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International Conference on School Reform Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada December 14, 2006

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Title: International Conference on School Reform Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada December 14, 2006


1
International Conference on School
ReformVancouver, British Columbia,
CanadaDecember 14, 2006
2
Reforming Schools through Accountability The
Ohio Integrated Systems Model
  • Dr. Sylvia J. Imler
  • Dr. Marianne K. Dove
  • Dr. Sally A. Lewis
  • Dr. Kenneth L. Miller
  • Youngstown State University
  • This presentation is based on materials produced
    by, and with permission of
  • the Ohio Department of Educations (ODEs)
    Office for Exceptional Children (OEC)
  • the Northeastern Ohio Special Education Regional
    Resource Center (NEOSERRC)
  • Michele DiMuzio, Instructional Coordinator,
    NEOSERRC.
  • The Ohio Integrated Systems Model (OISM) was made
    possible by a State Improvement Grant (SIG)
    awarded by the U.S. Department of Education.

3
An Overview of the
Ohio Integrated Systems Model (OISM)for
Academic and Behavior Supports
A Statewide Model to Close the Achievement Gap
for Students with Disabilities and Other At-Risk
Learners
4
Workshop Goals
  • Define OISM
  • Provide a rationale for OISM
  • Introduce OISM
  • Demonstrate OISM in action
  • Critique OISM

5
Ineffective Instruction
Sets the Occasion for Student Failure
6
The Challenge
  • Punishing problem behaviors (without a proactive
  • support system) is associated with increases in
    (a)
  • aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d)
  • dropping out.
  • Mayer, 1995
  • Mayer Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991

7
OISM DVD
8
Question
  • As you learn about Ohios attempt to close
  • the achievement gap, what model has your
  • country, province, or state created to meet
  • this goal?

9
Three-Tiers of Support
  • Purpose
  • Characteristics

10
School-Wide
  • Characteristics
  • Explicit, focused, high-quality general education
    instruction in academic and social competencies
  • Based on concepts of universal design for
    learning
  • Core curriculum needs of current student
    population
  • All students receive instruction in core
    curriculum
  • Purpose
  • Maximize learning for all students
  • Strong core curriculum 80-90 of students are
    meeting performance indicators
  • Minimize need for interventions (number
    intensity)
  • Use school-wide data to evaluate and improve the
    instruction for all students in reading/behavior

11
Targeted
  • Purpose
  • ID students at risk for not reaching standards
  • Provide sufficient and appropriate instruction so
    that performance rapidly reaches/exceeds
    standards, preventing school failure.
  • Use school-wide data to determine
  • students in need of additional instructional in
    reading or behavior
  • research-based intervention strategies to be used
  • Characteristics (Instruction)
  • Timely, focused, and explicit instruction
  • Monitor progress frequently
  • Flexible student grouping
  • Identify students at-risk for academic AND
    behavior problems
  • Scientifically-supported supplemental programs
  • Culturally responsive content

12
Intensive
  • Purpose
  • To provide sustained support for children
  • Not progressing with targeted supports
  • OR
  • Whose initial assessment data indicate need for
    support at all 3 tiers
  • Use school-wide and functional behavior/reading
    assessment data to plan supports so student
    progresses in general curriculum.
  • Characteristics (Curriculum)
  • Research-based, Ongoing supports
  • Literacy Increase direct instruction with
    substantial opportunities to practice
  • Behavior Increased explicit instruction in
    social skills with opportunities to practice in
    varied setting
  • Instruction designed by skilled trained
    intervention team
  • Small group (13)
  • Once a week on target skill
  • Regular progress reviews

13
A Rationale for OISM
14
What the data indicate
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21
SWO SERRC/Mod. I--9/30/03
22
Student Problem Behavior Social Cost
  • Over 50 of U.S. crime is committed by 5-7 of
    children between ages of 10-20
  • Over 82 of crime is committed by people who have
    not completed school
  • 70 of youth viewed as antisocial in school are
    arrested within 3 years of leaving school
  • Problem behavior is the single most common reason
    why students with disabilities are removed from
    regular schools, work, and house settings
  • Source Kincaid, D. University of South Florida

23
Student Problem Behavior Economic Cost
  • The average cost of the most highly restrictive
    placements for
  • SWD is 150,000
  • Federal state governments add 1,500 prison beds
    every week
  • costing 30 billion/ year
  • It is projected that soon more Americans will be
    in prison than
  • will attend the nations 4-year colleges

Source Kincaid, D., University of South Florida
Kincaid, h Florida
24
Impact of 491 Office Referrals in an Elementary
School in Ohio...
Adapted from Barrett et.al.
Administrative Time Lost 7,365
minutes 123 hours 20 work days Based on 15
minutes per referral.
Student Instructional Time Lost 22,095
minutes 368 hours 61 school days Based on 45
minutes out of the classroom.
6,500 or more spent per year for an
instructional leader to process office
referrals. Based on an average salary of
70,000
25
Impact of 3057 Office Referrals in a Middle
School in Ohio...
Adapted from Barrett et.al.
Administrative Time Lost 45,855
minutes 764 hours 95 work days Based on 15
minutes per referral.
Student Instructional Time Lost 137,565
minutes 2,292 hours 382 school days Based on
45 minutes out of the classroom.
35,000 or more spent per year for an
instructional leader to process office
referrals. Based on an average salary of
70,000
26
Summative Effects of an Integrated Model
Significance
BL
Reading Instruction
Reading Behavior Instruction
Behavior Instruction
  • Sourced Shep Kellem, Johns Hopkins University

27
Focus on Academics AND Behavior
  • Question In light of data presented in this
  • section, are you observing similar trends
  • in your schools?

28
OISM in Action
29
Six Key Features of OISM
  • Administrative Leadership
  • Collaborative Strategic Planning
  • Scientifically-based Research
  • Data-based Decision Making
  • Culturally Responsive Practices
  • Academic Behavior Supports across 3-tiers

30
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31
CASE STUDYMiranda
  • GROUP ACTIVITY

32
Case Study Miranda
  • Miranda is a nine-year old, Latina third-grade
    student
  • enrolled at an urban elementary school. Miranda
    has
  • demonstrated a variety of academic and behavioral
  • problems since kindergarten when her parents were
  • divorced. Since that time Miranda has been sent
    to the
  • principals office on 11 occasions for disrupting
    class,
  • hitting other students, and refusing to
    participate in
  • classroom activities. Although Mirandas
    progress was
  • satisfactory in kindergarten, it has declined
    substantially in
  • all subject areas in the past two years.

33
Critical Evaluation
  • Identify perceptions of strengths and limitations
    of the Ohio Integrated Systems Model as it
    applies to the unique circumstances of your
    school.
  • Identify implications for professional practice.

34
Summary Statement
  • Improved academic achievement and increased
  • positive behavior are required outcomes for
  • comprehensive school improvement. Research
  • shows that effective behavioral systems melded
    with
  • effective instruction are likely to result in
    improved
  • academic gains (Horner Sugai, 2000). The Ohio
  • Integrated Systems Model (OISM) is a means to
  • achieve this goal.

35
Q A
36
Appendix
  • Six Key Features of OISM
  • Administrative Leadership
  • Collaborative Strategic Planning
  • Scientifically-based Research
  • Data-based Decision Making
  • Culturally Responsive Practices
  • Academic Behavior Supports across 3-tiers

37
1. Administrative Leadership
  • Directs system Vision Mission
  • Establishes partnerships with families
    community
  • Prepares and encourages leaders
  • Demonstrates high expectations
  • Models and supports continuous learning
  • Maintains persistence and commitment

38
2. Collaborative Strategic Planning
Problem Definition
Problem Analysis
Evaluate the Plan
Plan Development Implementation
Goal Setting
39
2. Collaborative Strategic Planning continued
  • Questions
  • How strong are our PREVENTION efforts?
  • Is our response based upon INTERVENTION rather
    than remediation?
  • Is our response SYSTEMATIC?
  • Is our response TIMELY?
  • Is our response DIRECTIVE?

40
3. Scientifically-based Research
  • Expected academic skills are directly taught
    reinforced within systematic instruction provided
    to all students.
  • Core curriculum is examined for the extent to
    which essential evidenced- based skills are being
    taught with a priority on examining Reading and
    the big ideas of literacy instruction described
    in the National Reading Panel Report.
  • School-wide data are examined to determine the
    extent to which the schools/districts core
    curriculum enables most students to reach
    standards and academic skill benchmarks.

41
4. Data-based Decision Making
  • Systematic use of evidence to support decision
    making
  • Frequent, reliable, valid indicators of student
    performance in essential academic skills
    behavior guide curriculum school-wide behavior
    support plan
  • Universal Screening
  • Academics
  • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
    (DIBELS) - http//dibels.uoregon.edu
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)
  • Behavior
  • School Wide Information System (SWIS) -
    http//www.swis.org

42
5. Culturally Responsive Practices
Specific educational practices, teaming
processes, instructional strategies, and
curricula content which have been established by
research to increase the achievement of
historically underachieving culturally diverse
students - NCCRESt 2004
43
6. Academic and Behavior Supports Across
Three-Tiers
  • Intensity of interventions increases with the
    complexity and intensity of academic or behavior
    problems
  • 80-90 School-wide
  • 5-10 Targeted
  • 1-5 Intensive
  • Source Ohios State Improvement Grant A
    Statewide Model for Closing the Achievement Gap
    for Students with Disabilities and Other At-Risk
    Learners
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