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The Progressive Movement


Title: Georgia and the American Experience Subject: Chapter 10: The Progressive Era Author: Emmett R. Mullins, Ed.D. Last modified by: Sarah Turner – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement
Goal Progress! Goal Progress! Goal Progress!
Society Business Government
fight poverty improve working conditions votes for women prison reform outlaw alcohol break up large corporations regulate businesses decrease corporate power in government greater voice of the people more voters did not seek to increase participation of blacks in elections
Prison Reform
  • 1908 end of convict lease system
  • Work camps and chain gangs replaced the lease
  • Black-and-white uniforms
  • Chained together
  • Poor food housing
  • No preparation for life after prison
  • Progressive legislators created the Juvenile
    Court System

Labor Unions
  • Low wages in factories (10 per hour)
  • Labor Unions organized workers
  • Strikes could halt work in the factory
  • AFL American Federation of Labor
  • Georgians didnt support unions factories were
    often in small communities where people knew each
  • Mill towns factory owner owned the workers
    houses workers feared losing their homes

Child Labor Laws
  • Progressives increased regulation to protect
    child laborers
  • Minimum wage
  • Compulsory school attendance laws
  • Laws protecting children against work in
    dangerous places and using dangerous equipment
    (for example mines)
  • In Georgia, most child workers in cotton fields
    or textile factories
  • In the North, child workers were in sweatshops

Temperance Movement
  • WCTU Womens Christian Temperance Movement
    wanted to end production and use of alcoholic
  • Carrie Nation famous for raiding saloons with a
    hatchet and making speeches against alcohol
  • Progressives in Georgia restricted alcohol sales
    near schools and churches, and allowed counties
    to vote to be wet or dry
  • 1919 18th Amendment banned manufacture, sale,
    transport of alcoholic beverages in USA

Womens Suffrage
  • Suffrage the right to vote
  • Seneca Falls, NY famous meeting of suffragettes
  • 1920 19th Amendment gives women the right to
    vote Georgia did not ratify (approve) the

Click to return to Table of Contents.
The Peoples Party
  • Populism political idea that supported the
    rights of the common people in their struggle
    with the wealthy people
  • Populist Party political party made up of small
  • Wanted Australian ballot A secret ballot
    printed by the government, not local political
    parties, then collected and locked in ballot
  • Tom Watson, famous Georgia populist, worked for
    Rural Free Delivery bill to deliver mail to rural
    areas for free

The County Unit System
  • 1917 Neil Primary Act created county unit
    system gave rural areas more political
  • Plan designed to give small counties more power
    in state government
  • Smaller counties had more county unit votes
    even though they had fewer voters
  • People could be elected to office without getting
    a majority of votes
  • Declared unconstitutional in 1962

Click to return to Table of Contents.
Separate But Equal
  • Civil Rights rights a person has as a citizen
  • Jim Crow laws passed to separate blacks and
  • Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision which
    approved Jim Crow laws decision in place until
  • Cummings V. Richmond County Board of Education
    Supreme Court decision supporting segregated
    schools in Georgia

Booker T. Washington
  • Outstanding civil rights leader of the era
  • President of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
  • Supported good relations between blacks and
  • Worked to improve the lives of African Americans
    through economic independence
  • Believed social and political equality would come
    with improved economic conditions and education
  • Famous Atlanta Compromise speech (1895)

W. E. B. DuBois
  • Professor at Atlanta University
  • Believed in action if African Americans and
    whites were to understand and accept each other
  • Thought Booker T. Washington was too accepting of
    social injustice
  • Believed in the talented 10th higher education
    for the top 10 percent.

John Hope
  • Civil rights leader from Augusta, GA
  • President of Atlanta University
  • Like DuBois, believed that African Americans
    should actively work for equality
  • Part of group that organized NAACP
  • Hopes wife, Lugenia, worked to improve
    sanitation, roads, healthcare and education for
    African American neighborhoods in Atlanta
  • She founded the Neighborhood Union

Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company
  • Alonzo Herndon started barber business
  • 1905 Purchased small insurance company and
    managed it well
  • Now one of the largest African American
    businesses in the US
  • Worth over 200 million and operates in 17 states

Click to return to Table of Contents.
A Loss of Voting Rights
  • Laws created to keep African Americans in Georgia
    from voting - Disfranchisement
  • Grandfather clause only those men whose fathers
    or grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1867
    could vote
  • Poll tax a tax paid to vote
  • Voters had to own property
  • Voters had to pass a literacy test (which was
    determined by the poll worker and could be
    different for different people)
  • Gerrymandering election districts drawn up to
    divide the African American voters

Race Riots in Atlanta
  • 1906 various newspapers wrote reports of black
    violence against white.
  • Two-day riot began with over 5,000 people
  • Martial law military forces used to control
  • 21 people killed hundreds wounded
  • Lots of property damage
  • Racial Violence was used to keep African American
    from exercising their rights.
  • The Great Migration African Americans moved
    North because of Racial Violence

African Americans Organize
  • NAACP (1909) worked for the rights of African
  • W.E.B. DuBois left Atlanta to work for the NAACP
    in New York
  • National Urban League formed in 1910
  • Worked to solve social problems of African
    Americans in cities
  • Assisted people moving from rural South to urban

The Trial of Leo Frank
  • 1913 man accused of killing a 14-year-old
    employee, Mary Phagan in Atlanta
  • Mr. Frank was a Jewish man from New York
  • Little evidence against Mr. Frank, but he was
    convicted and sentenced to death
  • Governor Slaton changed death sentence to life
  • Armed men took Frank from the prison, and he was
  • White supremacist Ku Klux Klan reborn as a result

Click to return to Table of Contents.
Business in Georgia
  • 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition
  • 800,000 visitors in three months
  • designed to show economic recovery in the South
  • encouraged investments in southern businesses

  • Famous Atlanta department store
  • Started in 1867 by Morris Rich
  • Known as a store with heart
  • took farmers produce in payment
  • took teachers scrip as money during the Great
  • Grew to be a regional shopping chain

  • Invented in Atlanta in 1885 by John S. Pemberton
    as tonic
  • Business purchased and expanded by Asa Candler
  • Sold company in 1919 for 25 million
  • Robert Woodruff grew company to billions of
    dollars in sales each year
  • Woodruff and Candler generous givers to worthy

World War I 1914-1918
Allied Powers Leading Countries Central Powers Leading Countries
France Great Britain Russia (United States joined in 1917) Germany Austria-Hungary
President Woodrow Wilson declared the US would be
a neutral country.
The United States Enters the War
  • President Wilson worked to keep the US out of the
  • 1915 German submarine sank passenger ship
    Lusitania killing 128 Americans
  • 1917 sub attacks resumed sinking American ships
  • Zimmerman telegram Germany tried to get Mexico
    to attack the US USA joined the Allied powers

Georgia and World War I
  • 100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US
    armed forces
  • Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort
    McPherson, and Camp Gordon helped Georgia economy
  • Georgians contributed manufactured goods and farm
  • 3,000 young Georgians killed in the war
  • Ended November 11, 1918

Atlanta Fire
  • May 21, 1917
  • Lasted 10-12 hours
  • Seventy city blocks destroyed
  • 6,000-10,000 people left homeless

Click to return to Table of Contents.