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Immigration & Urbanization Section 1: Renewed Immigration The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immigration

Immigration Urbanization
  • Section 1 Renewed Immigration

The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus
  • Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled
    masses yearning to breathe free
  • Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor-Gift from
    France (1884)
  • Ultimate symbol of freedom for new immigrants

Through the Golden Door
  • Millions of immigrants entered into the U.S. in
    the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lured by
    the promise of a better life

  • Old Immigration
  • 1840s 1890s
  • Most from Western Northern Europe
  • Ireland
  • England
  • Germany
  • Scandinavia

  • New Immigration
  • Mainly 1890 1910
  • Most from Southern Eastern Europe
  • Italy
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Poland
  • Russia

  • Why did so many Europeans leave their homelands?

  • Immigrants sought to escape difficult conditions
  • Famine
  • Ireland-Irish Potato Famine (1845-52)
  • Land shortages
  • Religious/political persecution
  • Birds of Passage
  • People who intended to stay temporarily to earn
    money before returning to their homelands

  • Russian Jews
  • Left to escape religious persecution following
    Russian Revolution of 1917
  • Pogroms
  • Organized attacks often encouraged by local

  • Population
  • Between 1800-1900, Europes population doubled to
    400 million
  • Increase caused a scarcity of farm land
  • Farmers competed with laborers for few industrial

Chinese Japanese
  • Many Asians came to the West Coast between
  • Came to seek mining fortunes in gold (1849-50
    Gold Rush)
  • Helped build American railroads
  • Transcontinental railroad
  • After the railroads, many turned to farming,
    mining, domestic service (laundry)

West Indies Mexico
  • Immigrants from the islands of Jamaica, Cuba,
    Puerto Rico came to the U.S. due to a scarcity
    of jobs
  • 1902, Congress passes the National Reclamation
  • Encouraged the irrigation of arid land to create
    new farmland
  • Reclamation Act drew Mexican farm workers
    northward into the Southwestern U.S.

A Difficult Journey
  • Immigrants came to the U.S. by steamship
  • European immigrants trip across the Atlantic for
    about 1 week
  • Asian immigrants trip across the Pacific took
    about 3 weeks

  • Many traveled in ships cargo holds
  • Conditions on board
  • Often crowded
  • Gloomy, moist
  • Rarely allowed on deck for fresh air
  • Unable to exercise
  • Lice/rodent infested
  • Shared toilets
  • Diseases spread quickly

Ellis Island
  • Immigration station in New York Harbor
  • Detained about 2 days for inspection
  • Physical examination
  • Serious/contagious diseases sent home
  • Legal requirements
  • Documents criminal background
  • Prove their worth
  • Ability to work
  • At least 25

Angel Island
  • Immigration station in San Francisco
  • Asians experienced harsher treatment
  • Detained for weeks
  • Held in filthy buildings
  • Dorms were usually packed with three tiered bunks
  • Waited for immigration inspectors to admit/reject

Cooperation for Survival
  • Once in the U.S., many immigrants faced many
  • Place to live
  • Work
  • Language
  • Culture
  • Religion, Customs

Cooperation for Survival
  • Ethnic communities started to develop
  • Chinatown, Little Italy, Jewish Quarter
  • Immigrants pooled their money
  • Built churches or synagogues
  • Formed social clubs mutual aid societies
  • Published newspapers in native languages

Cooperation for Survival
  • As immigrants tried to adapt, they came to think
    of themselves as hyphenated Americans
  • Polish-Americans
  • Italian-Americans
  • Chinese-Americans
  • Caused native-born Americans to see immigrants a
    threat to the American way of life

Immigration Restrictions
  • As waves of immigrants increased, feelings of
    nativism grew
  • Nativism
  • Preference for native-born people a desire to
    limit immigration
  • Focused on ethnic background and also religious
  • Targeted Catholics, Jews
  • Felt they would undermine the Protestant
    foundation of the U.S.

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Immigration Restrictions
  • Nativists organized, forming two major
    anti-immigrant groups
  • American Protective Association (1887)
  • Founder Henry Bowers
  • Northeast Midwest
  • Aim Hault Catholic immigration
  • Workingmans Party of California (1870s)
  • Founder Denis Kearney
  • The West
  • Aim Stop Chinese immigration

Immigration Restrictions
  • Congress acted to pass anti-immigration
  • Banned convicts, paupers, mentally disabled
  • Placed a .50 head tax on each newcomer
  • Also passed the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
  • First legislation to ban a specific group
  • Banned entry to most Chinese with certain
    exceptions teachers, students, merchants,
    tourist, government officials

Gentlemens Agreement
  • Anti-Chinese sentiment was transferred to the
  • San Franciscos Board of Education began
    segregating Japanese children
  • Japan protested the decision President Teddy
    Roosevelt negotiated a deal with Japan
  • Gentlemans Agreement (1907)
  • Japan agreed to end immigration to the
    continental U.S. as long as the U.S. agreed to
    allow the wives, parents, children of residents
    to enter and also to repeal school segregation

Section 2 Challenges of Urbanization
Urban Opportunities
  • Urbanization
  • Rapid growth of cities mostly in the regions of
    the Northeast Midwest
  • Rural to urban movement
  • Increase services problems
  • Housing
  • Transportation
  • Water
  • Sanitation
  • Crime
  • Fire

Immigrants Settle in Cities
  • Why did people move to the cities?
  • Cities offered a cheap convenient place to live
  • Lived close to work
  • Cities offered unskilled workers steady jobs in
    mills and factories

Immigrants Settle in Cities
  • Americanization movement
  • Designed to assimilate people in American culture
  • Schools provided programs to teach immigrants
    skills needed for citizenship
  • English literacy
  • American history government
  • Social etiquette were also part of the curriculum
  • Cooking, manners

Migration from Country to City
  • Rapid improvements in farming was one reason
    city populations grew
  • Invention of McCormick reaper steel plow made
    farming more efficient
  • Fewer farm laborers were needed to work the land
  • Farmers could put more land under cultivation

Migration from Country to City
  • African-Americans moved North West
  • Moved to Chicago Detroit to escape
  • Racial violence
  • Economic hardship
  • Political oppression
  • segregation

Urban Problems
  • Ghettos-sections of a city occupied by minority
    groups (aka immigrants) who live there due to
    social, economic, and legal pressure
  • Housing-working class families in cities had two
    housing options
  • Buy a house on the outskirts of town face
    transportation problems
  • Rent cramped rooms in a boardinghouse in the
    central city

Urban Problems
  • Housing
  • As population increased, new types of houses were
  • Row houses
  • Single family dwellings that shared side walls
    with other similar houses
  • Tenements
  • Single family dwellings that multiple families
  • Low rent apts. Which met minimum standards
  • Problems with sanitation, plumbing, ventilation

Urban Problems
  • Transportation
  • Mass transit
  • System of transportation designed to move large
    numbers of people along fixed routes
  • Subways, Streetcars,
  • Busses
  • Allowed workers to live in outlying communities
    to commute to work

Urban Problems
  • Water
  • Supplying safe drinking water was a problem for
    most cities
  • As populations grew, many residents had no water
  • People had to collect water in pails from faucets
    located on the street
  • Disease presented a greater problem
  • Cholera and typhoid fever
  • Two ways to make drinking water safer
  • Filtration, Chlorination

Urban Problems
  • Sanitation
  • As cities grew, the challenge of keeping them
    clean increased
  • Horse manure piled up in streets
  • Sewage flowed through city streets
  • Smoke from factories spewed into the air
  • Garbage piled up on the streets
  • To combat sanitation cities hired sanitation
    workers to collect garbage and clean outhouses

Urban Problems
  • Crime
  • Pickpockets and thieves
  • Preyed on immigrants
  • New York City became the first major metropolitan
    area to hire a full-time salaried police force
  • The units were usually too small to have an impact

Urban Problems
  • Fire
  • Why was fire such a problem?
  • Limited supply of a water
  • Buildings made from wood
  • Used kerosene or candles
  • Volunteer firefighters were not always available
  • To combat the fire threat
  • Cincinnati, Ohio established the nations first
    paid fire department
  • Change in building codes
  • Sprinkler systems
  • Used brick, stone or concrete as a building

Settlement House Movement
  • Social Gospel Movement
  • Preached salvation through service to the poor
  • Established settlement houses
  • Community centers in slum neighborhoods that
    provided assistance to immigrants
  • Sent nurses to homes of sick
  • Provided classes in English, health, painting
  • Jane Addams
  • Established Hull House in Chicago