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Practical Applications for Managing Biological Risks

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Practical Applications for Managing Biological Risks Aerosol Transmission Beef Producers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Practical Applications for Managing Biological Risks


1
Practical Applications for Managing Biological
Risks
  • Aerosol Transmission
  • Beef Producers

2
Biological Risk Management (BRM)
  • Overall process of awareness education,
    evaluation, and management
  • Designed to improve infection/disease control
  • Foreign and domestic diseases
  • Provide tools to minimize risk

3
Biological Risk Management (BRM)
  • Disease risk cannot be totally eliminated
  • Animal, its environment
  • Decrease exposure
  • Infectious agentinteractions
  • Minimize threat to animals and humans
  • No one-size-fits-all answer

4
Routes of Transmission
  • Spread of disease agents
  • Animal animal
  • Animal human
  • Different modes of transmission
  • Oral
  • Vector-borne
  • Zoonotic
  • Aerosol
  • Direct contact
  • Fomite

5
Aerosol Transmission
  • Disease agents contained in droplets
  • Pass through air
  • Most agents not stable in droplets
  • Close proximity required
  • Infected and susceptible animals

6
Selected Diseases Spread by Aerosol
  • Foreign diseases
  • Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
  • Foot and mouth disease
  • Malignant catarrhal fever
  • Present in U.S.
  • Anthrax
  • BRSV
  • BVD
  • IBR
  • M. hemolytica
  • Mycoplasma
  • Q Fever
  • Tuberculosis

7
Routes of Transmission
  • Apply to all infectious agents
  • Animal must be exposed to develop disease
  • Understand different routes of transmission
    Gain control
  • Risk areas must be identified
  • Design protocols to minimize exposure

8
Disease Transmission
  • Animals may not exhibit obvious clinical signsof
    disease
  • Awareness of all routes of transmission is
    essential
  • Develop strategy to minimize disease risk for
    livestock operation

9
General Prevention Steps
  • Overview
  • Farm perimeter
  • Animal identification
  • Animal health
  • Sick/dead animals
  • Isolation/quarantine
  • Supply handling
  • Neonatal management

10
General Prevention Steps
  • Limit contact with animals
  • Neighbors livestock
  • Wildlife, birds
  • Roaming cats, dogs
  • Maintain fences
  • Establish biosecurity protocols for delivery
    vehicles, personnel
  • Lock gates

11
General Prevention
  • Identify individual animals
  • Important for
  • Communicating health status
  • Treatment needs
  • Location on farm
  • Record keeping

12
General Prevention Steps
  • Keep health records on every animal
  • Review vaccination and treatment programs
  • Annually, bi-annually
  • Protocol versus actual
  • Investigate unusual signs, unresponsive cases
  • Neurologic, downers, sudden death

13
General Prevention Steps
  • Train farm personnel to report sick animals
  • Inspect animals daily
  • Clean equipment, boots, clothing
  • Euthanize terminally ill animals promptly and
    appropriately
  • Removed or rendered
  • Perform necropsy on animals that died from
    unknown causes

14
General Prevention Steps
  • Isolate ill animals immediately
  • No shared ventilation, direct contact with other
    animals
  • Quarantine newly introduced animals
  • New purchases, returning animals
  • Time determined with veterinarian
  • Test for key diseases before placing with rest of
    herd

15
General Prevention Steps
  • Store non-refrigeratedvaccines and antibiotics
    out of sunlight as it can deactivate them
  • Monitor refrigeration temperature monthly
  • Ideal temp 36-46oF
  • Restrict access to medication to only properly
    trained personnel

16
General Prevention Steps
  • Ensure adequate ingestion of disease-free
    colostrum in first 6 hours of life
  • Prevent contact with older calves, contaminated
    environments

17
Aerosol Control
18
Aerosol
  • Basic prevention steps involve
  • Increasing distance between sick and well
    animals
  • Maximizing ventilation
  • Provide fresh air to all animals
  • Decrease humidity and odor build up

19
Isolation/Quarantine
  • Distance is important
  • Do not share air space between sick and healthy
    animals

20
Calving
  • Calving pens should not be used to house sick
    animals
  • Cows should calve separately from heifers to
    minimize disease exposure

21
Housing
  • Control dust in dry lots
  • Damaged respiratory tract disease
  • Use water inlimited amounts
  • Keep indoor humidity levels low
  • Pathogens build up in high humidity

22
Summary
  • Aerosol transmission occurs everyday on farms
  • IBR, BVD, BRSV, Mycoplasma
  • Foreign animal diseases can also be spread via
    aerosol
  • CBPP, FMD
  • Prevention steps as described here can help
    minimize your risk

23
Key Learning Objectives
  • Biological risk management is important
  • All diseases are transmitted by a few common
    routes
  • Disease risk can be managed
  • Awareness education is essential
  • You play a critical role!

24
Questions?
  • www.cfsph.iastate.edu/BRM
  • brm_at_iastate.edu
  • 515-294-7189
  • CFSPH
  • Iowa State University, College of Veterinary
    Medicine
  • Ames, IA 50011

25
Acknowledgments
  • Development of this presentationwas funded by a
    grant from the USDA Risk Management Agencyto the
    Center for Food Securityand Public Healthat
    Iowa State University.

26
Acknowledgments
Authors Bryan Buss, DVM, MPH Danelle
Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH Reviewer James Roth,
DVM, PhD
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