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Overview of Air Quality Issues in Tennessee

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Overview of Air Quality Issues in Tennessee Air & Waste Management Association Southern Section 2010 Annual Meeting & Technical Conference Mobile, Alabama – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview of Air Quality Issues in Tennessee


1
Overview of Air Quality Issues in Tennessee
  • Air Waste Management Association
  • Southern Section
  • 2010 Annual Meeting Technical Conference
  • Mobile, Alabama
  • August 3 6, 2010

2
Outline
  • Fine Particles PM2.5
  • 1997 Annual Standard
  • 2006 Daily Standard
  • Remand/Reconsideration of the 2006 Standard
  • Ozone
  • 1997 Standard
  • 2008 Standard Its Reconsideration as a 2010
    Standard
  • Lead
  • Nitrogen Dioxide
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • Regional Haze

3
OutlineContinued
  • Air Toxics
  • USA Today Articles About Schools Air Quality and
    the sampling that followed in Tennessee.
  • TVA
  • Kingston Ash Slide
  • NC Public Nuisance Suit
  • 2009 TVA Tennessee Plant Emissions

4
PM2.5 NAAQS Standards
  • Annual Standard 15µg/m3
  • Daily Standard 35µg/m3 ? Was 65µg/m3

5
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8
PM2.5 NAAQSImplementation Timeline
Annual Standard 15 µg/m3 Annual Standard 15 µg/m3 Daily Standard 35 µg/m3 Daily Standard 35 µg/m3
Governor Recommendation February 12, 2004 Governor Recommendation December 18. 2007
EPA Preliminary Response June 29, 2004 EPA Preliminary Response August 19, 2008
EPA Final Announcement December 17, 2004 EPA Final Announcement November 13, 2009
Effective Date Of Designations April 5, 2005 Effective Date Of Designations December 14, 2009
SIPs Due April 5, 2008 SIPs Due December 14, 2012
Attain Standard April 5, 2010 Up To 5 yrs Extension Attain Standard December 14, 2014 Up To 5 yrs Extension
9
PM2.5 NAAQS
  • The Annual Standard

10
PM 2.5 non-attainment CountiesDesignated based
on 15 ug/m3 annual standard
PM2.5 Fine Particulate Non-attainment Areas of
Tennessee Designated based on 15 ug/m3 Annual
Standard
Chattanooga, AL-TN-GA ALABAMA Jackson Co
(Partial) GEORGIA Catoosa Co Walker Co
TENNESSEE Hamilton Co
Knoxville, TN TENNESSEE Anderson Co Blount
Co Knox Co Loudon Co Roane Co (Partial)
11
PM2.5 Annual Standard SIPs
  • Greater Knoxville Area SIP
  • SIP approved by the state air board on April 4,
    2008 and submitted to EPA for federal approval.
  • Greater Chattanooga Area SIP
  • SIP approved by the state air board on October
    14, 2009 and submitted to EPA for federal
    approval.
  • Area includes portions of GA AL

12
PM2.5 NAAQS
  • The 24 Hour Daily Standard

13
PM2.5 Nonattainment Counties35ug/m3 Daily NAAQS
14
CASAC/EPA Review of PM2.5 NAAQS
  • By Court Action, EPA Was Instructed To Review its
    2006 Review/Revisions To The PM2.5 NAAQS
  • On July 8, 2010, EPA released its 2nd External
    Draft of its review of the science
  • EPA Currently Concludes
  • Consideration should be given to an annual
    standard of 11 13 ug/m3 and leave the daily
    standard at 35 ug/m3
  • Consideration could be given to an annual
    standard of 11 ug/m3 and a daily standard of 30
    ug/m3

15
OZONE UPDATE
  • 1997 Standard

16
Tennessee 1997 Ozone NAAQS Attainment Status
17
Knoxville Area
  • A Court Vacature of the EPA Part I 8-Hour Ozone
    Rule Eliminated The June 15, 2007 Deadline For
    Subpart I Basic Area SIP Submittals.
  • A New Rule Has Been Proposed By EPA To Address
    Subpart I Basic Areas That Are Still Not
    Attaining The 1997 Standard. See January 16, 2009
    Federal Register - Link http//edocket.access.gpo
    .gov/2009/pdf/E9-806.pdf
  • If This Rule Is Unchanged And Goes Final,
    Knoxville Will Be Subpart II Moderate for the
    1997 standard.
  • Tennessee Submitted Its Bid For Redesignation To
    Attainment (2007-2009 Data) on July 14, 2010.

18
OZONE UPDATEContinued
  • Abandoned 2008 Standard
  • 75 ppb
  • Upcoming 2010 Standard
  • 60 70 ppb?

19
O3 Implementation Timeline
Milestone Old Date New Date (ESTIMATED)
Rule Signed March 12, 2008 August 2010
State Designation Recommendations to EPA No later than March 12, 2009 January 2011
Final Designations March 12, 2010 Up To 1 Extra Year If Unclassifiable July 2011
Attainment Demonstration SIPs Due 2013 Up To 1 Extra Year If Unclassifiable December 2013
Attainment Dates 2013 - 2030 Depending Upon Severity Of Problem 2014 - 2031 Depending Upon Severity Of Problem
20
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21
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22
Potential Impacts of New Secondary Std.
23
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24
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25
Lead NAAQS
  • Theres A New Standard In Town
  • Old Standard 1.5 ug/m3
  • New Standard 0.15 ug/m3
  • Link To EPA Fact Sheet For More Information
  • http//epa.gov/air/lead/pdfs/20081015pbfactsheet.p
    df

26
Lead NAAQSImplementation Timeline
Milestone Date
Governor Recommendation October 2009
Monitoring Network At Least ½ Required Sites Operational By 01/01/10 Rest By 01/01/11
Final Designations No Later Than 01/01/12, But Some May Be Designated Earlier If Data Is Complete
Transitional Strategy Old Std. To New Std. - No Backsliding Revoke 1978 Lead NAAQS In Pre-2009 Attainment Areas No Later Than 01/01/12
SIPs Due June 2013
Attainment Date No Later Than January 2017
27
Proposed Non-attainment Boundary
28
Lead Source Modeling Results
29
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30
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31
Nitrogen Dioxide
  • Revisions to Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient
    Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)
  • Federal Register /Vol. 75, No. 26/ Tuesday,
    February 9, 2010 / Final Rules

32
Nitrogen Dioxide Implementation Timeline
Milestone Date
State Designation Recommendations to EPA January 2011 One year following promulgation (Based on existing network data 2008-2010 data 2010 data would not be fully QAd)
Designations January 2012 EPA designates all/most areas as unclassifiable (because near road monitors not in place)
New NO2 Monitoring Network January 1, 2013 All monitors operating future designations from this data 2016-2017
33
Background
  • On July 15, 2009, the EPA proposed to strengthen
    the primary NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
  • Proposed changes would protect public health,
    especially the health of sensitive populations.
  • On January 22, 2010 EPA announced the final
    revisions to the NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

34
New Standard Levels
  • EPA is adding a new Primary 1-hour NO2 standard
    at a level of 100 parts per billion (ppb).
  • EPA will retain the current Primary annual
    average NO2 standard of 53 ppb.
  • EPA will also retain the current Secondary annual
    average NO2 standard of 0.053 ppm.
  • EPA revised the AQI for NO2 to incorporate the
    new 1-hour standard revisions with new levels set
    for the Good, Moderate, USG and Unhealthy
    categories where none existed before.

35
Form of Standard
  • The 1-hour primary standard is met when the
    3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of
    the daily maximum 1-hour average concentration is
    less than or equal to 100 ppb.
  • The annual primary standard is met when the
    annual average concentration in a calendar year
    is less than or equal to 53 ppb.
  • The secondary standard is attained when the
    annual arithmetic mean concentration in a
    calendar year is less than or equal to 0.053 ppm,
    rounded to three decimal places.
  • Note The 98th percentile for a year corresponds
    approximately to the 8th highest daily maximum.

36
Nitrogen Dioxide Monitors Operating in 2009
37
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39
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) NAAQS
  • New Primary NAAQS
  • Standard of 75 ppb 1 hour basis

40
Implementation of the 1 Hour SO2 NAAQS
Deadline Milestone
June 2010 EPA Set New 1 Hour Standard 75 ppb
June 2011 States Submit Designations Recommendations Based Upon Monitoring and Modeling
June 2012 EPA Issues Final Designations
January 2013 New Ambient SO2 Network Operational
June 2013 Infrastructure SIPs Modeling Based SIPs Showing Attainment for Attainment and Unclassified Areas by August 2017 Due to EPA
February 2014 Nonattainment Area Plans Due to EPA
August 2017 All Areas Attain Standard
41
SO2 Modeling Versus Monitoring
  • Modeling is for medium to large sized SO2 sources
  • Modeling guidance from EPA forthcoming
  • Monitoring is for clusters of smaller sized
    sources not well suited for modeling
  • New rule establishes minimum SO2 monitoring
    network criteria
  • Must be in place by January 2013

42
Possible Additional SO2 Monitors Needed
43
Sulfur Dioxide Monitors Operating in 2009
44
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45
Regional Haze
  • Path Forward to 2064

46
State SIP Obligations To Address Regional Haze
  • Assess Current Visibility Levels In Class I Areas
  • Determine Natural Conditions Of Visibility In
    Class I Areas (pre-Americanization)
  • ID Protect the 20 Best Days
  • ID Improve the 20 Worst Days
  • Apply BART and Reasonable Progress as needed
  • Be At Natural Conditions By 2064

47
Trick or Treat?Tennessees Regional Haze SIP
May Be The First In The Nation To Be
Conditionally Approved!
48
Uniform Rate of Progress Glide Path (Base G2a
projections)
Great Smoky Mountains - 20 Worst Days
New IMPROVE equation
35
Uniform rate of progress 4.4 dV by 2018
30.28
29.01
30
25.85
25
22.69
22.87
19.53
20
16.37
Haziness Index (Deciviews)
13.20
15
11.31
10
5
0
2000
2004
2008
2012
2016
2020
2024
2028
2032
2036
2040
2044
2048
2052
2056
2060
2064
Year
Glide Path
Natural Condition (Worst Days)
Observation
Method 1 Prediction
49
BART
  • BART Best Available Retrofit Technology
  • Applies to Certain Large Source Categories that
    were Pre-PSD
  • 26 Source Categories
  • Emit gt250 Tons/Year PTE of Visibility Impairing
    Pollutants
  • Built 1962-1977 ? 15 years prior to PSD
  • In Tennessee, only those sources that model Class
    I Area impacts of gt0.5 dV will be subject to BART

50
Reasonable Progress Analysis
  • Required by Regional Haze Rule 51.308(d)(1)(i)(A
    ) to consider four factors when establishing our
    Reasonable Progress Goal (RPG)
  • Cost of compliance
  • Time necessary for compliance
  • Energy and non-air quality environmental impacts
    of compliance
  • Remaining useful life of any existing source
    subject to the requirements

51
Simulated 20 Haziest Days at Great Smoky Mtns
2000-2004
2018 Base F
52
Simulated Natural Background Visibility Great
Smoky Mtns
53
EPA Schools Air Toxics Monitoring Program
54
Background
  • USA Today Article dated Dec. 8, 2008
  • USA Today teamed with Johns Hopkins University
    and University of Maryland
  • Modeled and conducted screening measurements of
    air toxics around a number of schools across the
    country
  • Come up with list of 437 schools and ranked them
    worst to best

55
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56
Study History
  • New EPA Administrator told staff in January 2009
    to investigate the schools air toxics issue
  • Staff selected 62 schools across the country to
    conduct testing around
  • Short term study- 60-day sampling period
  • Reports for the 4 TN schools may be viewed at
    http//www.epa.gov/schoolair/schools.html

57
School Selection and Toxics
  • Four of the 62 schools EPA selected are in
    Tennessee
  • Ashland City Elementary
  • Metals (Manganese)
  • Lakeview Elementary
  • Metals (Manganese)
  • Greene County High School
  • (Disocyanates)
  • Vonore Middle School
  • (Disocyanates)
  • EPA wanted to get the study off the ground
    immediately

58
Manganese Screening Level 500 ng/m3
59
Manganese Screening Level 500 ng/m3
60
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61
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62
TVA Information
  • Kingston Ash Slide Air Monitoring
  • NC Public Nuisance Lawsuit Against TVA
  • 2009 TVA Tennessee Plant Emissions

63
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64
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65
TDEC-APC Performance Standards For Fugitive Dust
Control
  • Two Standards Apply And Appear In Both Chapter
    1200-3-8 Of The State Air Pollution Control
    Regulations And The Kingston Steam Plant
    Operating Permit
  • Reasonable Precautions to prevent the material
    from becoming airborne A General Duty Type
    Regulation
  • Visible Emissions shall not cross the property
    line for over 5 minutes in a one hour period or
    20 minutes in a twenty-four hour period.
  • Requires a certified visible emissions evaluator
    and adherence to TVEE Method 4 to determine
    compliance.

66
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67
NC Public Nuisance Lawsuit Against TVA
  • On July 26, 2010, the United States 4th Circuit
    of Appeals reversed and remanded the order of the
    lower court that granted relief for NC against
    TVA on their claim of public nuisance.
  • The judgment of the 3 judges was unanimous
  • NC can ask for appeal En Banc (10 Judges on the
    4th Circuit Bench) or go to the Supreme Court if
    they elect to fight it.
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