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PETE 406 - Underbalanced Drilling, UBD

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Can be purchased online from the SPE ($61.50 for members), IADC, and other Petroleum publishing ... Department of Petroleum Engineering ATM PETE 406 UBD ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PETE 406 - Underbalanced Drilling, UBD


1
PETE 406 - Underbalanced Drilling, UBD
  • Lesson 8
  • Introduction
  • Underbalanced Drilling Manual, UDM Chapter 1

2
Introduction
  • What is UBD
  • Why drill underbalanced
  • Techniques and Limitations
  • Historical perspectives

3
Text
  • Underbalanced Drilling Manual, Gas Research
    Institute, GRI, Chicago, 1997.
  • Can be purchased online from the SPE (61.50 for
    members), IADC, and other Petroleum publishing
    companies
  • May be able to get it at the TAMU bookstore

4
References
  • A project Management Approach To Underbalanced
    Operations, Signa Engineering Corp., Houston,
    1998.
  • Mudlite Air/Mist/Foam Hydraulics Model, Maurer
    Engineering Inc., Houston, 1988
  • Selected papers and texts

5
What is UBD
  • Wellbore pressures intentionally maintained
    below formation pressure in the open hole
    section.
  • Formation fluids flow into the well.

6
Additional Definitions
  • Flow (Live) operations
  • wellbore pressures maintained below formation
    pressure and the well is intentionally allowed to
    flow during drilling or completion operations

7
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Gasified Fluid Operations (aerated fluid
    operated)
  • Operations intentionally undertaken with a
    two-phase drilling fluid containing some form of
    gas mixed with a liquid phase.
  • Gasified fluids normally do not contain a
    surfactant

8
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Foam Operations
  • Operations intentionally undertaken with a
    two-phase drilling fluid containing some form of
    gas mixed with a liquid phase and tied together
    with a surfactant
  • The liquid phase is continuous

9
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Mist Operations
  • Intentionally drilling with a two-phase fluid
    having a gas as the continuous phase
  • The liquid in this fluid system is suspended in
    the mixture as droplets

10
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Air Operations
  • Intentionally drilling using a pure gas as the
    drilling fluid.
  • The gas can be air, nitrogen, natural gas, or any
    combination of gases

11
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Mudcap Operations
  • Operations undertaken when the annular pressure
    during flow drilling exceeds the safe pressure
    limit of the rotating control element.
  • Mudcap operations are not underbalanced
    operation, but often are a result of drilling
    underbalanced and employ many of the same
    techniques and equipment

12
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Snubbing Operations
  • An intentional operation that employs either a
    snubbing unit or coiled-tubing unit in order to
    operate at surface pressures that exceed the
    limits of rotating control elements such as
    rotating heads or rotating blowout preventers

13
Additional Definitions, cont
  • Coiled-tubing drilling
  • Use of a continuous-spool of pipe to drill with
    instead of the conventional jointed drillpipe.
  • CT units were originally designed to operate on
    live wells with surface pressure, without the
    requirement that the well be killed prior to
    entering the wellbore.

14
Historical perspectives
  • UBD operations are as old as the drilling
    industry
  • First wells were drilled with cable tool
  • Cable tool drilling was underbalanced

15
Historical perspectives
  • In 1866 a patent for air drilling was issued
  • First recorded use of a gasified fluid was in
    West Texas in 1932

16
Historical perspectives
  • In 1938 mist was used by The Texas Company to
    drill in California.
  • Natural gas was continuous phase and oil was the
    liquid phase

17
Historical perspectives
  • Interest dropped off using gas as a drilling
    fluid until the 1950s in
  • Canada
  • West and Central Texas
  • Utah
  • San Juan Basin of New Mexico

18
Historical perspectives
Natural Gas drilling in West Texas
19
Historical perspectives
Early Air Compressors used in air drilling
20
Historical perspectives
In the 1960s, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
began to study the use of foams to clean
wellbores as large as 60 in diameter
21
Historical perspectives
  • Until the mid 1980s UBD was just a niche
    industry, and only utilized in certain areas
    around the world

22
Historical perspectives
Mid 1980s Horizontal Drilling Became Fairly
Common (Plot is for three companies)
23
Growth in Horizontal Drilling spurred the
resurgence in UBD (US operations)
24
Until 1987 the maximum working pressure rating of
rotating heads was was 150-300 psi. RBOP was
developed with a working pressure of 1000 psi
Rotating control Devices
25
More equipment development
  • 1995 Varco-Shaffer introduced an RBOP with a
    rated to 3000 psi

26
Closed loop system
Allows re-use of the drilling fluids in foam
systems environmentally friendly
27
Nitrogen Generation System
28
Electromagnetic MWD Tools
29
Hollow Glass Spheres
30
Factors leading to increased UBD
  • Horizontal drilling
  • Closed systems
  • High-pressure rotating control devices
  • Electromagnetic MWD systems
  • HP HV compressors
  • Increased availability of Nitrogen
  • Better reservoir and rock strength analysis
  • Improved Hydraulics analysis
  • Percussion tools
  • Ability to re-circulate fluids

31
(No Transcript)
32
End of Lesson 8a
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