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Cold War Conflicts

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It drove back the North Koreans and recaptured South Korea ... South Korean Troops Cross At The 38th Parallel- Push to the Yalu River South Korean troops cross ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cold War Conflicts


1
Cold WarConflicts
  • What do you do when a friend is accused?

2
To the Victor goes the Spoils
  • Rome defeats Carthage after 2 year siege
  • 50,000 who surrendered sold into slavery, city
    razed.
  • North defeats South in American Civil War
  • Reconstruction lasts 10 years, South not allowed
    self-government, states not re-admitted to Union
    until constitutions re-written
  • Allies defeat Central Powers in WWI
  • Germany forced to pay reparations which
    bankrupted economy, leaving Germany open to
    dictatorship of Hitler

3
Origins of the Cold War
  • Main Idea
  • The U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged from WW II
    as two superpowers with vastly different
    political and economic systems.
  • Why it Matters Today
  • After WW II, differences between the U.S. and the
    Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost
    to the 21st century.

4
Former Allies Clash
  • The U.S. and the Soviet Union had very different
    ambitions for the future. These differences
    created a tension that plunged the two countries
    into a bitter rivalry.
  • The United Nations
  • April 25, 1945-50 nations met in S.F.
  • June 26, 1945- UN is chartered
  • Truman Becomes President
  • The Potsdam Conference
  • U.S., G.B., Soviet Union met in Postdam
  • Soviets block free elections

5
POTSDAM (Germany) Date July 1945 Present
Churchill, Truman and Stalin
6
Tension Mounts
  • Stalins refusal to allow free elections in
    Poland convinced Truman that U.S. and Soviet aims
    were deeply at odds.

7
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8
Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952
9
UN vs. NATO?
  • Whats the difference between the UN and NATO?
  • The UN (United Nations) is a international
    organization of every recognized state, created
    to keep the peace between nations and create
    international law and cooperation. NATO (North
    Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military
    alliance of the United States, Canada and most of
    Europe, created back in the Cold War to counter
    Soviet and Communist power. It now consists of 26
    nations.

10
U.S. Aims vs. Soviet Aims
  • The Soviet Union
  • Encourage communism in other countries
  • Rebuild Eastern Europe w/industrial equipment
    raw materials
  • Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence
    in Western Europe
  • Keep Germany divided, so it wouldnt be a threat
  • The US wanted to
  • Create a new world order w/self determination
  • Gain access to raw materials and markets
  • Rebuild European governments for American goods
  • Reunite Germany

11
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12
Europe after World War II
13
Cold War in Europe
  • The conflicting U.S. and Soviet aims in Eastern
    Europe led to the Cold War, a conflict between
    the U.S. and the Soviet Union, in which neither
    nation conflicted each other on the battlefield.
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • Truman asked Congress for 400 million to help
    Greece and Turkey.
  • US policy to help free people who are resisting
    communist takeover
  • The Marshall Plan
  • George Marshall, Sec. of State
  • The U.S. to provide aid to all European nations
    that needed it.
  • 1948-1952- 16 countries received some 13 billion
    in aid

14
Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952
15
Superpowers Struggle over Germany
  • As Europe began to get back on its feet, the U.S.
    and its allies clashed with the Soviet Union over
    the issue of German reunification.

16
Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin
  • The Russians took very high casualties to capture
    Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early
    occupation trying to take over all zones of the
    city but were stopped by German democrats such as
    Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the
    Russians had to admit the Americans, French and
    British to their respective zones.

17
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18
Origins of the Cold WarReview
  • What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy in the
    Cold War?
  • To encourage democracy to gain access to raw
    materials and markets to rebuild Europe to
    contain Soviet expansion.
  • Describe the Truman doctrine and how America
    reacted to it.
  • A policy of helping countries resist Communist
    takeover strongly supported by Americans.

19
The Cold War Heats Up
  • Main Idea
  • After World War II, China became a communist
    nation and Korea was into a communist north and a
    democratic south.
  • Why it Matters Today
  • Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea
    continue to involve the United States

20
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21
China Becomes a Communist Country
  • For two decades, Chinese communist had struggled
    against the nationalist government of Chiang
    Kai-shek.
  • The U.S. had supported Chiang during WWII.
  • Chiangs government undermined Nationalist
    support.
  • Mao Zedong gained support of communism throughout
    the country.

22
Renewed Civil War
  • As soon as the defeated Japanese left China at
    the end of WW II, cooperation between the
    Nationalists and the Communists ceased.
  • From 1944-1947, the U.S. played the peacemaker
    while supporting the Nationalists.
  • May 1949- Chiang and others fled to the Island of
    Taiwan or Formosa.
  • China became a communist country, which was
    called the Peoples Republic of China.
  • America Reacts to Communist Takeover
  • Conservative Republicans blamed Truman for only
    supplying limited aid.

23
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24
So What Caused The Korean War?
  • 1. President Truman was interested in the Far
    East

Hmmm..I have an interest in the Far East.
25
Domino Theory
  • Europe was not the only place where Communists
    were coming to power. In the Far East, too, they
    were getting powerful China turned Communist in
    1949. Truman believed that, if one country fell
    to Communism, then others would follow, like a
    line of dominoes. He was worried that, if Korea
    fell, the Communists would capture Japan.

Task Using 6 words, describe the domino theory.
One country falls others
will follow
_______ _______ _______ _______ _______
_______
26
General MacArthur says...
  • Asia is where the communist conspirators have
    decided to make their play for global conquest.
    If we lose this war, the fall of Europe is
    inevitable. There is no choice but victory.
  • The US General MacArthur, speaking in 1950.

Question Why does General MacArthur think Korea
is so important for the Americans?
27
Undermine Communism
  • In April 1950, the American National Security
    Council issued a report (NSC 68) recommending
    that America abandon 'containment' and start
    'rolling back' Communism.

28
Cold War
  • Truman realized the USA was in a competition
    for world domination with the USSR. By supporting
    South Korea, America was able to fight Communism
    without directly attacking Russia.

29
  • 2. Stalin was also involved in the Far East

Hmmm..I too have an interest in the Far East.
30
Kim II Sung Gets Support
  • In 1949, he persuaded Stalin that he could
    conquer South Korea. Stalin did not think that
    America would dare to get involved, so he gave
    his agreement. Stalin saw a chance to continue
    the cold war and discomfort America, but at
    arms length without directly confronting the
    Americans. Kim II Sung also went to see Mao
    Zedong, the leader of China, to get his
    agreement.

31
Syngman Rhee Has A Big Mouth
  • 3. In 1950, Syngman Rhee boasted that he was
    going to attack North Korea. It was a good enough
    excuse on June 25, 1950 the North Koreans
    invaded South Korea.

Chairman Syngman Rhee addresses the National
Assembly in 1948.
and so began the Korean War.
32
  • TASK Before we continue on, you must rank the
    main causes of the Korean War. Starting with 1
    being the most important cause, compile your
    list. Include a brief explanation to support
    your choices.

33
The Events Of The War
34
Stage 1- June 25, 1950 North Korea attacks the
South and captures the capital of Seoul.
The North Koreans attacked. They were very
successful. The North Korean People's Army (NKPA)
easily defeated the Republic of Korea's army (the
ROKs) The Americans were alarmed and they
persuaded the United Nations to support South
Korea. Out of the 300,000 UN troops, 260,000 were
Americans
35
Stage 2-July, 1950 North Korea pushes the
United Nations forces to the southeast corner of
the peninsula (Pusan)
36
Stage 3-September 15, 1950 UN Makes Daring
Landing At Inchon
  • The American army, led by General MacArthur, went
    to Korea. It landed at Pusan, and made an
    amphibious landing at Inchon (near Seoul).
  • It drove back the North Koreans and recaptured
    South Korea. 125,000 NKPA prisoners were taken.

37
Stage 4-October 1, 1950 South Korean Troops
Cross At The 38th Parallel- Push to the Yalu River
  • South Korean troops cross the 38th Parallel and
    enter North Korea.

Task Evaluate the UN decision to cross into
North Korea after successfully recapturing South
Korea. List the potential positives and negatives
of this action?
Ultimate Goal of this action to unify Korea
under a non-communist government.
38
Map Interpretation
Based on this map, why do you think President
Truman warned MacArthur to keep the UN forces at
least 40 miles from the Yalu River?
Yalu River
39
October 26, 1950 UN Forces Reach Yalu River
  • North Koreas capital, Pyongyang, fell to UN
    troops on October 20th.
  • By October 26th, the first UN troops had reached
    the Yalu River. the border between China and
    North Korea.

North Korean tank burning in Pyongyang, October
19, 1950.
40
Stage 5-November 1950, Massive Chinese Attack
Across The Yalu River
  • Now the Chinese were alarmed.
  • 200,000 Chinese troops ('People's Volunteers')
    attacked MacArthur. They had modern weapons
    supplied by Russia, and a fanatical hatred of the
    Americans.
  • In December, half a million more Chinese troops
    entered the war.
  • They drove the Americans back. They recaptured
    North Korea, and advanced into South Korea.

41
  • The Chinese troops were a unique enemy,
    without any of the characteristics of a
    traditional American or European army. There were
    no officer corps or ranks in this "people's
    army." The soldiers addressed their commanders as
    "Comrade Platoon Leader" or "Comrade Company
    Commander" and were informed in great detail of
    their tactical and strategic missions.

42
Stage 6-February March 1951 Stalemate
  • The Americans landed more troops. They used
    bombers. The Chinese admitted to losing 390,000
    men dead - UN sources put the figure at up a
    million Chinese and half a million North Koreans
    dead.
  • The Americans drove the Chinese back, but lost
    54,000 American soldiers doing so.
  • MacArthur reached the 38th parallel in March
    1951.

43
  • Approximately 90 of the soldiers fighting in
    Korea suffered from frostbite. In fact, much of
    the war was fought in extreme cold as Siberian
    winds whipped across the Asian peninsula.

44
March 1951 - President Harry Truman vs. General
Douglas MacArthur
  • MacArthur declares "There is no substitute for
    victory." He wants to push further. He claimed
    that the only way to bring about victory was by
    taking the war to China.
  • In a message to House Republican leader,
    MacArthur expressed his frustration with the
    limited war the U.S. was fighting against
    communists. He publicly criticized Trumans
    decisions.

45
Truman vs. MacArthur Continued
  • After months of heavy fighting, the center
    of the conflict was returned to the 38th
    parallel, where it remained for the rest of the
    war. MacArthur, however, wished to mount another
    invasion of North Korea. MacArthur also pressed
    for permission to bomb Chinese bases in
    Manchuria. Truman refused such permission.
  • When MacArthur persisted in publicly criticizing
    U.S. policy, Truman, on the recommendation of the
    Joint Chiefs of Staff, removed him from command
    on April 11, 1951and installed Gen. Matthew B.
    Ridgeway as commander in chief. Gen. James Van
    Fleet then took command of the 8th Army. Ridgeway
    began (July 10, 1951) truce negotiations with the
    North Koreans and Chinese, while small unit
    actions, bitter but indecisive, continued.
    General Van Fleet was denied permission to go on
    the offensive and end the meat grinder war.

46
Who Was Right? You Decide
  • Should President Truman have relieved General
    MacArthur? Who better understood the situation?
    Would MacArthur's policies have ended the war in
    Korea sooner, or would they have risked World War
    III?
  • Do you think President Truman was right or wrong
    in dismissing Gen. MacArthur? Explain your
    answer.

47
"We've been using more of a roundish one"
President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas
MacArthur of his Far Eastern command for publicly
undercutting the president's Korean War policies,
and the general returned to Washington, where he
and Defense Secretary George Marshall provided
conflicting testimonies to congressional
committees. MacArthur continued to propose more
aggressive tactics against communist China.
Marshall argued that MacArthur's tactics would
draw the United States into a third world war.
48
July, 1951
  • Peace talks begin as both sides continue
    fighting.

49
July 27, 1953 Truce Ends Korean Fighting 38th
Parallel Is Truce Line
  • In July 1953 an armistice, or truce, was agreed
    upon.
  • Korea was to remain divided at the 38th parallel.
  • Tension still existed on either side of the
    demilitarized zone (DMZ), a neutral area in which
    no warfare could be waged.

50
Results of the Korean War
  • It cost the United States 54,000 dead and 103,000
    wounded.
  • Total UN casualties reached about 400,000 dead or
    wounded.
  • South Korea suffered close to a million civilian
    casualties, with several million made homeless.
  • Nearly 1½ million North Korean and Chinese
    soldiers were dead or wounded.

With such high casualties, how could this
possibly be nicknamed The Forgotten War?
51
What Would Truman Have Said?
  • 1. The United States was being tested by the
    invasion of South Korea.
  • 2. We must stamp out the Communist government in
    North Korea.
  • 3. United Nations should push as far into North
    Korea as it is necessary to win the war.
  • 4. I will support whatever decision General
    MacArthur makes about the conduct of the war.
  • 5. I will do everything possible to win this war,
    even if it means war with the Soviet Union.
  • 6. United Nations forces should not get any
    closer than 40 miles from the Soviet and China
    borders.

52
QUESTIONS AND TASKS
  • 1. Why do you think this conflict has the
    nickname The Forgotten War?
  • 2. With such high casualties, those who died
    should not be forgotten. Create a new nickname
    for the Korean War.
  • 3. Was the Korean War a success or a failure for
    the United States? Explain your answer.
  • 4. Regardless of your answer for question 3,
    write a letter to justify the war to a mother
    whose son was killed in the war?

53
The TV series MASH was set in the Korean War.
Because it was written at the time of the Vietnam
War, the program had a strong anti-war message.
54
Silly putty was invented in 1950!
55
The Cold War Heats UpReview
  • What global events led to U.S. involvement in
    Korea?
  • Communist victory in China North Koreas attack
    on South Korea
  • What issue between General Douglas MacArthur and
    President Truman eventually cost MacArthur his
    job?
  • Truman wanted limit the Korean War to Korea.
    MacArthur wanted to bomb and invade China.

56
Examine the Issues
  • Do Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat
    to the nation?
  • What can individual citizens do to protect the
    rights of all people?
  • Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights
    of others?

57
The Cold War at Home
  • Main Idea
  • During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of
    communism led to reckless charges against
    innocent citizens.
  • Why it Matters Today
  • Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded
    accusations.

58
Fear of Communism
  • In the early years of the Cold War, many
    Americans believed that there was good reason to
    be concerned about the security of the U.S.
  • During WW II, there were about 80,000 Americans
    that claimed membership in the Communist party.

59
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60
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61
Spy Cases Stun the Nation
  • Two spy cases added to fear that was spreading
    like an epidemic across the country
  • Alger Hiss
  • 1948- former Communist spy Whitaker Chambers
    accused Alger Hiss of spying for the Soviet
    Union.
  • Hiss proclaims his innocence.
  • Richard Nixon pursues the charges
  • The Rosenbergs
  • Soviets exploded an atomic bomb on Sept. 3, 1949
  • 1950- German-born Klaus Fuchs admitted giving
    information about atomic bomb to Soviets
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg-American Communist
    Party
  • Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death

62
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63
McCarthy Launches His Witch Hunt
  • The most famous anti-Communist activist was
    Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from
    Wisconsin.

64
I have here in my hand---
  1. Who is the person in the cartoon?
  2. What is the meaning of the term doctored photo?
  3. What is the main point of the cartoon?

65
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66
The Cold War Review
  • What actions of Joseph McCarthy worsened the
    national hysteria about communism?
  • McCarthys allegation of Communists in government
    and in the armed forces.
  • How did the Rosenberg case fuel anti-communist
    feelings?
  • The Rosenberg case involved transfer of nuclear
    secrets to the Soviets Americans feared any
    Soviet influence in the U.S. and their possession
    of nuclear weapons.

67
Two Nations Live on the Edge
  • Main Idea
  • During the 1950s, the U.S. and the Soviet Union
    came to the brink of nuclear war.
  • Why it Matter Today
  • The Cold War continued into the following
    decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central
    America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.

68
Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy
  • The nuclear arms race began during Trumans
    presidency.
  • Soviets exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949.
  • Race for the H-Bomb
  • Hydrogen Bomb H-Bomb
  • 67 times stronger than the bomb dropped on
    Hiroshima
  • U.S. vs. Soviet Union in a race
  • Nov. 1, 1952- U.S. wins, exploded the 1st H-Bomb
  • Policy of Brinkmanship
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower-President
  • John Foster Dulles-Sec. of State
  • Dulles wanted to use all force , including
    nuclear weapons, against any aggressor
  • Brinkmanship- a policy of all out war
  • Army Navy scaled down and the Air Force
    increased.
  • Schoolchildren practiced air-raids procedures
  • Families built fallout shelters

69
Improve your knowledge
  • The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was
    expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid
    Russian development of nuclear technology, helped
    by the work of the atom spies was a
    shock.Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared
    war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945
    and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a
    position for the post-war settlement. This helped
    make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts
    more likely.

70
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71
The Cold War Spreads Around the World
  • As the nation shifted to a dependence on nuclear
    arms, the Eisenhower administration began to rely
    heavily on the recently formed Central
    Intelligence Agency (CIA) for information.
  • Covert Actions in the Middle East Latin America
  • 1951-Mohammed Mossadegh nationalized Irans oil
    fields
  • Great Britain stopped buying Iranian oil
  • 1953- CIA gave millions of to anti-Mossadegh
    supporters.
  • CIA supported the Shah of Iran
  • 1954-Guatemala

72
Cold War Spreads Around the World- cont
73
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74
  • The Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Jan. 1957- U.S. would defend the Middle East
    against an attack by any Communist country.
  • The Hungarian Uprising
  • Hungarians revolted in 1956
  • Imre Nagy-Communist leader promised free
    elections
  • Nov. 1956- Soviets send in troops
  • Soviets overthrow Nagy and place Soviet leaders
    in charge.
  • U.S. did nothing to help Hungary

75
The Cold War Takes to the Skies
  • Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader in the
    Soviet Union upon Stalins death in 1953.
  • Khrushchev wanted a peaceful coexistence.

76
Military or Ideological
  • Recommended information to be researched
  • Date of Event
  • Parties involved
  • Significance to U.S. History
  • 2-3 important details
  • It is considered a Cold War event because..

77
Test Today! Cold War Conflicts
  • Place the following notes in order
  • Vocabulary 21
  • Crossword
  • Word Search
  • Origins of Cold War/Promoting Principles of
    Containment
  • Cold War Heats Up
  • The Marshall Plan
  • Critical Thinking Skills Activity 21-Korean War
  • The Cold War at Home
  • Two Nations Live on the Edge
  • Cold War Conflicts Military or Ideological

78
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79
Two Nations Live on the EdgeReview
  • How did the U.S., including the CIA, wage the
    Cold War in the 1950s?
  • By sponsoring covert actions to overthrow
    governments unfriendly to the United States.
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