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Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes

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Title: Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes


1
Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes
Karl A. Smith Engineering Education Purdue
University Civil Engineering - University of
Minnesota ksmith_at_umn.edu - http//www.ce.umn.edu/
smith/ Michigan State University College of
Natural Science Workshop September 2009
2
Workshop Layout
  • Welcome Overview
  • Integrated Course Design (CAP Model)
  • Content
  • Assessment
  • Pedagogy
  • Active Cooperative Learning
  • Informal Bookends on a Class Session
  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Design and Teamwork Features
  • Wrap-up and Next Steps

3
Workshop Objectives
  • Participants will be able to
  • Explain rationale for Active and Cooperative
    Learning in Large Classes
  • Describe key features of Cooperative Learning
  • Apply cooperative learning to classroom practice
  • Describe key features of the Backward Design
    process Content (outcomes) Assessment -
    Pedagogy
  • Identify connections between cooperative learning
    and desired outcomes of courses and programs

4
Background Knowledge Survey
  • Familiarity with
  • Approaches to Course Design
  • Wiggins McTighe Understanding by Design
    (Backward Design)
  • Fink Creating Significant Learning Experiences
  • Felder Brent Effective Course Design
  • Active and Cooperative Learning Strategies
  • Informal turn-to-your-neighbor
  • Formal cooperative problem-based learning
  • Research
  • Student engagement NSSE
  • Cooperative learning
  • How People Learn
  • Responsibility
  • Individual course
  • Program
  • Accreditation
  • Other

5
Backward Design Wiggins McTighe
  • Stage 1. Identify Desired Results
  • Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence
  • Stage 3. Plan Learning Experiences
  • and Instruction

Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay. 1998.
Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA ASCD
6
CAP Design Process Flowchart
7
CAP Design Process (Shawns Model)
Start
Context
Content
Cloud of alignment
Assessment
Pedagogy
End
8
Effective Course Design
(Felder Brent, 1999)
ABET EC 2000
Blooms Taxonomy
Course-specific goals objectives
Classroom assessment techniques
Technology
Cooperative learning
Students
Assessment
Other experiences
Tests
Other measures
Lectures
Labs
9
Resources
  • Integrated Design Approach
  • Pellegrino Rethinking and Redesigning
    Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
  • Backward Design Process (Wiggins McTighe)
  • Smith, K. A., Douglas, T. C., Cox, M. 2009.
    Supportive teaching and learning strategies in
    STEM education. In R. Baldwin, (Ed.). Improving
    the climate for undergraduate teaching in STEM
    fields. New Directions for Teaching and Learning,
    117, 19-32. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Bransford, Vye and Bateman Creating High
    Quality Learning Environments

10
Shaping the Future New Expectations for
Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics,
Engineering and Technology National Science
Foundation, 1996
Goal All students have access to supportive,
excellent undergraduate education in science,
mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all
students learn these subjects by direct
experience with the methods and processes of
inquiry. Recommend that SMET faculty Believe
and affirm that every student can learn, and
model good practices that increase learning
starting with the students experience, but have
high expectations within a supportive climate
and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the
excitement of discovery, plus communication and
teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long
learning skills into learning experiences.
11
Lila M. Smith
12
Pedago-pathologies Amnesia Fantasia Inertia Lee
Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late
60s early 70s) Stanford University, Past
President of the Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of College Teaching Shulman, Lee S.
1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31
(4), 11-17.
13
What do we do about these pathologies? Lee
Shulman Activity Reflection Collaboration
Passion Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning
seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
14
Lila M. Smith
15
It could well be that faculty members of the
twenty-first century college or university will
find it necessary to set aside their roles as
teachers and instead become designers of learning
experiences, processes, and environments.
James Duderstadt, 1999 Nuclear Engineering
Professor Dean, Provost and President of the
University of Michigan
16
Pedagogies of Engagement
17
MIT Harvard Engaged Pedagogy
January 2, 2009Science, Vol. 323
www.sciencemag.org
January 13, 2009New York Times http//www.nytimes
.com/2009/01/13/us/13physics.html?em
Calls for evidence-based teaching practices
18
http//web.mit.edu/edtech/casestudies/teal.htmlvi
deo
19
http//www.ncsu.edu/PER/scaleup.html
20
Cooperative Learning Positive Interdependence In
dividual and Group Accountability Face-to-Face
Promotive Interaction Teamwork Skills Group
Processing
21
Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson,
D.W., Johnson, R.T., Smith, K.A. 1998.
Cooperative learning returns to college What
evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4),
26-35. Over 300 Experimental Studies First
study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability
Multiple Outcomes
Outcomes 1. Achievement and retention 2.
Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3.
Differentiated views of others 4. Accurate
understanding of others' perspectives 5. Liking
for classmates and teacher 6. Liking for subject
areas 7. Teamwork skills
January 2005
March 2007
22
Active Learning Cooperation in the College
Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL
College-804.doc)
23
Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves
people working in teams to accomplish a common
goal, under conditions that involve both positive
interdependence (all members must cooperate to
complete the task) and individual and group
accountability (each member is accountable for
the complete final outcome). Key
Concepts Positive Interdependence Individual
and Group Accountability Face-to-Face Promotive
Interaction Teamwork Skills Group Processing
24
Individual Group Accountability
  • ?

25
http//www.ce.umn.edu/smith/docs/Smith-CL20Hando
ut2008.pdf
26
Book Ends on a Class Session
27
Advance Organizer The most important single
factor influencing learning is what the learner
already knows. Ascertain this and teach him
accordingly._at_ David Ausubel - Educational
psychology A cognitive approach, 1968.
28
  • Book Ends on a Class Session
  • Advance Organizer
  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your-neighb
    or) -- repeated every 10-12 minutes
  • Session Summary (Minute Paper)
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you
    learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as
    we end this session?
  • What was the muddiest point in this session?

29
Advance Organizer The most important single
factor influencing learning is what the learner
already knows. Ascertain this and teach him
accordingly. David Ausubel - Educational
psychology A cognitive approach, 1968.
30
Quick Thinks
  • Reorder the steps
  • Paraphrase the idea
  • Correct the error
  • Support a statement
  • Select the response
  • Johnston, S. Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks
    Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised
    instruction. Cooperative learning and college
    teaching, 8(1), 2-7.

31
  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Group
  • Introductory Pair Discussion of a
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  • Formulate your response to the question
    individually
  • Share your answer with a partner
  • Listen carefully to your partner's answer
  • Work together to Create a new answer through
    discussion

32
Minute Paper
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you
    learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as
    we end this session?
  • What was the muddiest point in this session?
  • Give an example or application
  • Explain in your own words . . .
  • Angelo, T.A. Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom
    assessment techniques A handbook for college
    teachers. San Francisco Jossey Bass.

33
  • Session Summary
  • (Minute Paper)
  • Reflect on the session
  • 1. Most interesting, valuable, useful thing you
    learned.
  • 2. Things that helped you learn.
  • 3. Question, comments, suggestions.
  • Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast
  • Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots
  • Instructional Format Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah

34
MOT 8221 Spring 2009 Session 1
Q4 Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast (3.3) Q5
Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots (4.2) Q6
Format Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah (4.4)
35
Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with
Concept Tests Physics Peer Instruction - Eric
Mazur - Harvard http//galileo.harvard.edu Rich
ard Hake http//www.physics.indiana.edu/hake/
Chemistry Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison
www.chem.wisc.edu/concept Video Making
Lectures Interactive with ConcepTests ModularChem
Consortium http//mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/ STEM
TEC Video How Change Happens Breaking the
Teach as You Were Taught Cycle Films for the
Humanities Sciences www.films.com Harvard Thi
nking Together, From Questions to Concepts
Interactive Teaching in Physics Interactive
Teaching DVD Promoting Better Learning Using
Peer Instruction and Just-In-Time Teaching
Derek Bok Center www.fas.harvard.edu/bok_cen/
36
The Hake Plot of FCI
35.00
SDI
30.00
ALS
WP
25.00
20.00
PI(HU)
15.00
ASU(nc)
WP
10.00
ASU(c)
HU
5.00
0.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
Pretest (Percent)
37
Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs
traditional methods) http//www.physics.indiana.ed
u/hake/
Traditional (lecture)
Interactive (active/cooperative)
ltggt Concept Inventory Gain/Total
38
(No Transcript)
39
Physics (Mechanics) Concepts The Force Concept
Inventory (FCI)
  • A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's
    understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.
  • The choice of topics is based on careful thought
    about what the fundamental issues and concepts
    are in Newtonian dynamics.
  • Uses common speech rather than cueing specific
    physics principles.
  • The distractors (wrong answers) are based on
    students' common inferences.

40
Informal Cooperative Learning Groups Can be
used at any time Can be short term and ad hoc May
be used to break up a long lecture Provides an
opportunity for students to process material
they have been listening to (Cognitive
Rehearsal) Are especially effective in large
lectures Include "book ends" procedure Are not as
effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or
Cooperative Base Groups
41
Active Learning Cooperation in the College
Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL
College-804.doc)
42
Formal Cooperative Learning Task Groups
43
http//www.aacu.org/advocacy/leap/documents/Re8097
abcombined.pdf
44
Top Three Main Engineering Work Activities
  • Engineering Total
  • Design 36
  • Computer applications 31
  • Management 29
  • Civil/Architectural
  • Management 45
  • Design 39
  • Computer applications 20

Burton, L., Parker, L, LeBold, W. 1998. U.S.
engineering career trends. ASEE Prism, 7(9),
18-21.
45
  • Teamwork Skills
  • Communication
  • Listening and Persuading
  • Decision Making
  • Conflict Management
  • Leadership
  • Trust and Loyalty

46
Design team failure is usually due to failed team
dynamics (Leifer, Koseff Lenshow, 1995). Its
the soft stuff thats hard, the hard stuff is
easy (Doug Wilde, quoted in Leifer,
1997) Professional Skills (Shuman, L.,
Besterfield-Sacre, M., and McGourty, J.,
The ABET Professional Skills-Can They Be Taught?
Can They Be Assessed? Journal of Engineering
Education, Vo. 94, No. 1, 2005, pp. 4155.)
47
Teamwork
48
  • Characteristics of Effective Teams
  • common sense of direction
  • Expertise in the group, especially complementary
    expertise
  • Common agreed upon goal
  • Diversity of ideas, background, experiences, etc.
  • Good coordination among members
  • Sense of consultation, involvement in the framing
  • Buy in
  • Fun
  • Respect for others
  • Good communication
  • Clear expectation
  • Avoid negativist, be positive, no whining or
    complaining
  • Be critical but not personal
  • Accountability with compassion
  • Having people do what theyre good at
  • Work well with supervisor
  • Social trust
  • Leadership without dictatorship

49
A team is a small number of people with
complementary skills who are committed to a
common purpose, performance goals, and approach
for which they hold themselves mutually
accountable SMALL NUMBER COMPLEMENTARY
SKILLS COMMON PURPOSE PERFORMANCE GOALS
COMMON APPROACH MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY --Katzen
bach Smith (1993) The Wisdom of Teams
50
Hackman Leading Teams
  • Real Team
  • Compelling Direction
  • Enabling Structure
  • Supportive Organizational Context
  • Available Expert Coaching

Team Diagnostic Survey (TDS)
https//research.wjh.harvard.edu/TDS/
51
  • Team Charter
  • Team name, membership, and roles
  • Team Mission Statement
  • Anticipated results (goals)
  • Specific tactical objectives
  • Ground rules/Guiding principles for team
    participation
  • Shared expectations/aspirations

52
Code of Cooperation EVERY member is responsible
for the teams progress and success. Attend all
team meetings and be on time. Come
prepared. Carry out assignments on
schedule. Listen to and show respect for the
contributions of other members be an active
listener. CONSTRUCTIVELY criticize ideas, not
persons. Resolve conflicts constructively, Pay
attention, avoid disruptive behavior. Avoid
disruptive side conversations. Only one person
speaks at a time. Everyone participates, no one
dominates. Be succinct, avoid long anecdotes and
examples. No rank in the room. Respect those
not present. Ask questions when you do not
understand. Attend to your personal comfort
needs at any time but minimize team
disruption. HAVE FUN!! ? Adapted from Boeing
Aircraft Group Team Member Training Manual
53
Ten Commandments An Affective Code of
Cooperation Help each other be right, not
wrong. Look for ways to make new ideas work,
not for reasons they won't. If in doubt, check
it out! Don't make negative assumptions about
each other. Help each other win, and take pride
in each other's victories. Speak positively
about each other and about your organization at
every opportunity. Maintain a positive mental
attitude no matter what the circumstances. Act
with initiative and courage, as if it all depends
on you. Do everything with enthusiasm it's
contagious. Whatever you want give it away.
Don't lose faith. Have fun Ford Motor
Company
54
(No Transcript)
55
Group Processing Plus/Delta Format
Delta (?) Things Group Could Improve
Plus () Things That Group Did Well
56
  • Professor's Role in
  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Specifying Objectives
  • Making Decisions
  • Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and
    Individual Accountability
  • Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills
  • Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group
    Effectiveness

57
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Types of Tasks
  • Jigsaw Learning new conceptual/procedural
    material
  • 2. Peer Composition or Editing
  • 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation
  • 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation
  • 5. Review/Correct Homework
  • 6. Constructive Academic Controversy
  • 7. Group Tests

58
Challenged-Based Learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Learning by design
  • Inquiry learning
  • Anchored instruction

John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman.
Creating High-Quality Learning Environments
Guidelines from Research on How People Learn
59
Challenge-Based Instruction
with the Legacy Cycle
https//repo.vanth.org/portal/public-content/star-
legacy-cycle/star-legacy-cycle
59
60
Problem-Based Learning
61
Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format TASK
Solve the problem(s) or Complete the
project. INDIVIDUAL Estimate answer. Note
strategy. COOPERATIVE One set of answers from
the group, strive for agreement, make sure
everyone is able to explain the strategies used
to solve each problem. EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR
SUCCESS Everyone must be able to explain the
strategies used to solve each problem. EVALUATION
Best answer within available resources or
constraints. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY One
member from your group may be randomly chosen to
explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each
problem. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS Active
participating, checking, encouraging, and
elaborating by all members. INTERGROUP
COOPERATION Whenever it is helpful, check
procedures, answers, and strategies with another
group.
62
http//www.udel.edu/pbl/
63
Cooperative Base Groups
  • Are Heterogeneous
  • Are Long Term (at least one quarter or semester)
  • Are Small (3-5 members)
  • Are for support
  • May meet at the beginning of each session or may
    meet between sessions
  • Review for quizzes, tests, etc. together
  • Share resources, references, etc. for individual
    projects
  • Provide a means for covering for absentees

64
Design and Implementation of Cooperative
Learning Resources
  • Design Framework How People Learn (HPL)
  • Creating High Quality Learning Environments
    (Bransford, Vye Bateman) -- http//www.nap.edu/o
    penbook/0309082927/html/
  • Design Backward Design Process (Felder Brent,
    Fink and Wiggins McTighe)
  • Pellegrino Rethinking and redesigning
    curriculum, instruction and assessment What
    contemporary research and theory suggests.
    http//www.skillscommission.org/commissioned.htm
  • Smith, K. A., Douglas, T. C., Cox, M. 2009.
    Supportive teaching and learning strategies in
    STEM education. In R. Baldwin, (Ed.). Improving
    the climate for undergraduate teaching in STEM
    fields. New Directions for Teaching and Learning,
    117, 19-32. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Content Resources
  • Donald, Janet. 2002. Learning to think
    Disciplinary perspectives. San Francisco
    Jossey-Bass.
  • Middendorf, Joan and Pace, David. 2004. Decoding
    the Disciplines A Model for Helping Students
    Learn Disciplinary Ways of Thinking. New
    Directions for Teaching and Learning, 98.
  • Pedagogies of Engagement - Instructional Format
    explanation and exercise to model format and to
    engage workshop participants
  • Cooperative Learning (Johnson, Johnson Smith)
  • Smith web site www.ce.umn.edu/smith
  • University of Delaware PBL web site
    www.udel.edu/pbl
  • PKAL Pedagogies of Engagement
    http//www.pkal.org/activities/PedagogiesOfEngagem
    entSummit.cfm
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