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CHAPTER 11 EXPANDING WEST

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... and wagon trains Companies moved west in search of more beaver ... Mountain men western fur ... TRAIL OREGON COUNTRY AND TRAIL MAP SANTA FE TRAIL SANTA FE ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 11 EXPANDING WEST


1
CHAPTER 11 EXPANDING WEST
2
SECTION 1 AMERICANS MOVE OUT WEST
  • Early 1800s Americans moved out west by
    traveling on horseback, canoes, and wagon trains
  • Companies moved west in search of more beaver fur
    (beaver population killed off in East)
  • Mountain men western fur traders and trappers
    from the Rocky Mountains hired by eastern
    companies
  • Beaver fur went out of fashion and demand fell in
    the 1840s

3
WESTWARD EXPANSION MAP
4
OREGON TRAIL
  • 1840s easterners embarked on a trail that
    stretched 2,000 miles and lasted 6 months
  • Trail stretched through the Great Plains from
    western Missouri to the Oregon Territory
  • Pioneers had to deal with shortages of food and
    water, rough weather and geographic barriers
    (rivers and mountains)
  • Many Native Americans were messengers and guides
    and traded food with the pioneers

5
OREGON COUNTRY AND TRAIL MAP
6
SANTA FE TRAIL
  • An important trade path to the West that ran from
    Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico
  • American traders exchanged cloth for horses,
    mules, and silver with Mexican traders
  • Lure of high profits encouraged traders to travel
    through hot deserts
  • U.S. government sent troops to protect the
    traders from Native American attacks

7
SANTA FE TRAIL MAP
8
MORMONS
  • Joseph Smith founded Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints in New York (Mormons)
  • Mormons were persecuted because of polygamy (one
    man married to several women at the same time)
  • Mormons moved out West seeking religious freedom
  • 1844 anti-Mormon mob killed Smith
  • Brigham Young became new leader and the Mormon
    Church settled in Salt Lake City, Utah

9
SECTION 2 FATHER MIGUEL HIDALGO Y COSTILLA
  • Mexican priest led a rebellion of 80,000 poor
    Indians and mestizos
  • His rebellion failed, but it inspired the Mexican
    independence movement
  • 1821 Mexico became independent
  • Empresarios agents hired by the Mexican
    government to bring settlers to Texas
  • Texas was part of Mexico at this time

10
FATHER MIGUEL HIDALGO Y COSTILLA (in a glorious
pose)
11
STEPHEN F. AUSTIN
  • He was an empresario who started a Texas colony
    on the lower Colorado River in 1822
  • Many people who lived in this colony disobeyed
    Mexican laws, such as bringing slaves
  • Capital of Texas is named after Austin

12
ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNA
  • Mexicos leader
  • Suspended Mexicos republican constitution and
    turned his attention to the growing unrest in
    Texas

13
TEXAS DECLARES INDPENDENCE
  • March 2, 1836 Texas declared independence from
    Mexico
  • Texas is known as the Lone Star State
  • Sam Houston led the Texas army
  • Santa Anna was angry about the declaration and
    assembled a force of thousands

14
THE BATTLE OF THE ALAMO
  • February/March 1836 200 Texan rebels fought a
    huge force of Mexican troops at an abandoned
    mission called The Alamo near San Antonio
  • Texan rebels led by Colonel William Travis and
    James Bowie proclaimed, Victory or death!
  • Davy Crockett, a famous American folk hero,
    frontiersman, and Representative from Tennessee,
    fought and died at the Alamo
  • Despite heavy Mexican losses, all the Texan
    defenders were killed

15
THE BATTLE OF THE ALAMO (Painting)
16
THE BATTLE OF THE ALAMO (Painting)
17
HEROES OF THE ALAMO

Colonel William Travis Davy Crockett Jim Bowie
18
THE ALAMO (MODERN-DAY PHOTO)
19
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
  • Texans led by Sam Houston
  • April 1836 Houstons forces gained victory by
    surprising Mexican troops at San Jacinto (Texas)
    while they were sleeping
  • Houstons forces shouted the famous line,
    Remember the Alamo! as they attacked
  • Santa Annas army was utterly destroyed in 18
    minutes
  • Mexican losses 630 killed, 208 wounded, 730
    captured
  • Texan losses 9 killed, 30 wounded

20
BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO (Painting)
21
AN INDEPENDENT TEXAS
  • Santa Anna was captured at the Battle of San
    Jacinto and traded his life to sign a treaty that
    gave Texas its independence in 1836
  • Sam Houston became President of Texas
  • President Jackson refused to annex Texas as a
    state because he didnt want to upset the balance
    between free and slave states
  • Texas would have entered as a slave state
  • 1840s President John Tyler wanted to allow
    slavery in Texas, so his party, the Whigs,
    stopped supporting him
  • June 1845 Texas annexed as a state

22
MAP OF TEXAS
23
MANIFEST DESTINY
  • Many Americans believed it was their destiny, or
    obvious fate, to settle all the way to the
    Pacific Ocean
  • They believed they were destined to expand their
    control over the continent in order to spread
    democracy
  • There were debates if slavery should be allowed
    in the new territories

24
MANIFEST DESTINY PAINTING
25
JAMES K. POLK
  • 11th President
  • Belonged to the Democratic Party
  • He wanted to annex the Oregon Country
  • Merchants would benefit from a Pacific port for
    trade with China
  • He disagreed with Britain over how to draw the
    U.S.-Canadian border
  • American expansionists created the slogan,
    Fifty-four forty of fight!
  • 5440' north latitude was the line they wanted
    their northern territory to extend to

26
CALIFORNIA UNDER MEXICO
  • Mexico controlled present-day Arizona,
    California, New Mexico, and California
  • They changed Spanish policy in California by
    terminating the mission system (Spanish religious
    and trading settlements)
  • Californios Mexican colonists living in
    California

27
SECTION 3 MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR (1846-1847)
  • U.S. stated our border was farther south than the
    Mexicans claimed it was
  • March 1846 General Zachary Taylor crossed the
    Rio Grande, and a battle between U.S. and Mexican
    forces occurred
  • As a result, President Polk said Mexican forces
    invaded our territory, so Congress declared war
    on Mexico
  • U.S. Army was outnumbered, but had much better
    weapons and equipment
  • 200,000 volunteers answered Polks call to fight
    because they wanted an adventure in a foreign
    land

28
RIO GRANDE MAP
29
MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR PAINTING
30
BEAR FLAG REVOLT
  • A small group of Americans seized the town of
    Sonoma in June 1846 and fought Californios
  • These Americans defied Mexico by claiming
    California was independent
  • Fighting ended in 1847, but California was
    annexed as a state in 1850 and did not become an
    independent country

31
TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO
  • General Taylors forces crushed the Mexican
    military in Buena Vista in 1847
  • General Winfield Scott crushed the strongest
    fortress in Mexico at Veracruz and captured the
    capital of Mexico City on September 14, 1847
    Santa Anna fled
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed in February
    1848 and it officially ended the war and it
    increased the size of the U.S. by almost 25
    percent

32
GASDEN PURCHASE
  • U.S. paid Mexico 10 million in exchange for the
    southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico
    (Southwest)
  • It secured a southern route for a
    transcontinental railroad on southern soil

33
MEXICAN CESSION
  • Cession the act of giving up property or
    territory rights
  • Some Mexican-Americans were very confused when
    white settlers poured into the Southwest since
    Mexican land laws were very different
  • The different cultures did influence each other
    since Mexican and American holidays were
    celebrated in the Southwest

34
SECTION 4 CALIFORNIA TRAIL
  • 1830s and 1840s
  • American and Mexican merchants would meet in
    California to trade factory-made goods for
    precious coins, hides, and tallow (fatty tissue
    of animals used to make soap, candles, food,
    etc.)

35
CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH
  • January 1848 - gold discovered in California
  • 1849 about 80,000 Forty-niners, who were
    gold-seekers from America and abroad, migrated to
    California
  • Many came to get rich quick and stayed to build
    a stable frontier society

36
FORTY-NINERS PHOTO
37
CALIFORNIA ADVERTISEMENT
38
GOLDS IMPACT ON CALIFORNIA
  • Gold fever the population explosion made
    California eligible for statehood in 1850
  • Population of San Francisco grew to more than
    25,000
  • The transcontinental railroad gave Californias
    economy the means to grow by connecting the state
    to the rest of the country
  • Railroad completed in 1869
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