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Social Studies


Social Studies Chapters 1 & 2 Chapter 1 Vocabulary geography: the study of the world and its features landform: a physical feature of the earth s surface, such as a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Studies

Social Studies
  • Chapters 1 2

Chapter 1 Vocabulary
  • geography the study of the world and its
  • landform a physical feature of the earths
    surface, such as a mountain
  • climate the type of weather in a place over a
    long period of time
  • conservation the protection and careful use of
    natural resources

Ch.1 Voc. Continued
  • region an area with certain characteristics that
    sets it apart from surrounding areas
  • economy the system people use to produce goods
    and services
  • trade buying and selling goods
  • environment the things that surround someone,
    including water and land
  • ecosystem a community of animals and plants
    interacting with their environment

Important Landforms
  • North America is covered with large areas of
    mountains and plains
  • Interactive Map
  • Rocky Mountains- West part of U.S.
  • Appalachian Mountains- East part of U.S. (extend
    from Alabama to Maine)

Important Landforms
  • Great Lakes- Northeastern part of U.S. and
    surrounding Michigan (includes Lake Superior,
    Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, and Lake

Important Landforms
  • Great Plains

Important Landforms
Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Natural Resources
  • renewable resources can be replaced or renewed
  • examples wood, fisheries
  • non renewable resources cannot be replaced once
  • examples oil, coal, and copper
  • flow resources can only be used at a certain
    time or place
  • examples wind, sunlight, and water

Other Resources
  • capital resource a tool, machine, or building
    people use to produce goods and services
  • examples tractors, ovens, computers
  • human resource a person and the skills and
    knowledge he or she brings to a job
  • ex. farmers, inventors, teachers, principals
  • scarcity a lack of something
  • causes people to have to choose what they need

  • The U.S. is divided into regions
  • can be divided by climate, which is affected by
    landforms and distance from the Equator

  • Can also be defined by its resources
  • ex. Appalachian Mountain region has many coal
  • Resources are important for the growth of a
    regions economy
  • People and businesses in different regions trade
    with each other to make more goods available to
    consumers (someone who buys goods and services)
  • Much trade occurs at U.S. ports

  • How do you think the land affects people?
  • Consider location and resources
  • People often live near resources such as water,
    transportation routes, or jobs. Why do you think
    this is true?
  • People settle in a place where they are able to
    make a living and places they enjoy
  • Environment may sway a persons decision
  • Sometimes people effect ecosystems by living in
    certain environments

Chapter 2 Vocabulary
  • migration- movement of people or animals from one
    region to another
  • civilization- a culture with cities, a
    government, and many different jobs for people to
  • nomad- a person who moves around and does not
    live in one place
  • barter- to exchange goods without using money

Ancient Americans
  • Scientists think the first Americans came to the
    U.S. over a land bridge that linked Asia and
    North America
  • This land bridge is known as Beringia.
  • People migrated over this land bridge to hunt
    large animals.
  • Eventually the Ice Age ended and ice melted to
    form water that covered the land bridge.
  • The people who migrated over spread across North
    and South America and became known as the

Civilizations Develop
  • Paleo-Indians lived by hunting animals
  • These animals began to die off and they had to
    start depending on agriculture (farming or
    growing plants).
  • Started to raise crops such as corn, beans, and
  • This caused them to stay in one place and they
    began to build villages and cities, which began
    the growth of civilizations.

Civilizations Develop
  • Some ancient people began to build large, complex
    villages that included mounds.
  • These people became known as Mound Builders.
  • There were also people known as Ancient Pueblo
  • Lived in large buildings made of mud and stone
    with many rooms.
  • Also built underground rooms called kivas, which
    were used for religious ceremonies.
  • Aztecs ruled in Central Mexico where they had
    built hundreds of buildings and roads.
  • Made their own calendar and built large temples

Pacific Northwest Indians
  • Coastal area that stretches from Alaska to
    northern California
  • Hunted and gathered everything they needed
  • Caught salmon, shellfish, whales, and seals
  • Gathered berries and fern roots
  • Hunted geese, deer, elks, and bears
  • Used wood for canoes, large houses, and totem

Some Pacific Northwest Indians
  • Tlingit (KLINK-it)
  • One of the largest American Indian groups in
    Pacific Northwest
  • Built villages near the coast or rivers
  • Made clothing and blankets from bark
  • Divided into clans (a group of related families)
  • About 17,000 Tlingit live in southeastern Alaska
    today where most fish or work in forests cutting

Southwest Indians
  • Region that includes all of present-day Arizona,
    New Mexico, and parts of Utah, Colorado,
    Nevada, Texas, southern California, and northern
  • Region was very dry
  • Had to build their homes with sticks, stones and
    a clay called adobe
  • Lack of rain made agriculture difficult, so had
    to use irrigation (a way of supplying water to
    crops with streams, ditches, or pipes)
  • The Hopi
  • Used irrigation to grow beans, squash, and corn
  • Thought of themselves as caretakers of the land
  • Held religious ceremonies

Plain Indians
  • Great Plains lie in center of North America
  • Eastern Plains
  • Pawnee and Omaha Indians were successful farmers
    because of the plentiful rainfall
  • Built earth lodges (homes made of bark, earth,
    and grass)
  • Spent Spring and Fall farming, but left during
    the Summer and Winter to hunt buffalo
  • Western Plains
  • Dry land made farming difficult
  • Buffalo were an important resource
  • Used buffalo for food, tools, rope, covers, etc.
  • Nomads who followed the buffalo herds usually
    lived in teepees

Some Plain Indians
  • The Comanche
  • Nomads
  • Fierce warriors on horseback
  • Became one of the most powerful Plains groups, or
  • Wealthy and strong people who owned many horses
    and controlled a large area of the Plains
  • Divided into groups and each group had leaders
    called chiefs
  • About 8,500 Comanche live in the U.S. today,
    mostly in Oklahoma working as farmers and ranchers

Eastern Woodlands
  • A large varied region that has hills, mountains
    and plains, but the whole area receives plenty of
  • Stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the
    Mississippi River, and from the Gulf of Mexico to
    the Great Lakes
  • Hunted deer, bears, and rabbits for food
  • Did not rely on one single source for food, like
    the Plain Indians did
  • Farmers
  • Planted corn, beans, and squash
  • Built different houses and made clothing for
    different climates

Some Eastern Woodland Indians
  • The Haudenosaunee
  • Lived in what is now New York state
  • Separated into nations
  • Haudenosaunee League, made up of five of the
    nations Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas,
    and Senecas
  • This league made decisions together, but only the
    chiefs had a voice
  • Nations traded with other Woodland Indians
  • Bartered for goods
  • More than 50,000 Haudenosaunee live in North
    America today

  • What does migration mean and how does it apply to
    the beginning of civilization in the U.S.?
  • How do scientist believe the first Americans came
    to the U.S.?
  • Name a group of Pacific Northwest Indians that we
    have discussed.
  • Why did Southwest Indians use irrigation?
  • What one animal did the Plain Indians depend
    greatly on?
  • How many Indian nations made up the Haudenosaunee