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MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE WAR WITH MEXICO

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MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE WAR WITH MEXICO If the nation expands, so will slavery - ? Migration out West By 1860, more than 250,000 Americans had moved west along ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE WAR WITH MEXICO


1
MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE WAR WITH MEXICO
  • If the nation expands, so will slavery - ?

2
Migration out West
  • By 1860, more than 250,000 Americans had moved
    west along overland trails.
  • By 1850, more than 4 million people had moved
    past the Appalachian Mountains.
  • Squatter a person who settles on land that they
    do not own.

3
Adding New Territory
  • Americans were also settling in Oregon Territory,
    California and Texas. These lands were partly
    owned or controlled by other nations (Britain and
    Mexico).

4
The Trip out West
  • A typical trip west took about six months, with
    people being able to travel about 15 miles/day.
  • Early pioneers called the Great Plains the Great
    American Desert because it was treeless.
  • In spite of stories about Indian attacks, many
    natives were helpful to the early settlers.

5
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6
Trying to make Peace
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) an attempt to
    make peace with the Plains Indians. The U.S.
    promised territory to the natives, but new
    settlers kept moving through.

7
TEXAS Fight for Independence
  • Mexico owned Texas and wanted more settlers to
    move there. They offered cheap land to new
    settlers, convincing many Americans to move.
  • Stephen Austin became one of the first
    empresarios to convince many Americans to settle
    in Texas.

8
Continuing the Fight
  • The Mexican government wanted the new settlers to
    adopt Mexican customs, learn Spanish and convert
    to Catholicism. Most did not and also did not
    associate with native Mexicans.
  • Mexico closed its borders in 1830.

9
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10
The rise of Santa Anna
  • 1833, Stephen Austin started pushing for Texas
    independence. He tried to work out agreements
    with Mexican President Santa Anna.
  • In April, 1834, Santa Anna made himself dictator
    of Mexico. The next year, Austin urged Texans to
    organize an army and move toward independence.

11
THE ALAMO
  • The most famous battle between the Texans and
    Mexicans occurred at the Alamo. This was an old
    Spanish mission, where about 150 Texans held out
    to fight Santa Annas men.
  • The small band of Texans held out for 13 days.
    When Santa Annas forces attacked, the only
    survivors were women, children and a few
    servants.
  • Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were among the dead.
  • Remember the Alamo became the new battle cry.

12
Battle of SAN JACINTO
  • Sam Houston, chief of the Texas forces, was
    waiting for a chance to fight Santa Anna. On
    April 21, 1836, while Santa Annas soldiers were
    napping in their camp, the Texans attacked.

13
The Clash between Texas and Mexico
  • The Mexican troops were so startled that
    Houstons men were able to kill hundreds and take
    700 prisoners, including Santa Anna.
  • Houston convinced Santa Anna to withdraw from
    Texas, and sign a treaty recognizing their
    independence. The Mexican government did not
    accept the treaty, but ended the military
    campaign. Texas became a nation.
  • Texas asked for annexation as a slave state.
    Mexico still claimed ownership of the territory.
    These reasons made statehood more difficult and
    Texas remained a separate nation for ten years.

14
Battle of San Jacinto
15
Sam Houston was elected President of Texas in
September of 1836
16
Electing a New President
  • In 1844, James K. Polk became President. His
    goal was to annex Texas and the Oregon Territory
    and to purchase California from Mexico.
  • Polk insisted that the US had rights to the
    entire Oregon Territory even though Britain had
    claimed the land for years.
  • Polk had campaigned with the slogan, Fifty-four
    Forty or Fight meaning that the boundary
    should be drawn at the 54 40 latitude line.
  • Britain and the US agreed to divide the territory
    along the 49th parallel. This later became the
    states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho.

17
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18
The Annexation of Texas
  • In 1845, Congress passed a resolution to annex
    Texas and became a state
  • This outraged the Mexican government. To make
    matters worse, the two countries had disagreed
    over the border between Texas and Mexico.
  • Mexico set the border at the Nueces River, the US
    set it at the Rio Grande.
  • In 1845, President Polk sent John Slidell to
    Mexico City to try to resolve the issue. The
    Mexican president wouldnt even meet with him.
  • This ruined any real chances of settling the
    dispute

19
Continuing the Invasion
  • In January, 1846, General Zachary Taylor led
    American troops into the disputed territory.
  • On May 9, Mexicans attacked the Americans,
    starting a war with Mexico.
  • The strategy involved crossing the Rio Grande,
    sending a force to capture Santa Fe, and then
    moving west to take California.
  • Before the war actually started, settlers in
    California led an uprising which resulted in
    California declaring independence.

20
The War with Mexico Begins (1846-1848)
  • After the meeting with Slidell and Taylor did not
    work, Polk asked Congress for a declaration of
    war, which came on May 13, 1846
  • Congress believed that this was just another part
    of Americas Manifest Destiny.
  • Critics believed that this altercation was Polks
    expansionist policies and calculated idea of
    getting Mexico

21
Invading Mexico
  • General Winfield Scott captured Mexico City in
    September of 1847.

22
The Mexican War Ends
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in
    1848. Mexico gave the US over 500,000 square
    miles (including California, Nevada, Utah,
    Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming) and
    set the border with Texas at the Rio Grande
    River.
  • The US paid Mexico 15 million and cancelled
    3.25 million in debts owed by the Mexican
    government.

23
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24
IF THE NATION EXPANDS, WILL SLAVERY?
25
Slavery in America Motion
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FileUS_Slave_Free_17
    89-1861.gif
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