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Terms and People

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Title: Terms and People


1
Terms and People
  • blockade the shutting off of a port by ships to
    keep people or supplies from moving in or out
  • mercenary soldier who serves another country
    for money

2
How did the American Revolution begin?
The battles of Lexington and Concord hardened the
resolve of both the colonists and the British.
Both sides believed their cause was just. Both
sides hoped the other would give in quickly. But
both sides prepared for war.
3
Lexington and Concord
The battles between the colonists and British
troops sent shock waves throughout the colonies.
Colonial leaders held the Second Continental
Congress in Philadelphia in May 1775 to discuss
the crisis.
4
The Congress took quick action to meet an
immediate needdefense.
The delegates established the Continental army
and chose George Washington as its leader.
Congress decided to pay for the army by printing
paper money, an important power of government.
5
The delegates were divided, however, about what
actions to take next.
Some delegates wanted to cut ties with
Britain and declare independence.
Others still hoped to compromise and make peace.
6
These early divisions among the delegates
reflected the divisions among the colonists
themselves.
Patriots Favored independence and were willing
to fight for it
Loyalists Remained loyal to Britain and the king
7
As many as one third of the colonists were
Loyalists.
  • people from wealthy families
  • government officials
  • enslaved African Americans
  • Native Americans

Loyalists often included
Most colonists, however, were Patriots.
8
Yet even Patriot leaders could not agree on the
best way to deal with the crisis. Congress
extended an olive branch to the king in July
1775.
Olive Branch Petition Stated the colonists were
loyal to the king and wanted to reach a peaceful
settlement
9
That same month Congress also issued a warning.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of
Taking Up Arms Stated the colonists were ready
to die for their cause
10
King George III ignored the Olive Branch Petition
and declared that the colonies were in open
rebellion.
Parliament voted to send 20,000 troops to the
colonies to end the uprising.
11
The Americans won an important early victory at
Fort Ticonderoga, where Ethan Allen and the Green
Mountain Boys surprised the British and captured
the fort.
Fort Ticonderoga gave the Americans
  • control over a route to Canada
  • cannons and other weapons

12
In Boston, Americans clashed with British troops
at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775.
The Americans held Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill.
From there, they could shoot at British ships in
the harbor.
British troops marched up the hill, determined to
capture the high ground.
13
No one knew how the untrained American volunteers
would hold up against the tough British soldiers.
But the Americans held off two attacks, losing a
third only after running out of ammunition.
The British won the battle, but lost many troops.
14
Washington sent for the cannons that had been
captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
After a difficult journey the cannons arrived,
and Washington was finally able to drive the
British from Boston.
15
Despite these early American victories, the
British still held many advantages.
  • They controlled the most powerful navy in the
    world.
  • They hired mercenaries to help fight.

After a failed invasion of Canada, the Americans
knew they were facing a long and difficult
struggle.
16
6.2 Objectives
  • Find out how Thomas Paine stirred support for
    independence.
  • Understand the meaning and structure of the
    Declaration of Independence.
  • Learn how Congress finally agreed to separate
    from England.

17
Terms and People
  • Thomas Paine American colonist and author of
    Common Sense
  • Richard Henry Lee delegate who introduced a
    resolution calling for independence to the Second
    Continental Congress
  • resolution formal statement of opinion
  • preamble introduction
  • grievance formal complaint

18
Why did many colonists favor declaring
independence?
By 1776, tension filled the colonies. The king
had declared the colonists to be in open
rebellion. Battles had been fought, and soldiers
had died.
Still, the path ahead was not clear. Though blood
had been shed, many colonists still hoped for
peace.
19
As 1776 began, most colonists were neither
Patriots nor Loyalists. They were in the middle,
torn about what to do.
Patriots
Loyalists
Undecided
20
That soon began to change. In January 1776, a
colonist named Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet that
received wide attention.
21
In Common Sense, Paine made powerful arguments in
favor of independence.
George III is a royal brute.
Kings should not rule over people.
Americans should govern themselves.
22
Common Sense became a bestseller, and public
opinion began to shift.
More colonists began to favor independence. So,
too, did their representatives in the Second
Continental Congress.
Number of colonists favoring independence
23
In May, Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee
introduced a resolution declaring that the
colonies should be free and independent states.
Congress formed a committee to write a statement
explaining the reasons for independence.
The statement would be presented to Congress,
then the question of independence would be put to
a vote.
24
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas
Jefferson were appointed to the committee.
Jefferson wrote most of the document, which would
become the Declaration of Independence.
25
The Declaration of Independence begins has four
parts, beginning with a preamble.
Preamble
Declaration of Natural Rights
List of Grievances
Resolution of Independence
The preamble states the reason for writing the
documentto explain why the colonists were
breaking ties with Britain.
26
To begin the explanation, Jefferson declared that
everyone has unalienable rights.
Preamble
Declaration of Natural Rights
List of Grievances
Resolution of Independence
Governments are created to protect those rights.
If a government violates those rights, the people
must change their government.
27
The British government, Jefferson argued, had
violated the colonists rights.
Preamble
Declaration of Natural Rights
List of Grievances
Resolution of Independence
To prove this, he presented a long list of
grievances, including that the colonists were
  • denied trial by jury
  • taxed without their consent

28
Therefore, Jefferson concluded, the colonies are
free and independent states.
Preamble
Declaration of Natural Rights
List of Grievances
Resolution of Independence
All ties between the colonies and the British
government are now dissolved.
29
The Declaration of Independence was approved by
Congress on July 4, 1776.
30
Americans still celebrate July 4th as
Independence Day.
Today, the Declaration of Independence remains a
source of inspiration for Americans and for
people around the world.
31
For Americans in 1776, however, declaring
independence was a serious and frightening step.
The colonists were challenging one of the most
powerful nations in the worldand risking their
lives.
The way ahead was dangerous, but there was no
turning back. Americans were now fighting to
create their own nation.
32
All Men Are Created Equal
  • Who did this apply to?
  • Women?
  • Were all men equal?
  • Does this mean that slavery is abolished?

33
(No Transcript)
34
All Men are Created Equal
  • Neither the Constitution drafted in 1787 nor the
    Bill of Rights even include the word equality
    much less provide a specific guarantee of it.

35
Part I Preamble
  • The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen
    united States of America,When in the Course of
    human events, it becomes necessary for one people
    to dissolve the political bands which have
    connected them with another, and to assume among
    the powers of the earth, the separate and equal
    station to which the Laws of Nature and of
    Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to
    the opinions of mankind requires that they should
    declare the causes which impel them to the
    separation.

36
Preamble Questions
  • According to the preamble, what is the goal of
    the writers?
  • Why are they writing this document?
  • Make a prediction of what will come next in the
    document based on what you have read in the
    preamble.

37
Beliefs
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
    men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these
    rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
    deriving their just powers from the consent of
    the governed, --That whenever any Form of
    Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
    is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
    it, and to institute new Government, laying its
    foundation on such principles and organizing its
    powers in such form, as to them shall seem most
    likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
    ...The history of the present King of Great
    Britain is a history of repeated injuries and
    usurpations, all having in direct object the
    establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these
    States.

38
Grievances
  • He has combined with others to subject us...
  • to their Acts of pretended legislation For
    quartering large bodies of armed troops among us
  • For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the
    world
  • For imposing Taxes on us without our consent
  • For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most
    valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the
    Forms of our Governments

39
Attempts to Address Grievances
  • In every stage of these Oppressions, We have
    petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms
    Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by
    repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is
    thus marked by every act which may define a
    Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free
    people.Nor have we been wanting in attentions to
    our British brethren. We have warned them from
    time to time of attempts by their legislature to
    extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
    have reminded them of the circumstances of our
    emigration and settlement here. We have appealed
    to their native justice and magnanimity, and we
    have conjured them by the ties of our common
    kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would
    inevitably interrupt our connections and
    correspondence. They too have been deaf to the
    voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must,
    therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which
    denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we
    hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in
    Peace Friends.

40
Declaring Independence
  • We, therefore, the Representatives of the united
    States of America, in General Congress,
    Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the
    world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in
    the Name, and by Authority of the good People of
    these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare,
    That these United Colonies are, and of Right
    ought to be Free and Independent States that
    they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the
    British Crown, and that all political connection
    between them and the State of Great Britain, is
    and ought to be totally dissolved and that as
    Free and Independent States, they have full Power
    to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances,
    establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and
    Things which Independent States may of right do.
    And for the support of this Declaration, with a
    firm reliance on the protection of divine
    Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our
    Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

41
Objectives
  • Discover the results of fighting in the Middle
    States.
  • Understand why the Battle of Saratoga was a
    turning point in the American Revolution.
  • Learn how foreign nations and volunteers helped
    the Americans.

42
Terms and People
  • Nathan Hale Connecticut officer and American
    spy who was executed by the British
  • mercenary soldier who is paid to fight for a
    country other than his or her own
  • alliance formal agreement between two powers to
    work together toward a common goal
  • Marquis de Lafayette French noble and
    high-ranking officer in Washingtons army

43
Terms and People (continued)
  • cavalry units of troops on horseback
  • Friedrich von Steuben German baron who helped
    train the Continental army

44
How were the early years of the war a critical
time?
Declaration of Independence
In 1776, Americans declared their independence.
But they were not yet free.
First, they had to defeat one of the worlds most
powerful nations.
45
As the Continental Congress met in Philadelphia,
a large British fleet landed in New York.
The fleet was commanded by Sir William Howe.
Howe gathered his forces on Staten Island and
prepared to attack the Continental army.
46
George Washington expected the attack. But his
troops were no match for the British.
Americans British
20,000 poorly trained volunteers No navy Little equipment few supplies 34,000 professional soldiers Navy fleet 10,000 sailors Well equipped fully supplied
47
In a series of battles and American retreats, the
British drove Washington from New York, across
New Jersey, and into Pennsylvania.
British
Americans
48
Spirits were low, and many soldiers deserted.
To boost morale Thomas Paine wrote another
pamphlet, The Crisis, urging Americans to fight
for their cause.
49
Though his army was battered, Washington rallied
his troops for a surprise attack.
On Christmas night, Washington crossed the
Delaware, slipping into New Jersey. His army
defeated Hessian mercenaries and British troops
in two key battles.
Battle of Trenton
Battle of Princeton
50
Another American victory soon followed.
The British had planned to push toward Albany,
New York, from three directions.
British
British
Albany, New York
New England
British
They hoped to cut New England off from the rest
of the colonies.
51
Two forces never arrived. The third, coming from
Canada, was led by British general John Burgoyne.
Battle of Saratoga
Americans led by General Horatio Gates surrounded
Burgoynes troops at Saratoga, New York.
After suffering heavy losses, Burgoyne
surrendered.
52
The Revolutionary War, 17751777
53
The Battle of Saratoga proved to be a turning
point for the Americans.

Battle of Saratoga
  • ended British threat to New England
  • lifted Patriot spirits
  • convinced Europeans Americans could win

54
Soon after Saratoga, France agreed to support
American independence.
France forms an alliance with the Americans
United States
Eager to weaken Britain, France took the war to
Europe, forcing the British to fight on many
fronts.
55
European volunteers from many nations made key
contributions to the Patriot cause.
56
Friedrich von Steuben, a German baron, helped
train American troops and build the Continental
army into a more effective fighting force.
57
Despite Patriot advances, the winter of 17771778
was difficult.
Washington and his troops faced terrible
hardships at Valley Forge. They had little warm
clothing, and almost no food. Many died.
Yet spring finally came, and the army slowly
regained strength for the battles ahead.
58
Section Review
Know It, Show It Quiz
QuickTake Quiz
59
How did the effects of the war widen?
While Continental soldiers faced battle in the
thirteen colonies, many people in other places
also felt the wars effects.
American Revolution
Native Americans
African Americans
Women
Western settlers
60
African Americans fought on both sides during the
American Revolution.
African Americans
Patriots
British
61
Free African Americans fought for the Patriots
from the beginning, seeing action at several key
battles.
  • Lexington and Concord
  • Bunker Hill
  • Saratoga

Some enslaved people also supported the Americans
after escaping from their owners.
62
If they fought for the British, however, enslaved
people were offered something of immense value.
Freedom
To gain their freedom, thousands of enslaved
Americans fled their owners and joined the
British.
63
At first, George Washington refused to accept
African American soldiers.
Washington reversed his policy, however, after so
many African Americans began to join the British
forces.
By the end of the war, more than 7,000 African
Americans had fought for the Patriots.
64
Women, too, were affected by the war, often
taking on new responsibilities.
Men who enlisted were away for at least one year
65
Some women followed their husbands into battle.
They provided supplies, food, and water. They
cared for the wounded.
Some, like Molly Pitcher, stepped in to fight
when her husband fell.
66
Soldiers and civilians alike were affected by the
financial burdens of paying for the war.
  • Congress had no power to tax, and the states had
    little money.
  • Congress printed continentals to pay expenses,
    but the money soon lost its value.

67
Those on the western frontier also felt the wars
effects.
British
Native Americans
Most Native Americans sided with the British,
fearing an American victory would bring more
settlers onto their lands.
68
Many Indian groups, however, were bitterly
divided about which side to support. Some split
into warring factions.

A deadly epidemic added to the crushing effects
of war.
Infighting
Western raids
Smallpox
Native Americans
69
George Rogers Clark pushed west to strike British
forts on the frontier.
Clark won key battles against the British and
their Native American allies.
These victories allowed settlers to remain on the
frontier.
70
Clark and other Americans were given help by the
Spanish, who declared war on Britain in 1779.
Spanish
Patriots
71
Bernardo de Gálvez, the governor of Louisiana,
played a key role in Spanish attacks that
captured British forts along the Mississippi and
the Gulf of Mexico.
Spanish
Gálvez also gave refuge to American ships in New
Orleans harbor.
72
The Americans needed the help. Their small navy
was no match for the British fleet, which
dominated the seas.
British ships blockaded most American ports
73
A much-needed naval victory was won off the
English coast when John Paul Jones refused to
give up a long and difficult fight, forcing a
British ship to surrender.
Privateers also helped the Americans, seizing
supplies and goods from British merchant ships.
74
How did the Americans win the war and make peace?
Armed with a new battle plan, the British were
determined to finally end the rebellion.
For a time, it seemed they might succeed. But the
Americans fought on, still believing in victory.
75
After losing New England, the British tried to
win the war by capturing the South, then marching
north.
Charles Cornwallis, the British commander, seemed
unstoppable as he swept through Georgia and into
the Carolinas.
North Carolina
76
American Francis Marion, called the Swamp Fox,
used hit-and-run guerrilla tactics to slow the
British.
77
But the British kept pushing on, battle after
battle.
Helping the British was the American traitor
Benedict Arnold.
Benedict Arnold Patriot
  • had fought bravely for the Patriots
  • plotted to give West Point to the British
  • led Loyalist raids in Virginia

78
Finally, American forces rallied at two key
battles in South Carolina.
Kings Mountain
Frontier fighters defeated British and Loyalist
troops atop Kings Mountain
Cowpens
Nathanael Greene split his army in two the
western force under Daniel Morgan defeated
British fighters
79
The War in the South, 17781781
Weakened, Cornwallis continued the march north,
into Virginia.
At the same time, Washington rushed to Virginia
with American and French troops.
80
At Yorktown, Cornwallis moved his main army onto
the peninsula.
He believed that the British naval fleet could
reinforce his position there.
But Cornwallis soon realized that he was trapped.
81
American and French troops arrived, blocking an
escape by land.
The French fleet also arrived, blocking an escape
by sea.
On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered.
82
The long war for independence was finally over.
Now, it was time to make peace.
Peace talks between the two sides were held in
Paris, France.
American delegation Benjamin Franklin John Adams
British delegation
Paris, France
83
The talks resulted in the Treaty of Paris. The
treaty was approved by Congress in April 1783.
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Britain recognized American independence.
  • Both sides agreed to new U.S. boundaries.

84
North America in 1783
The boundaries of the new nation were
  • Canada on the north
  • the Mississippi River on the west
  • Florida on the south

Florida was returned to Spain.
85
For many, it seemed the impossible had happened.
How had the Americans defeated one of the most
powerful nations in the world?
86
The immediate effect of the Revolution was to
create a new nationthe United States of America.
The nation was made up of thirteen independent
states, linked by custom and history.
87
The long-term effects of the Revolution, however,
continue today.
American Revolution
The ideals of equality and liberty continue to
gain broader meaning. The Revolution has
inspired independence movements around the world.
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