annual band trip. She goes door
    to door in her neighborhood trying to sell
    popcorn tins. She eventually sells some.
  • 14. Kylie is a business girl who works in the big
    city. Her boss is busy, so he only checks her
    work periodically.
  • 15. Mark is a lawyer who owns his own practice.
    His customers makes payments at irregular times.
  • 16. Jessica is a dental assistant and gets a
    raise every year at the same time and never in
    between.
  • 17. Andrew works at a GM factory and is in charge
    of attaching 3 parts. After he gets his parts
    attached, he gets some free time before the next
    car moves down the line.
  • 18. Brittany is a telemarketer trying to sell
    life insurance. After so many calls, someone will
    eventually buy.
  • 13. VR
  • 14. VI
  • 15. VI
  • 16. FI
  • 17. FR
  • 18. VR

72
Handout 7-7
  • Sensitivity to Punishment (BIS)
  • Score one point for a yes to each of the
    odd-numbered items
  • Range 0-24 ? higher scores reflecting greater
    sensitivity to punishment
  • Sensitivity to Reward (BAS)
  • Score one point for a yes answer to each of the
    even-numbered items.
  • Range 0-24 ? higher scores reflecting greater
    sensitivity to reward
  • Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory two biological
    systems in the brain
  • Behavioral activation system (BAS) responds to
    rewards and regulates approach behavior.
    Accelerator motivates approach behavior.
  • A person with a highly reactive BAS is especially
    sensitive to incentive and reward and thus is
    vulnerable to impulsivity.
  • Reactions to going to a concert high
    sensitivity to BAS euphoria thinking about
    going low sensitivity to BAS knows it will be
    enjoyable but calm
  • Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) responds to
    punishments and regulates avoidance behavior.
    Brakes that stop behavior.
  • A person with a highly reactive BIS is especially
    sensitive to threat and punishment and thus is
    vulnerable to anxiety.
  • Student reactions to poor performance on a test
    high sensitivity to BIS panic low sensitivity
    to BIS hardly bothered.

73
Handout 8-4
  • Measures our tendency to consider potential
    distant outcomes of current behaviors as well as
    the tendency for current behaviors to be
    influenced by these potential distant outcomes.
  • Scoring
  • Reverse the numbers you gave in response to
    statements 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12.
  • Total the numbers in front of all twelve items.
  • Total scores can range from 12 to 60. Higher
    scores reflect greater consideration of future
    consequences.
  •  Research suggests that greater consideration of
    future consequences is positively linked to
    conscientiousness, optimism, hope and an internal
    locus of control. Higher scores are also
    positively related to general concern for health,
    and negatively related to cigarette and alcohol
    consumption. Those with higher scores were also
    more likely to be environmentally conscientious
    by recycling, driving a fuel-efficient car, and
    using a water-saving shower head.
  • Marshmallow Test http//www.youtube.com/watch?v
    amsqeYOk--wfeaturerelated

74
Biological Preparedness
  • Instinctive Drift instinctive behaviors
    interfere with learned behaviors. Animals cannot
    be trained to do anything.
  • Pigeons easily learn to flap their wings to avoid
    being shocked and to peck to obtain food, because
    it is natural for them to flee with their wings
    and eat with their beaks. However, they have a
    hard time learning to peck in order to avoid a
    shock or to flap their wings to obtain food.
    Biological constraints predispose organisms to
    learn associations that are naturally adaptive.
  • Miserly Raccoons - Training some raccoons to
    deposit coins in a piggy bank. They were
    successful in shaping the raccoons to pick up a
    coin and put it into a small box, using food as
    the reinforcer. However, when they gave the
    raccoons a couple of coins, an unexpected problem
    arose the raccoons wouldnt give the coins up.
    They would sit and rub the coins together like so
    many little misers. Associating the coins with
    food had brought out the raccoons innate food
    washing behavior. Raccoons often rub things
    together to clean them.

75
Why would parents want to use reinforcement over
punishment? Carrot or Stick Approach?
  • Problems with Punishment
  • Punishment does not guide toward acceptable
    behavior (doesnt tell you what you should do)
  • Behavior is not forgotten merely suppressed
    (may reappear in other situations). Punishment
    reinforcement more effective
  • Triggers strong emotional responses (fear,
    anxiety, anger) ? disrupt normal functioning

76
Does reinforcement always work to increase
behavior?
  • NO! Why?
  • Overjustification Effect Promising a reward for
    doing what one already likes to do.
  • The intrinsic motivation might be lost. Humans
    must recognize the reinforcer has value and is
    effective in changing their behavior therefore,
    undermining the intrinsic motivation.
  • EX Earn a full ride to play sports however,
    the athlete starts to hate the sport they play
    even though they are being paid. Now must play
    the sport for the scholarship. Playing the sport
    became overjustified.
  • EX Drummer quits band REM at the height of
    their success. He reports that he has lost the
    love for the music. Reports later that the ,
    touring were not enough. Music lost its appeal.
    The act of playing music became overjustified

77
Is There No Cognition?
Can we think? Do we think?
Rats can learn maze even without
reinforcement Cognitive Maps
Cog Map rats perform as well as Reinforced rats
78
Latent Learning
  • E.C. Tolman experiment with rats.
  • Some rats went through maze for food goals, while
    others were given no reinforcement for several
    days.
  • After 10 days, rewards were put in with the rats
    that had previously been given no rewards for 2
    or 3 trials.
  • Those rats reached the food box as quickly as the
    rats that had been getting reinforcement for over
    a week.
  • Rats learn about mazes in which they roam even if
    they are unrewarded for doing so. Rats learn
    about their environments in the absence of
    reinforcement.

79
Operant Classical Conditioning
  • Escape Learning an organism acquires a response
    that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation.
  • Shuttle Box cage with two compartments
    connected by a doorway, which can be opened and
    closed by the experimenter. Animal learns to
    escape a shokc by running to the other
    compartment. Negative reinforcement
  • Avoidance Learning an organism acquires a
    response that prevents some aversive stimulation
    from occurring. Escape learning often leads to
    avoidance learning.
  •  Distinguish classical from operant conditioning
    by asking Is the organism learning associations
    between events that it doesnt control (classical
    conditioning)? Or is it learning associations
    between its behavior and resulting events
    (operant conditioning)?

80
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81
Classical Versus Operant Conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning

82
Review Exercises Classical Conditioning
  • NS rolled up newspaper, UCS spanking, UCR
    fear, CS rolled up newspaper, CR fear.
    Principle Nothing special beyond simple
    acquisition.  Perhaps generalization to others
    holding newspapers.
  • NS sight of monkeys, UCS attack, UCR pain,
    CS sight of monkeys, CR apprehension, tense.
    Principle Extinction is occurring because of
    repeated exposure to the CS (sight of monkey)
    without another exposure to the US (attack).
    Additionally, you might note that a bit of
    counter-conditioning is occurring-- she is
    feeling calm, positive feelings while being
    exposed to a stimulus (monkeys) that used to
    cause fear.
  • NS screech of tires, UCS car accident, UCR
    tense, scared, CS screech of tires, CR tense,
    scared. Principle Higher-order conditioning is
    occurring here-- The dangers of a car accident
    have been well-learned, even if never
    experienced. However, the mental images of an
    accident become a powerful CS in their own right.
    Discrimination-- given the context of the
    situation (accompanying stimuli), screeching
    tires have better ability to predict possible
    danger at an intersection than at a race track.
  • NS Donna, UCS romantic relationship, UCR
    arousal, CS Donna, CR arousal. Principle
    Again, a bit of higher-order conditioning
    occurring. Jack had come to expect (sexual)
    stimulation within a relationship-- a connection
    made through experience, expectations, etc.
    Initially, extinction, because of no stimulation
    (CR) occurred in the presence of Donna (CS). The
    other principle, spontaneous recovery, occurred
    when he saw her again after a delay of time.
    That's the reemergence of a conditioned response
    after it has been extinguished (and why people
    should be very cautious at high school reunions!)
  • NS taste, sight, and smell of chicken, UCS
    bacteria/virus, UCR sick, nauseous, CS taste,
    sight, smell of chicken, CR sick, nauseous
    Principle Generalization is happening-- not
    only does he react to chicken, but other foods
    that are similarly "fowl." This is the opposite
    of stimulus discrimination.

83
Review Exercises Operant Conditioning

Stimulus-Response Reinforcement vs. Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement
S R S S R R S S S R R S PR NP PP NR PR PP NP NR PR PP PP NP PR vs NP VR FI FR VI FI FR FR FR VI VR
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