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Renaissance

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The Protestant Reformation - Welcome to iBlog – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 30 October 2019
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Title: Renaissance


1
Renaissance Reformation
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Italian City-States
  • Renaissance means Rebirth
  • Italy was the center of the Roman Empire
  • Wealthy merchant class, who played a role in
    politics
  • Medici family
  • Wealthy banking family that were patrons to the
    arts
  • Controlled Florence

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What Was The Renaissance
  • Time of creativity change
  • People wanted a rebirth after the medieval ages
  • Humanism was at the heart of the ren.
  • Education focused more on poetry, history,
    grammar rhetoric
  • Francesco Petrarch built a library of Greek
    Roman manuscripts

6
Golden Age in the Arts
  • Humanists art portrays religious figures well
    known people
  • Perspective technique
  • Women had a hard time becoming artists
  • Architecture changed from gothic to more Roman
    styles

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Three Geniuses of Renaissance Art
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Inventor, painter
  • Dissected human corpses sketched it
  • Michelangelo
  • Painter
  • Painted the Sistine Chapel
  • Raphael
  • Painter
  • School of Athens

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Italian Renaissance Writers
  • Baldassare Castiglione
  • Writes the How To book, Book of the Courtier
  • Describes how to become a well-mannered, educated
    aristocrat
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Writes The Prince
  • Urged rulers to use any means necessary to
    achieve power

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Artists of the Northern Renaissance
  • Albrecht Durer
  • German Leonardo, brought ren. To Germany
  • Engraver

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Northern Humanists
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Dutch Priest
  • Had the Bible translated into Greek vernacular
  • Thomas More
  • Pressed social reform
  • Writes Utopia describes a perfect society

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Writers for a New Audience
  • William Shakespeare
  • English Poet Playwright
  • Romeo Juliet
  • Miguel de Cervantes
  • Spain
  • Don Quixote

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Printing Revolution
  • Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press
  • Bible is mass produced

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Abuses In The Church
  • Popes tried to rule everything
  • Fought for power against Nobles Monarchs
  • Lavish Lifestyles
  • Sold indulgences to fund the church
  • Promised it would lessen the time spent in
    purgatory

24
Luthers Protest
  • 1517 people are fed up with church corruption
  • Led by Martin Luther a German monk professor of
    theology
  • Johann Tetzel selling indulgences in Wittenberg
    to rebuild the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome
  • Claimed contributions would ensure salvation for
    you your dead relatives
  • Luther nails 95 theses to the doors of
    Wittenbergs All Saints Church

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Luther vs. the Church
  • Luthers arguments
  • Only be saved by faith
  • Pope has no control over the afterlife
  • Indulgences are not in the Bible
  • Church needs to be reformed
  • Catholic Church demands Luther recants or be
    excommunicated
  • Luther refuses is excommunicated

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Luther vs. the Church
  • Luther is summoned by Holy Roman Emperor, Charles
    V
  • Asked to recant, refuses is declared an outlaw
  • All writing are illegal
  • Aiding Luther is illegal
  • Hid in a castle in Wartburg for a year
  • Becomes a hero in Germany

28
Luthers Teachings
  • Good deeds do not get you into heaven, faith
    alone
  • Bible is the sole source of religious truth not
    the clergy
  • Clergy does not have special powers everyone
    has access to God
  • Translates Bible to German
  • Rejected the sacraments of indulgences,
    confession, pilgrimages, prayers to saints
  • Clergy can marry, mass focuses on sermon
  • Lutheran Church

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Spread of Lutheran Ideas
  • Printing press help to spread Luthers ideas
  • Protestant, protest papal authority
  • Many saw Luthers ideas as a way to fix Church
    corruption
  • Some saw it as a way overthrow the Church the
    Holy Roman Empire
  • National Loyalty in Germany

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The Peasants Revolt
  • Peasants support Luthers ideas in hope of his
    support for social economic change
  • 1524 Peasants Revolt sweeps across Germany
  • Demanded end of serfdom
  • Luther denounces it helps the nobles to
    suppress the rebellion
  • Tens of thousands killed

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Peace of Augsburg
  • 1555 Treaty between Charles V Lutheran princes
  • Allowed each prince to decide the religion of the
    land that they owned

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John Calvin
  • Works with Ulrich Zwingli towards reforming the
    church
  • Born in France a priest lawyer
  • Same ideas as Luther
  • Predestination
  • Calvin runs a theocracy in Geneva
  • Built a model community

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Zwingli Calvin
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Calvinism Spreads
  • Reformers from Europe visited Geneva were
    impressed
  • Dutch Reformed Church organized
  • Scottish Protestants overthrow their Catholic
    Queen

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The English Reformation
  • Henry VIII went to the Pope to seek an annulment
  • Catherine of Aragon had not provided Henry VIII
    w/ an heir to the throne
  • Henry VIII went to the Pope for to annul his
    marriage was denied
  • The Pope did want to offend Charles V Catherines
    cousin

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The English Reformation
  • Henry was furious
  • Henry took control of the Church of England the
    Pope lost all power in England
  • Act of Supremacy made Henry the only supreme
    head on Earth of the Church of England
  • Any Catholic who refused to accept the Act were
    executed

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The English Reformation
  • Henry gained many lands money from corrupt
    convents monasteries
  • Henry would die his 10 year old son Edward VI
    became king
  • Edwards advisors passed many Protestant laws
  • Edward died in his teens Mary Tudor became
    queen
  • She wanted England to be Catholic burned
    Protestants at the stake

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The English Reformation
  • Queen Elizabeth comes to power
  • Elizabethan settlement passes several compromises
    between Catholics Protestants
  • Church services kept Catholic traditions
  • Monarchy is still head of church
  • Accepted Protestant Doctrine

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Catholic Reformation
  • Pope Paul III saw the need to reform the Catholic
    Church
  • Wanted to end church corruption
  • Council of Trent
  • Salvation comes through good works faith
  • Bible not the only source of truth
  • Est. schools
  • Fined corrupt clergy

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Catholic Reformation
  • Inquisition
  • Used secret testimony, torture, execution to stop
    heresy
  • Banned books

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Widespread Persecution
  • Catholics Protestants fought constantly
  • Witch Hunts would accuse people of being agents
    of the devil would be burned at the stake
  • Jews were pushed out of many placed migrated
    towards Poland

43
Changes in Views of the Universe
  • Nicolaus Copernicus proposes his heliocentric
    theory
  • Many reject it Copernicus is shunned
  • Tycho Brahe Johanes Kepler helped prove the
    heliocentric theory
  • Galileo builds a telescope discovers the
    planets in orbit
  • The Catholic Church forces him to rebuke his
    finding for fear of death

44
New Scientific Method
  • Scientific Method is created
  • Scientists must now confirm their findings
  • No one can make a claim w/out proof

45
Isaac Newton
  • Isaac Newton discovers gravity
  • Newtons Laws of Motion
  • Also developed calculus

46
Scientific Advances
  • Chemistry started to break away from alchemy
  • Robert Boyle distinguished between individual
    elements chemical compounds
  • Also explained the effect temperature had on
    pressure gas

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Scientific Advances
  • Andreas Vesalius published the 1st detailed book
    on human anatomy
  • Ambroise Pare develops a disinfectant stitches
  • Anthony van Leeuwenhoek invents the 1st microscope
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