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Knowing God Through Sacred Scripture

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Title: Knowing God Through Sacred Scripture


1
Faith and Revelation
  • Knowing God Through Sacred Scripture

2
Jesus Christ The Fullness of Divine Revelation
  • Chapter 6

3
Chapter Objectives
The student will be able to understand
  • The Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes
  • Herod the Great
  • Galilee and Samaria
  • Factors which aided the spread of Christianity
  • The Annunciation
  • The Nativity
  • The Epiphany
  • The Finding in the Temple
  • St. John the Baptist
  • The baptism of the Lord and his temptation in the
    desert
  • Christs miracles
  • The Twelve Apostles
  • The Last Supper
  • The Cup of Consummation
  • Christs trial before the Sanhedrin
  • Pilates condemnation of Christ
  • Judass and St. Peters betrayals, and St.
    Peters repentance
  • Christs Crucifixion
  • The Cup of Consummation
  • Psalm 22 as a prophecy of Christs Passion
  • The Resurrection
  • Christ as the New Adam
  • Christ as the New Noah
  • Christ as the Abraham
  • Christ as the New Moses
  • Christ as the New David
  • Christ as the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant

4
Keys to Chapter 6
  • God became man in the fullness of time.
  • Christs humanity and divinity were revealed from
    his youth.
  • Christ taught and worked miracles in his public
    life.
  • Christ was condemned to death by crucifixion.
  • He rose from the dead, fulfilling the covenants
    and the words of the prophets.

5
In This Chapter We Will Discuss
  • The religious and political situation at the time
    of Christ.
  • Mary as the New Eve and Ark of the New Covenant.
  • The basic overview of the life and teachings of
    Jesus Christ.
  • The meaning of the Death, Burial, and
    Resurrection of Christ.
  • Christ as the Passover Lamb.
  • How Jesus fulfilled the Law and the prophets.

6
Jesus Christ The Fullness of Divine Revelation
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes
  • Herod the Great
  • Galilee and Samaria
  • Factors that aided the spread of Christianity

7
Jesus Christ The Fullness of Divine Revelation
Basic Questions
  • Who were the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes?
  • The Pharisees were zealous and learned laymen who
    believed in separation from Gentiles and
    adherence to their interpretation of the Mosaic
    Law. The Sadducees were politically connected
    priests who believed in accommodating to Gentile
    rule. The Essenes withdrew to the desert to live
    a form of purified Judaism.
  • Who was Herod the Great?
  • Herod the Great was a crafty, murderous king who
    got the Romans to conquer Judea for him and
    brought prosperity to Israel, rebuilding the
    Second Temple.

8
Jesus Christ The Fullness of Divine Revelation
Basic Questions
  • How did Judeans view the Jews of Galilee and the
    Samaritans?
  • Galilee was a region of poor, backward farmers
    the Samaritans were a mixed population of Jews
    and Gentiles whom Judeans considered heretics and
    with whom they had no contact.
  • What factors aided the spread of Christianity in
    the Roman world?
  • The spread of Christianity was aided by the Pax
    Romana the spread of Greek philosophy, the Jewish
    Diaspora, and the proselytes of the Gate.

9
Anticipatory Set
Examine the objectives (p. 181, In This Chapter
We Will Discuss) and then free write for two
minutes about the following What do you already
know about one or more of the objectives?
10
Focus Question
How was the time immediately preceding Christ
similar to that of King Davids reign?
  • Israel had regained her old borders, Jerusalem
    was the capital, the Temple was purified and
    reconsecrated to God, and the king was both the
    religious and political leader of the nation.

11
Focus Question
How did John Hyrcanus Judaize Israel?
  • He required every man to be circumcised or leave.
    Being circumcised implied obeying the whole
    Mosaic Law with all its rituals and requirements.

12
Focus Question
How did John Hyrcanus earn the hatred of the
Samaritans?
  • He destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mt. Gerizim,
    the center of Samaritan religious life.

13
Focus Question
When the high priest Aristobulus proclaimed
himself king, why did this not fulfill the
promises of the covenant?
  • Though Israel was again whole and there was a
    king in Jerusalem, Aristobulus was a Levite, not
    a descendant of David (Tribe of Judah).

14
Focus Question
Why was Israel doomed to be conquered again?
  • Israel had splintered into numerous battling
    factions, and, as Christ said, Every kingdom
    divided against itself is laid waste, and no city
    or house divided against itself will stand (Mt
    1225).

15
Focus Question
How did Israel lose her independence?
  • Herod entered into a plot with the Roman emperor
    to seize power.

16
Focus Question
What was the central power in the world at the
time of Christ?
  • The Roman Empire was the power.

17
Guided Exercise
Read Matthew 231-39, and then discuss the
following question Why was a speech like this
certain to earn the Pharisees hatred? Why might
Christ have adopted such a harsh approach to
them?
18
Focus Question
How did the Pharisees answer the question, How
can Jews be faithful to God amid pagans?
  • The best way was to build a cultural wall around
    themselves to keep out Gentile and pagan
    influences. Pharisee comes from the word
    perushim, which means separated.

19
Focus Question
How was the practice of Judaism under the
Pharisees?
  • Besides refusing to associate with Gentiles, the
    Pharisees thought everyone should follow the
    complicated ritualistic regulations they
    developed in their interpretations of the Mosaic
    Law.
  • continued

20
Focus Question
How was the practice of Judaism under the
Pharisees?
  • Extension
  • The Pharisees basically took the rules and
    regulations Moses gave to the Levitical priests
    to follow when they were serving in the Temple
    and applied them to all Jews in their everyday
    lives. The Pharisees were laymen, not priests.

21
Focus Question
Why could the Pharisees justifiably claim they
were right in separating themselves from the rest
of the world?
  • Whenever Israel had allowed herself to be
    influenced by outside cultures and religions, she
    had met with disastrous consequences.

22
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table about the various
groups in Israel in the time of Christ.
Group Brief Explanation
Pharisees
Sadducees
Essenes
23
Focus Question
Who were the Sadducees?
  • They were priests who claimed to be the spiritual
    heirs of Zadok, King Solomons priest, whose
    heirs were supposed to be priests in Jerusalem
    forever.

24
Focus Question
How did the Sadducees answer the question, How
can Jews be faithful to God amid pagans?
  • They cooperated with Gentiles.

25
Focus Question
What were some of the Sadduceess central
beliefs?
  • They believed only the Pentateuch was canonical,
    denied life after death, and rejected the
    existence of angels.

26
Focus Question
Why did the Pharisees hate the Sadducees?
  • The Sadducees cooperated with the Romans rather
    than separate themselves from them. As a
    consequence, the Sadducees had political power,
    which was denied to the Pharisees.

27
Guided Exercise
Read Luke 2027-40, and then free write about the
following What did Christ reveal about Heaven
in this passage?
28
Focus Question
How often are the Essenes mentioned in Sacred
Scripture?
  • They are never mentioned.

29
Focus Question
What were the basic beliefs of the Essenes?
  • They held the Law of Moses and Jewish customs in
    high esteem rejected the animal sacrifices of
    the Temple kept the Sabbath placed much value
    in ceremonial purity, washing frequently, and
    practicing baptism and believed in the
    immortality of the soul.

30
Focus Question
What were some of the laudable moral practices of
the Essenes?
  • They cared for the sick, practiced hospitality,
    treated all men equally, prohibited slavery, held
    goods in common, and practiced pacifism. Many
    also lived celibately.

31
Focus Question
How were the Galileans distinct from the
inhabitants of Judea?
  • Most of the Hebrews who had returned from the
    Babylonian Exile settled around Jerusalem. Those
    who settled in Galilee came in contact with
    Israelites who had not experienced the Babylonian
    Exile and could trace their heritage back to the
    tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali.

32
Focus Question
Why were Galileans looked down upon by Judeans?
  • They were poor peasants and farmers who had a
    distinct accent.

33
Guided Exercise
Compose a bullet-point list of at least three
examples of Herods tyrannical behavior and three
of his crafty behavior.
34
Focus Question
Who were the Zealots?
  • They were Jewish nationalists who sought to
    overthrow the Romans and reestablish the Kingdom
    of Israel as a sovereign nation. Eventually,
    their efforts to throw off the Romans resulted in
    the complete destruction of Israel.

35
Focus Question
Who were the Samaritans?
  • These Israelites had intermarried with Gentiles
    during the time of the Assyrian occupation. They
    lived between Judea and Galilee.

36
Focus Question
Where did the Samaritans worship?
  • They worshiped on Mt. Gerizim, a site of worship
    for Israelites before the capture of Jerusalem.

37
Focus Question
How did Judeans regard the Samaritans?
  • They considered them unclean heretics and so had
    nothing to do with them.

38
Focus Question
Who are the Samaritans today?
  • A few hundred survive today as a persecuted
    minority in Palestine.
  • Extension
  • They speak Aramaic, the language Christ spoke.

39
Focus Question
What was the Pax Romana?
  • It was a centuries-long relative peace the known
    world enjoyed under the Roman Empire.

40
Focus Question
How did the Pax Romana and Roman rule facilitate
the spread of Christianity?
  • There was an extensive network of roads, one
    currency, one law, no borders to cross, and
    relative safety when traveling.

41
Focus Question
What was the Roman attitude to other religions?
  • The Romans generally tolerated any religion as
    long as its adherents did not cause problems.

42
Focus Question
Was Rome completely pagan?
  • No. Under the influence of Greek philosophy, some
    had reasoned their way to a monotheism with God
    as the First Cause.

43
Focus Question
What was the Jewish Diaspora?
  • The Diaspora refers to Jews who lived outside
    Palestine and throughout the Roman Empire.

44
Focus Question
How many Jews lived outside Palestine, and where
could they have been found?
  • It is estimated they comprised seven percent of
    the population of the Roman Empire with Jewish
    communities in every major town.

45
Focus Question
How did Christianity spread through the
Diaspora?
  • It rooted itself in Jewish communities before
    spreading to the larger population.

46
Focus Question
What are the proselytes of the Gate?
  • These Gentiles were attracted to Judaism and
    believed in the one, true God. They worshiped in
    synagogues and studied the Scriptures yet
    refrained from converting, which required
    circumcision and dietary laws. They were eager
    converts to Christianity.

47
Focus Question
What two groups was St. Paul addressing when he
began, Men of Israel, and you that fear God
(Acts 1316)?
  • He was referring to the Jews and the proselytes
    of the Gate, respectively.

48
Alternative Assessment
Write about the following question
  • If you had to choose only one, which would you
    choose to be, and why a Pharisee, a Sadducee, an
    Essene, a Galilean, or a proselyte at the Gate?

49
The Infancy of Christ
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The Annunciation
  • The Nativity
  • The Epiphany
  • The Finding in the Temple

50
The Infancy of Christ
Basic Questions
  • What is the Annunciation?
  • The Annunciation refers to the announcement of
    the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary
    she would be the mother of the Savior, the Son of
    the Most High, and this would be accomplished by
    the power of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit
    overshadowing her was described using the same
    word as Gods presence toward the Ark of the
    Covenant.

51
The Infancy of Christ
Basic Questions
  • What was the Nativity?
  • In accord with the Prophet Micah, Christ was born
    in Bethlehem, the city of David. He was born in
    poverty, and angels announced to shepherds he was
    a Savior Christ the Lord.
  • What is the Epiphany?
  • Magi from the East were the first Gentiles to
    adore the Christ.

52
The Infancy of Christ
Basic Questions
  • What is the Finding in the Temple?
  • Christs wisdom was revealed in the Finding in
    the Temple when he was twelve. During his hidden
    years, from his infancy until he began his
    public ministry, Christ lived an ordinary life,
    sharing the condition of the vast majority of
    human beings.

53
Anticipatory Set
Pray a decade of one of the three Joyful
Mysteries of the Rosary, using the scriptural
method of praying the Rosary.
54
Focus Question
What was betrothal in the time of Christ?
  • In Jewish custom, it was a contract similar to
    marriage. The couple did not yet live together,
    but their promise could not be broken.

55
Focus Question
What is the significance of the word overshadow
in the Archangel Gabriels greeting?
  • The word is an unusual one in Greek, not used
    anywhere else in the New Testament. It is used in
    the Old Testament The cloud overshadowed the
    Tabernacle when the Ark of the Covenant had been
    placed in it. Thus, to overshadow implies the
    presence of God.

56
Focus Question
How is the Blessed Virgin Marys response to
Gods call different from what might be expected
in light of other divine calls from the Old
Testament?
  • Most of the great people of Israelincluding
    Abraham, Moses, and Davidthough accepting Gods
    plans for them, had nevertheless expressed
    surprise, doubt, and sometimes resistance. Sarah,
    in fact, laughed at Gods message to her. In
    contrast, the Blessed Virgin Marys response was
    immediate belief, obedience, and acceptance.

57
Guided Exercise
Choose one of the titles of Mary from the Litany
of Loreto (p. 188) and explain it, writing from
the perspective of the Old Testament.
58
Focus Question
Why did Joseph travel from Nazareth, where he
lived, to Bethlehem?
  • St. Joseph traveled to Bethlehem with his
    pregnant wife to register in the Roman census.

59
Focus Question
What prophecy did the journey to Bethlehem
fulfill?
  • The Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem as the
    prophet Micah prophesied from Bethlehem shall
    come forth for me one who is to be ruler in
    Israel (Mi 52).

60
Focus Question
What did the angels tell the shepherds about
Christ?
  • The child was the Savior, the anointed successor
    of David, and the Lord, the one who sits at Gods
    right hand.

61
Focus Question
Why is it surprising the first people to know
about the birth of the Messiah were shepherds?
  • Shepherds were poor outcasts in Jewish society,
    avoided by many Jews as unclean yet, David had
    been a shepherd who tended his flocks in those
    very same fields.

62
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
prompt Based on the sidebar Mary as the Ark of
the New Covenant (p. 189) and your own
background knowledge, explain in one or two
sentences how the Visitationthe Blessed Virgin
Marys visit to her cousin St. Elizabethis
deeply rooted in the Old Testament.
63
Focus Question
Who were the Magi (or wise men?)
  • They may have been Persian astrologers.

64
Focus Question
Why might Herod have been especially nervous
about Balaams prophecy to Balak?
  • Balaams prophecy spoke of a rising star, which
    represented a son of Jacob, who would dispossess
    an Edomite. The new king whom the Magi sought was
    born in Bethlehem and thus a son of Jacob. Herod
    himself was from Edom, so he could have been
    afraid the infant king the Magi came to visit
    would overthrow him or his descendants.

65
Focus Question
What is the significance of the gifts of gold,
frankincense, and myrrh?
  • Gold and frankincense are gifts Isaiah prophesied
    would be brought by all the nations to the God of
    Israel. Gold indicates Christs royalty.
    Frankincense refers to his priesthood and
    spiritual divinity. Myrrh is an oil used both to
    anoint the priests of Israel and to anoint a dead
    body for burial, so it also suggested Christs
    Sacrifice on the Cross.

66
Alternative Assessment
Read aloud the Blessed Virgin Marys Magnificat
(Lk 146-55).
  • Relate this prayer to the Old Testament and the
    history of Israel.

67
Focus Question
What is unique about the Finding of Christ in the
Temple?
  • It is the only story recorded in the Gospels of
    Christs life between his infancy and when he
    began his public ministry about the age thirty.

68
Focus Question
How does the Finding in the Temple reveal
Christs divine and human natures?
  • By age twelve, the Christ child displayed an
    amazing command of the Scriptures and was able to
    discuss them with the most educated men in
    Jerusalem. At the same time, Christ was a boy, he
    grew up, he worried his parents, and he practiced
    his faith.

69
What Jesus Did and Taught
  • Lesson Objectives
  • St. John the Baptist
  • The Baptism of the Lord and his temptation in the
    desert
  • Christs miracles
  • The Twelve Apostles

70
What Jesus Did and Taught
Basic Questions
  • Who was John the Baptist?
  • St. John the Baptist, the final prophet, was a
    New Elijah who preached a baptism of repentance
    to prepare people for the Messiah.
  • Why was Christ baptized, and why did he undergo
    temptation?
  • Christ received St. Johns baptism and fasted in
    the wilderness for forty days, where he was
    tempted by the Devil.

71
What Jesus Did and Taught
Basic Questions
  • Why did Christ perform miracles?
  • Christ performed miracles out of love and to show
    his divinity.
  • Who are the Twelve Apostles?
  • Christ chose Twelve Apostles to carry on his
    work.

72
Anticipatory Set
Complete a focused reading of Acts 1034-43
using the following question What does St.
Peter teach to be the basic outline of the story
of Christ?
73
Focus Question
Who was John the Baptist?
  • St. John the Baptist was Christs cousin, a
    Levite who preached repentance and baptism for
    the forgiveness of sins to prepare the way for
    the Messiah.

74
Focus Question
How did St. John the Baptists ministry fulfill
the last words of Malachi, the last prophet in
the Old Testament?
  • Malachi prophesied God would send the Prophet
    Elijah to Israel to turn the hearts of fathers to
    their children and the hearts of children to
    their fathers thus, they would not be punished
    by God.
  • continued

75
Focus Question
How did St. John the Baptists ministry fulfill
the last words of Malachi, the last prophet in
the Old Testament?
  • St. John the Baptist preached and baptized to
    encourage people from all walks of life to repent
    and amend their lives.

76
Focus Question
How was Christs preparation like that of Elijah
and Moses?
  • He fasted in the wilderness for forty days, the
    same time Elijah and Moses had fasted in the
    wilderness of Sinai.

77
Focus Question
What is significant about the number forty in
this context?
  • Forty is the number of years the Israelites
    wandered in the wilderness before entering the
    Promised Land, and it was the number of days and
    nights it took to flood the world so it could be
    created anew through Noah.

78
Focus Question
What does it mean to say Christ was tempted by
the Devil?
  • The word tempted means tested. Though Christ and
    his Mother did not sin, it was necessary for him
    to have overcome temptations that cause all other
    people to sin.

79
Guided Exercise
Complete a paragraph shrink of the first four
paragraphs under The Baptism of Christ (p. 193,
through the quote from Matthew 3).
80
Focus Question
How did Christ identify St. John the Baptist with
the Prophet Elijah?
  • He said St. John the Baptist was the second
    coming of Elijah prophesied by Malachi.

81
Focus Question
How were St. John the Baptist and the Prophet
Elijah similar in appearance?
  • St. John the Baptist was clothed with camels
    hair and had a leather belt around his waist,
    whereas Elijah wore a garment of haircloth with a
    girdle of leather about his loins.

82
Focus Question
Why did St. John the Baptist worry many Jewish
priests and officials?
  • He told them the Kingdom of Heaven was at hand.
    This meant the Messiah was coming. To some
    priests and those in authority, this meant St.
    John the Baptist was another false prophet who
    could spark a rebellion, which could only end
    badly for them and for Israel.

83
Focus Question
What did most Jews expect from the Messiah, and
what did they get?
  • Most Jews expected an anointed prophet-king who
    would bring the covenants with Israel to their
    fulfillment. They received God himself incarnate
    in the Person of Jesus Christ.

84
Focus Question
What actions of Christ most clearly demonstrated
both his human and divine natures?
  • His miracles showed his natures.

85
Focus Question
What was Christs first miracle?
  • He turned water into wine at a wedding feast in
    Cana.

86
Focus Question
How does the miracle at Cana relate to the Last
Supper?
  • At Cana, Christ turned water into wine as an act
    of charity. At the Last Supper, he turned wine
    into his Blood to manifest the ultimate act of
    charity (love), his Death on the Cross.

87
Focus Question
How were Christs healings messianic?
  • Under the promised Son of David, No inhabitant
    will say, I am sick the people who dwell there
    will be forgiven their iniquity (Is 3324).
    Christs healings and forgiveness demonstrated
    the arrival of the messianic age.

88
Focus Question
What did Christs exorcisms demonstrate?
  • They showed his divinity and dominion over
    demons.

89
Focus Question
Why did Christ heal the paralytic?
  • Christ wanted to heal the mans infirmity and
    show he has authority to forgive sins.

90
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table about the various
insights Sts. Matthew, Mark, and Luke had about
Christs temptations.
Evangelist Insight
St. Matthew
St. Mark
St. Luke
91
Guided Exercise
Read the relevant scriptural passage(s) from one
of the miracles of Christ (p. 195) and then draw
an illustration of the miracle without labeling
it. Then try to identify each miracle based on
the illustration and the sidebar.
92
Guided Exercise
Compose a bullet-point summary of ways Christ
violated the Pharisees principle of strict
separation between Jews and Gentiles or
sinners.
93
Focus Question
What is paradoxical about the Beatitudes?
  • Those suffering misfortunes are actually blessed
    because of the rewards they will receive. For
    example, those who are poor in spirit will
    inherit the Kingdom of God, so they are blessed.

94
Focus Question
How did Christ intend his message to spread
throughout the world?
  • He instructed his Apostles to go to all nations,
    teaching, and baptizing.

95
Focus Question
What is significant about the number twelve?
  • It signifies perfection in governance and
    hearkens to the Twelve Tribes of Israel. On the
    foundation of the Twelve Apostles united under
    St. Peter, their head, Christ established the New
    Israel, his Church, which he promised would last
    until the end of time.

96
Focus Question
Why did some of the Apostles have two names?
  • Like many Jews, some of the Apostles had two
    names a Jewish name, by which they were known to
    family and friends, and a Greek or Roman name,
    which was useful in the Gentile world.

97
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table paraphrasing the
petitions of the Lords Prayer.
Petition Paraphrase
Our Father, who art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come thy will be done on earth as it is in Heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us.
Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
98
Alternative Assessment
Choose one of the miracles listed in this lesson
and write a new account of the miracle told from
the point of view of the recipient of that
miracle.
99
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The Last Supper
  • The Cup of Consummation
  • Christs trial before the Sanhedrin

100
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ
Basic Questions
  • What was the Last Supper?
  • Christ used the Passover meals Cup of Blessing
    as the occasion to institute the Sacrament of the
    Eucharist, which he called the Blood of the
    Covenant.
  • What is the Cup of Consummation?
  • Christ refused to drink the Cup of Consummation
    during the Passover meal. In Gethsemane, he asked
    the Father to let him be spared the cup. He drank
    it to the full in his Passion and Death.

101
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ
Basic Questions
  • Why did the Sanhedrin condemn Christ to death?
  • The Sanhedrin tried to convict Christ of crimes
    against the Jewish religion using false
    testimony. When they asked if he is the Son of
    God, he said he is for this reason they
    convicted him of blasphemy.

102
Anticipatory Set
Incorporate Matthew 2617-68 into prayer.
103
Focus Question
Was Christ surprised by his arrest, Passion,
Death, and Resurrection?
  • No moreover, he frequently made reference to
    this inevitable reality.

104
Focus Question
When did Christs popularity reach its height?
  • In the third year of his public ministry, upon
    his entering Jerusalem, the crowd proclaimed him
    the Messiah, the son of David.

105
Focus Question
What were the religious authorities planning when
Christ entered Jerusalem?
  • They were deciding how to put him to death.

106
Focus Question
Why did Christ enter Jerusalem riding a donkey?
  • This fulfilled Zechariahs prophecy, in which the
    people of Jerusalem would be filled with joy
    because their king is approaching, humble and
    riding on a donkey (cf. Zec 99).

107
Focus Question
What were the two stages in the establishment of
the New Covenant?
  • They were the celebration of the Last Supper and
    Christs sacrifice on the Cross.

108
Focus Question
What was the Passover meal?
  • It was the commemoration of the passing of the
    Israelite people out of slavery, their reception
    of the Law, and the establishment of Israel as a
    nation set apart.

109
Focus Question
At the first Passover, what did the Jews do with
the blood of the slaughtered lamb?
  • They took hyssop, dipped it in the blood, and
    touched the lintel and the two doorposts with the
    blood.

110
Focus Question
What did the blood of the Passover lamb
accomplish?
  • It saved the firstborn male of each Hebrew family
    from death.

111
Focus Question
How did the Jews celebrate this ritual meal each
year?
  • God had instructed them to celebrate it annually
    to remember what he had done for them.

112
Focus Question
How did Christ change the Passover meal during
the Last Supper?
  • He transformed the Passover ritual into the
    celebration of the New Covenant, the Mass.

113
Focus Question
What is the relationship between Christ and the
Passover Lamb?
  • Christ became the spotless Passover Lamb, and,
    through his Blood shed on the Cross, man is freed
    from slavery to sin, and the People of God are
    transformed into the New Israel.

114
Guided Exercise
Identify the three Passovers referred to in the
Catechism, no. 1340 (p. 231).
115
Focus Question
How many cups of wine were drunk during the
Passover meal?
  • Four were drunk.

116
Focus Question
How did Christ change the ritual at the time of
the third cup?
  • He identified the cup of blessing with his Blood
    of the New Covenant the bread and wine were his
    Body and Blood.

117
Focus Question
Where did the phrase Blood of the Covenant
originate?
  • It appears in Exodus 248. With these words, God
    ratified the Mosaic Covenant with Israel at Mt.
    Sinai, making them his Chosen People. The people
    were sprinkled with the blood of the sacrifice.

118
Focus Question
What did Christ mean by Blood of the Covenant?
  • He declared he was establishing a New Covenant,
    but, instead of the animal blood spilled at Mt.
    Sinai, it would be his own Body sacrificed and
    his own Blood to seal the promise between God and
    man.

119
Focus Question
How did Christ leave the Passover meal
unfinished?
  • He did not drink the fourth cup, the Cup of
    Consummation.

120
Guided Exercise
Read Exodus 248. Write a paragraph explaining
what is the Blood of the Covenant and what Christ
likely meant when he said, My blood of the
covenant (Mt. 2628).
121
Focus Question
What did Christ ask of the Father in the garden?
  • He asked to have his cup (his final sufferings)
    removed from him.

122
Focus Question
Why should the use of the word cup capture the
readers attention?
  • This cup of suffering is identified with the Cup
    of Consummation Christ did not drink earlier that
    evening at the Last Supper he was to drink it in
    his Passion and Death.
  • continued

123
Focus Question
Why should the use of the word cup capture the
readers attention?
  • Extension
  • When the mother of the sons of Zebedee asked they
    be given the chief places in Christs Kingdom,
    she asked if they could drink the cup he was
    going to drink (cf. Mt 2022).

124
Focus Question
What was the sign of Judass betrayal?
  • He gave Christ a kiss, which was the ordinary way
    a disciple would have greeted his master.

125
Focus Question
What may have been Judass motivation to betray
Christ?
  • Judas may have been a Zealot who hoped for a
    political messiah, a great military leader who
    would defeat the Roman occupiers. Judas may have
    become frustrated with Christs teachings (cf. Jn
    664) of love for neighbor, obedience to
    authority, and his willingness to suffer death.

126
Focus Question
Why was Christ first brought to Annas?
  • Though Annas was deposed by the Romans, most Jews
    still considered him the legitimate high priest.
    His son-in-law Caiaphas, the current high priest,
    seemed to defer to him as well.

127
Focus Question
What did most of the Sanhedrin believe even
before the trial?
  • Christ was a false prophet and blasphemer.

128
Focus Question
What kind of evidence was presented against
Christ?
  • Evidence was produced by false witnesses who
    contradicted each other.

129
Focus Question
How did Caiaphas gain the final evidence to
convict Christ?
  • Caiaphas asked Christ directly if he is the
    Messiah.

130
Focus Question
How did Christ respond?
  • I am and you will see the Son of man sitting at
    the right hand of Power, and coming with the
    clouds of heaven (Mk 1462).

131
Focus Question
What legitimate point did Caiaphas have to
condemn Christ?
  • Christ identified himself with the Son of God,
    which would have been blasphemy were he not the
    Son of God.

132
Focus Question
How did Caiaphas violate the Mosaic Law?
  • Upon hearing such blasphemy, he tore his robes,
    which the high priest was not supposed to do.

133
Guided Exercise
Read Leviticus 2410-16, and discuss the Jewish
attitude toward blasphemy.
134
Alternative Assessment
Search the Internet to read about how modern Jews
celebrate the Passover.
135
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ (continued)
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Pilates condemnation of Christ
  • Judass and St. Peters betrayals and St. Peters
    repentance

136
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ (continued)
Basic Questions
  • How was Pilate unjust in his condemnation of
    Christ?
  • To prompt him to execute Christ, the Sanhedrin
    lied to Pilate about Christs crime. Pilate was
    convinced Christ was innocent but wanted to
    appease the Sanhedrin. He tried to avoid the
    problem by sending Christ to Herod Antipas for
    judgment, but he met with no success. When the
    Sanhedrin accused him of not being a friend of
    Caesar, Pilate finally agreed to execute Jesus
    and let an insurrectionist go free.

137
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ (continued)
Basic Questions
  • How did Judass and St. Peters remorse differ?
  • Both Judas and St. Peter betrayed Christ, and
    both repented, but Judas despaired while St.
    Peter experienced true contrition.

138
Anticipatory Set
Incorporate Christs arrest and condemnation
into prayer.
139
Focus Question
Why did the Sanhedrin have to ask the Roman
governor to put Christ to death?
  • They were not allowed to carry out a death
    sentence, so they had to persuade the Roman
    authorities Christ was guilty of some secular
    crime deserving death.

140
Focus Question
How did the Sanhedrin try to convince Pilate
Christ should be put to death?
  • They said Christ was a leader among the
    revolutionary Zealots, who sought to reestablish
    the Kingdom of Israel.

141
Focus Question
What lie did the Sanhedrin tell Pilate?
  • They said Christ forbade the Jews from paying
    taxes to Caesar.

142
Focus Question
What was Pilates initial reaction to the
Sanhedrins charge?
  • He wanted nothing to do with the case.

143
Focus Question
What reason did Christ give Pilate he would not
let his followers fight for him?
  • His Kingdom is not of this world.

144
Focus Question
What reason did Christ give Pilate for his having
come into the world?
  • He bears witness to the truth.

145
Focus Question
How did Pilate see Christ at this point?
  • Pilate saw Christ as innocent of any crime
    against Rome.

146
Focus Question
Why did Pilate send Christ to Herod Antipas?
  • Herod Antipas ruled Galilee, Jesus home
    district. Pilate hoped Herod would make a ruling
    so he would not have to.

147
Focus Question
What was unjust about Pilates decision to flog
and release Christ?
  • Though Pilate acknowledged Christ was innocent,
    he still had him flogged, a terrible,
    life-threatening punishment, perhaps to appease
    the Sanhedrin.

148
Graphic Organizer
Answer the following questions about Barabbas.
Christ is the Son of the Father. What does Barabbass name mean?
Why was Barabbas in custody?
What kind of messiah were most Jews of Christs time expecting?
Which figureChrist or Barabbas-was closer to the image of the messiah most Jews were expecting?
Pilate was afraid of being thought of as allowing rebellion. What kind of man did he release from jail, thereby tolerating rebellion?
149
Focus Question
What custom did Pilate invoke to persuade the
Sanhedrin to change its mind about Christ?
  • He invoked his custom of pardoning one criminal
    at Passover. He gave them the choice between
    Barabbas and Christ.

150
Focus Question
Why did Pilate finally give in to the Sanhedrins
demands?
  • If he released Christ, they said he would be no
    friend of Caesar. Pilate knew if he were to allow
    a rebel to live, he would be in trouble with
    Caesar.

151
Guided Exercise
Read the Catechism, no. 598 and then review the
paragraph The role that Judas (p. 207). Then
answer the question Some have blamed the Jews
for killing Christ and have used this as a basis
for anti-Semitism. According to the Church, who
is responsible for killing Christ?
152
Focus Question
How did Judas betray Christ?
  • He revealed where the chief priests could arrest
    Christ safely.

153
Focus Question
How did St. Peter betray Christ?
  • After Christs arrest, St. Peter denied he even
    knew Christ.

154
Focus Question
What was lacking in Judass repentance?
  • When he tried to return the money the Sanhedrin
    had paid him, they refused his offer. He
    despaired of forgiveness and killed himself.

155
Focus Question
What was right about St. Peters repentance?
  • Christ prophesied St. Peter would deny him three
    times before the cock crowed. At the third crow,
    St. Peter wept bitterly out of sorrow fueled by
    love.

156
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ (continued)
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Christs Crucifixion
  • The Cup of Consummation
  • Psalm 22 as a prophecy of Christs Passion
  • The Resurrection

157
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ (continued)
Basic Questions
  • How was Christs Crucifixion?
  • Christ was crucified as King of the Jews.
  • How did Christ complete his Passover?
  • Christ died, thus drinking the Cup of
    Consummation.
  • How is Psalm 22 related to the Crucifixion?
  • Psalm 22 provides a prophetic description of
    Christs Passion.

158
The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus
Christ (continued)
Basic Questions
  • How did the disciples first learn of the
    Resurrection of Christ?
  • An angel announced Christs Resurrection to the
    three women who went to anoint Christs Body.
    Christ then appeared to St. Mary Magdalene.

159
Anticipatory Set
Incorporate the events from Christs being led
away to Crucifixion through his burial into
prayer.
160
Focus Question
Why did Christ need help carrying his Cross?
  • He was weak from having been scourged.

161
Focus Question
Legally, how did the soldiers press St. Simon of
Cyrene to carry the Cross?
  • Soldiers could press a person into service to
    carry baggage for one Roman mile.

162
Focus Question
When Christ said, If any one forces you to go
one mile, go with him two miles (Mt 541), to
what was he referring?
  • He referred to the same Roman law as in the
    previous question.

163
Focus Question
Why did someone offer Christ wine mixed with
myrrh?
  • It was a painkiller he refused it.

164
Focus Question
Why did the Jewish religious authorities object
to the sign Pilate had placed above Christ?
  • The sign identified Jesus as King of the Jews.
    They said it should read, This man said, I am
    King of the Jews (Jn 1921).

165
Focus Question
What kind of mockery did Christ experience on the
Cross?
  • He was mocked both by passersby and by one of the
    thieves crucified with him.

166
Focus Question
In the Roman Empire, for whom was crucifixion
reserved?
  • Crucifixion was reserved for the most heinous
    criminalsfor example, rebels and runaway
    slavesto deter others from imitating them.

167
Focus Question
Why is crucifixion a terrible punishment?
  • It is both very painful and deeply humiliating.

168
Focus Question
Why does breaking the legs of a crucified man
hasten his death?
  • The crucified has to use his legs to push himself
    up to breathe. If the legs are broken, he dies
    more quickly of asphyxiation.

169
Focus Question
Why is this not a cry of despair Eloi, Eloi,
lama sabachtahani?
  • This lamentation begins Psalm 22, which ends in a
    triumphant delivery by God.

170
Focus Question
What is the connection between the sponge soaked
in sour wine on a branch of hyssop and the
Passover?
  • During the Passover, a branch of hyssop was used
    to sprinkle the blood of the Passover lamb.
    Christs last drink of wine was administered by a
    sponge attached to a branch of hyssop.

171
Focus Question
What is the meaning of Christs last sip of wine
and his declaration, It is finished?
  • It meant he was drinking the Cup of Consummation,
    completing his own Passover. He was the New Lamb
    sacrificed for mankind.

172
Focus Question
What is the connection between the Eucharist and
Calvary?
  • The offering of Christs Blood on Calvary will be
    offered until the end of time in the Eucharist.
    Each time the followers of Christ gather to share
    in the meal of their salvation, they share in the
    Blood of the New Covenant established by Christ.

173
Guided Exercise
Read Psalm 22 and identify two prophecies
fulfilled in Christs Crucifixion.
174
Focus Question
Why was Christ pierced?
  • He appeared to be dead. The soldier wanted to
    ensure it.

175
Focus Question
How do two Old Testament prophecies come together
in Christs piercing?
  • First, the Mosaic Law forbade the breaking of any
    of the bones of the Passover lamb by not
    breaking Christs legs, the Gospels confirm
    Christ is the new Passover Lamb.
  • continued

176
Focus Question
How do two Old Testament prophecies come together
in Christs piercing?
  • Second, at the time of Christ, wine was drunk
    after mixing in water. The Blood and water
    spilling from the side of Christ refers to the
    Eucharist, and the Church continues to mix water
    and wine to prepare the chalice in the
    celebration of the Eucharist.

177
Focus Question
Why was Christs Body placed in a tomb rather
than a common grave like most crucified
criminals?
  • Two secret followers of Christ were St. Joseph of
    Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin, and St.
    Nicodemus, a Pharisee. They received permission
    from Pilate to take Christs Body, and they
    placed it in a new tomb.

178
Focus Question
Why did the chief priests ask Pilate to have
Christs tomb guarded?
  • They feared Christs followers would steal the
    body and claim he had risen from the dead.

179
Guided Exercise
Read the Catechism, no. 1851 and then write about
which of the sufferings experienced by Christ you
think was the worst and why.
180
Focus Question
What does the rending of the curtain of the
Temple signify?
  • The separation between God and his people has
    ended.

181
Focus Question
Why did a group of women go to Christs tomb
early Sunday morning?
  • They went to anoint the body of Christ properly,
    as it was done in haste Friday afternoon due to
    the approach of the Sabbath.
  • continued

182
Focus Question
Why did a group of women go to Christs tomb
early Sunday morning?
  • Extension
  • The Jewish day was calculated from sunset to
    sunset in the case of the Sabbath, it lasted
    from sunset Friday evening to sunset Saturday
    evening. The women, then, went to Christs tomb
    at the break of daylight the following (Sunday)
    morning.

183
Focus Question
To whom was the Resurrection first announced?
  • An angel, dressed in white, announced the
    Resurrection to St. Mary Magdalene, Mary the
    mother of James, and Salome.

184
Focus Question
Why was St. Mary Magdalene weeping at Christs
tomb?
  • She thought somebody had moved or stolen the Body
    of Christ.

185
Focus Question
How did St. Mary Magdalene finally recognize
Christ?
  • He called her by name, Mary.

186
Focus Question
What did the disciples think of St. Mary
Magdalenes announcement she had seen the Lord?
  • It seemed an idle tale, that is, untrue gossip.

187
Focus Question
What does it mean to be a messenger of Christs
Resurrection?
  • It means to tell others Christ has indeed risen
    from the dead.

188
Alternative Assessment
Read 1 Corinthian 153-11 and then make a list of
all the messengers of the Resurrection St. Paul
lists.
189
Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Christ as the New Adam
  • Christ as the New Noah
  • Christ as the New Abraham
  • Christ as the New Moses
  • Christ as the New David

190
Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets
Basic Questions
  • How is Christ the New Adam?
  • Through his perfect obedience to the Father, the
    New Adam restored mans place in Paradise lost by
    the First Adam.
  • How is Christ the New Noah?
  • Christ made water an instrument of salvation and
    founded a Church it was not just to fill the
    earth with people but to make disciples of all
    nations.

191
Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets
Basic Questions
  • How is Christ the New Abraham?
  • Christ became the Savior of the world through
    whom all the families of the earth are blessed.
  • How is Christ the New Moses?
  • Christ is the prophet Moses prophesied would
    arise in Israel who gave the perfect Law and was
    the saving Lamb of God.

192
Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets
Basic Questions
  • How is Christ the New David?
  • Christ is the Only-Begotten Son of God whose
    universal rule is through the Church.

193
Anticipatory Set
Choose an Old Testament prophecy and show how it
points to fulfillment in Jesus Christ.
194
Focus Question
What covenant did God make with Adam?
  • Adam was made a son of God who would have
    everlasting life if he obeyed God.

195
Focus Question
What was the result of Adam having broken the
covenant?
  • It resulted in spiritual and physical death for
    all people.

196
Focus Question
How did Christ fulfill the covenant with Adam?
  • He was the Son who perfectly obeyed God and so
    restored life to fallen humanity.

197
Focus Question
Which Sacrament did the early Church connect with
the Flood?
  • They saw Baptism in the Flood.

198
Focus Question
What covenant did God make with Noah?
  • Noah would be the father of a new humanity,
    purified by water, and God would never again
    destroy the whole human race by flood.

199
Focus Question
How does Baptism fulfill the covenant with Noah?
  • As forty days of rain prepared the world for a
    new creation, forty days of fasting and penance
    (the season of Lent) prepares a person to become
    a new creation in the waters of Baptism. People
    are to be fruitful and multiply the number of
    Christians on the earth.

200
Focus Question
How was Gods covenant with Abraham partially
fulfilled?
  • Hundreds of thousands could call themselves
    descendants of Abraham. Abrahams descendants had
    dwelt and even built an empire in the Promised
    Land of Canaan.

201
Focus Question
What part of the Abrahamic Covenant was
unfulfilled?
  • The promise of universal blessing was
    unfulfilled.

202
Focus Question
How did Christ fulfill the Abrahamic covenant?
  • Abrahams descendant, Christ, brought a universal
    promise of salvation available to all people.

203
Focus Question
What did Christs disciples not understand about
him even to the time of his Death?
  • They did not understand how God was to bring
    about the salvation of mankind.

204
Focus Question
What did Christs followers likely think he meant
when he said he had come to fulfill the Law and
the prophets?
  • They thought he meant he would re-establish the
    temporal, Davidic Kingdom.

205
Focus Question
What did Christ really mean to fulfill the Law
and the prophets?
  • He meant he would fulfill the Scriptures by
    suffering and dying as Isaiah had foretold.

206
Focus Question
What did Moses foresee at the end of
Deuteronomy?
  • He prophesied a new prophet like himself.

207
Focus Question
When did that prophet come?
  • He came about 1500 years later in the Person of
    Jesus Christ.

208
Focus Question
How did Christ fulfill the Mosaic Covenant?
  • Christ is the new Moses who gave a perfected Law
    and personified the Passover as the Lamb of God.

209
Focus Question
When did the rabbinic tradition expect the
Messiah to come?
  • It expected the Messiah to come on Passover
    night.

210
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the paragraph
When Moses came down.. (p. 214) and the
following question What is the meaning of
the veil in this passage?
211
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table about how Christ
fulfills the promises God made to David.
Title Explanation
Son of David
King of Israel
Christ (or Messiah)
Son of God
212
Guided Exercise
Review the table Jesus, the New Moses (p. 216)
and then answer the following question Which
similarity between Moses and Christ do you find
most striking, and why?
213
Alternative Assessment
Christ fulfilled the four titles of the Davidic
Covenant. Review this chapter and invent as many
new titles as you can for Christ based on these
five covenants.
214
Focus Question
What about Christ dissatisfied some Israelites
during his time?
  • Christ did not proclaim himself a Messiah who
    would inaugurate the political restoration of the
    Kingdom of Israel to establish a temporal power
    protected by God.

215
Focus Question
What is the Kingdom Christ came to establish?
  • Christ established the Church, the New Israel.
    This kingdom is not restricted by temporal
    domain it includes the communion of faithful
    everywhere, living and dead, and so is not of
    this world.

216
Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued)
  • Lesson Objective
  • Christ as the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant

217
Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued)
Basic Questions
  • How does Christ fulfill the Davidic Covenant?
  • Christ and his Church fulfill the primary and
    secondary features of the Davidic Covenant.

218
Anticipatory Set
Incorporate Supplementary Reading 5 into the
Opening Prayer.
219
Guided Exercise
Write a paraphrase of Luke 132-33.
220
Focus Question
How does the promise of a universal ruler in the
line of Abraham predate David, Solomon, and even
Moses?
  • Jacob told his sons a descendant of Judah would
    be obeyed by the peoples.

221
Focus Question
In Jacobs prophecy, to what does he come to
refer?
  • This refers to the man who is to come to whom the
    rulers staff, or scepter, belong. He will rule
    not only Israel but all nations.

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