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Unit 6

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Unit 6 Fitness Testing for Sport & Exercise Introduction This unit will introduce you to health screening and fitness testing for sport and health purposes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 6


1
Unit 6 Fitness Testing for Sport Exercise
2
Introduction
  • This unit will introduce you to health screening
    and fitness testing for sport and health
    purposes. You will learn how to select and
    administer specific fitness tests relevant to a
    sport of your choice. After familiarising
    yourself with a number of tests, you will develop
    the skills to examine and interpret the results,
    enabling you to suggest changes to training to
    develop certain aspects of fitness to enhance
    your sports performance
  • You will experience a range of fitness tests that
    could be used to test elite performers.
  • After completing this unit you will be able to
  • Understand a range of laboratory based and
    field based fitness tests
  • Understand the practice of health screening
  • Be able to prepare for, and conduct, appropriate
    fitness tests
  • Be able to analyse the results of fitness tests

3
Components of fitness
  • Fitness is important to an athlete for the
    following reasons
  • It can improve your physical performance
  • You can recover from training and competition
    more quickly
  • You will be less likely to pick up an injury
  • You may have better technique as you will not
    become tired so quickly
  • You will enjoy having lots of energy and being
    able to train and compete successfully

4
Introduction to fitness testing
  • There are several reasons why fitness testing may
    be performed. The main aim of fitness testing is
    to develop knowledge and understanding of the
    exercise capabilities of humans. Fitness testing
    is common practice in many sports.
  • Fitness testing can be used in several ways
  • Identify strengths and areas for improvement
    relative to the physical demands of your sport
  • Modifications to training programmes can be made
    using the fitness testing data
  • Provide feedback to coaches and athletes
  • To educate athletes of the effects of training
  • Setting short term goals for the improvement of
    fitness, the testing is used as a motivating tool

5
Environmental factors
  • Fitness testing outdoors can be problematic if
    the weather conditions are poor. This type of
    testing often requires a back up plan if
    conditions are extreme such as heavy rain or high
    winds. High temperatures combined with high
    humidity can impair endurance performance and
    pose health risks. If tests are completed under
    different conditions this will affect the results
    and any changes in your results could be due to a
    fitness change or the testing conditions. It is
    important to note down the conditions such as
    temperature, wind and surface conditions so there
    is a written record of the testing session.
  • The surface used to test on can significantly
    affect results. If the test is performed outside
    on a football pitch for one session and then the
    re-test in administered in a sports hall with a
    concrete surface the results will be very
    different, even if there is no change to an
    individuals or teams fitness level.

6
Capability of testers and testing error
  • Tester experience and ability can have a large
    impact on the test results. It is essential that
    testers assist qualified experienced testers
    until they are proficient in the testing
    protocols. Inaccurate recording or interpreting
    of data affects the reliability of the test.
  • One significant factor for laboratory and field
    testing is an athletes level of motivation.
    During maximal tests a player is required to push
    himself/herself to exhaustion, often feeling
    extremely fatigued and nauseous. There may also
    be external factors that could affect athletes
    such as coaches being present during the test.

7
Test Criteria
  • For fitness testing to be accurate you need to
    think about the following
  • Reliability
  • Can the test be repeated and reproduced exactly
  • A test is reliable if the results are consistent
    and repeatable over time. Reliability refers to
    the precision of a test which should have a high
    level of accuracy. Fitness tests can become
    unreliable if there are variations within the
    test that affect the result rather than the
    changes in an individual
  • Validity
  • Validity refers to whether a test actually
    assesses what is intended. The following points
    should be considered
  • Does the test measure exactly what you want it to
    measure For example, a 10m sprint will not give
    you an indication of a persons top speed
  • The fitness test must reflect the form of
    exercise that is being assessed. If you are
    fitness testing a rugby player the tests must
    reflect the demands of the game
  • The muscle groups that are used during a sport
    and range of movement should be reflected in the
    fitness test
  • The energy systems required for a sport
  • The speed of movement and duration of the event

8
Criteria Continued
  • Relevance
  • Does the test give the information specifically
    wanted For example an endurance test performed on
    a treadmill is more relevant to a footballer than
    a swimmer
  • Tests must be sports specific relevant to the
    sport you play

9
Fitness tests
  • Anthropometric tests
  • Stature
  • The common method for measuring the height of an
    individual is by using a stadiometer.
  • Aim To measure the height of an individual
  • Equipment
  • Stadiometer
  • Protocol
  • Individuals are required to be bare foot and
    stand with their feet together with their heels,
    buttocks and upper part of the back touching the
    scale. The tester must ensure the subject is
    looking straight forward. The tester then lowers
    the head board and places it firmly on the
    subjects head. The floor surface must be hard and
    level.
  • Advantages Reliable test that can be repeated
    with minimal testing error
  • Disadvantages Need to perform the test at the
    same time as the spine shrinks slightly during
    the day

10
Body Mass
  • Aim To assess body mass
  • Equipment
  • Balance beam or electronic scales
  • Protocol
  • Body mass must be assessed with minimal clothing.
    This means underwear only.
  • The most accurate method is nude weighing
    however this is often not practical. To overcome
    these clothes that are going to be worn can be
    weighed prior to the test and their weight
    subtracted from the mass of the subject.
  • Body mass fluctuates throughout the day so the
    test must be administered at the same time of
    day.
  • Advantages Minimal inexpensive equipment.
  • Disadvantages Body mass can fluctuate throughout
    the day the test needs to be administered at the
    same time.

11
Problems with BMI
  • The BMI scale is
  • old,
  • inadequate,
  • invalid for most individuals.
  • BMI is based on the assumption that
  • everyone is of the same frame size, which
  • is obviously not the case.
  • This is not to say that body fat is not
  • important, because it is, but you shouldnt
  • use the BMI scale to decide a target weight.

12
Body Composition
  • Body composition provides an indication of
    individuals fat levels. There are a number of
    methods to assess body composition.
  • Skinfold measurements this method requires the
    tester to use callipers to take measurements on
    different locations around the body. The tester
    locates these points from specific bone and joint
    definitions. These points are called landmarks.
    The accurate locating of the landmarks requires a
    good knowledge of anatomy to be able to locate
    the same point on the body for each test. Using
    the callipers the tester pinches the skin and fat
    beneath the surface and places the callipers over
    this fold to take the reading.

13
Skin Fold Measurements
  • Aim To assess how much of the body mass is fat.
  • Body fat is vital to daily body functions it
    cushions the joints and protects the organs,
    helps regulate body temperature, stores vitamins
    and helps the body sustain itself when food is
    scarce. Everyone needs some body fat to be active
    and healthy.
  • Most people think that body weight, and not body
    fat, is a direct indication of fitness. Yet
    during a diet and exercise regime, whilst a
    persons weight may vary their body fat will
    decline in a slow but steady rate to the desired
    level.
  • Equipment
  • Skinfold calipersTape measure
  • Advantages Quick test to administer with
    relatively inexpensive equipment
  • Disadvantages Large degree of measurement error
    in the tester is inexperienced

14
Bioelectrical Impedance
  • Aim To assess fat mass and lean muscle tissue
  • This method measures body composition by sending
    a low, safe electrical current through the body.
    The current passes freely through the fluids
    contained in muscle tissue, but encounters
    difficulty/resistance when it passes through fat
    tissue. This resistance of the fat tissue to the
    current is termed 'bioelectrical impedance'.
  • Protocol
  • The subject lies on his/her back on a
    non-conducting surface, with legs apart and arms
    away from the body.
  • A pair of electrodes is placed on the hand and
    wrist, and another pair placed on the ankle and
    foot (usually opposite sides of the body). The
    equipment is generally quite expensive but a good
    alternative to skinfolds, especially if the
    tester is not very experienced. It is important
    to follow the exact instructions of the
    bioelectrical impedance machine as models and
    instructions vary slightly.
  • Advantages Non-invasive test and easy to
    administer with minimal training or experience
    required
  • Disadvantages Results can be affected by the
    hydration status of an individual

15
Anaerobic Power
  • Vertical jump
  • Aim to assess leg power
  • Equipment
  • A wall mounted board marked in centimetres
    ranging in height from 150cm to 350cm
  • A piece of chalk Jump mat if available
  • The subject stands with the preferred body side
    to the wall with the soles of the feet remaining
    on the floor and reaches as high as possible up
    the wall, making a short horizontal mark with the
    chalk
  • Still holding the chalk/magnet and standing side
    on to the wall, the subject then crouches, and
    jumps as high as possible - the chalk mark is
    placed at the highest point.
  • Arm swings, prior to jumping, are allowed.
  • A total of 3 attempts is made, each being
    recorded
  • Total height jumped is the difference in cm
    between the first mark and the highest mark after
    the jump.
  • Advantages Easily administered, inexpensive
    portable equipment
  • Disadvantages Not always sports specific action,
    technique can affect the results

16
Vertical Jump Test
- Using Chalk
Using Jump Mat
17
Strength
  • Handgrip strength test
  • Aim To measure hand grip strength
  • Equipment
  • Handgrip dynamometer
  • Procedure
  • The subject grips the dynamometer vertically
    above the head. When ready the subject grips as
    hard as possible while moving the arm forward to
    the count of three.
  • The arm remains locked and straight at the elbow
    throughout the grip manoeuvre. Repeat test with
    other hand.
  • Advantages Quick to administer with minimal
    inexpensive equipment
  • Disadvantages May not be sports specific

18
Speed
  • 40 Metre sprint test
  • Aim To measure speed
  • Equipment
  • A measured 40 metre flat running surface. Two
    stopwatches or automated timing lights
  • Procedure
  • Arrange subjects on the starting line. It may be
    best to test individually rather than as large
    groups. Infra-red beam sensors are available for
    automatic timing which will allow accurate timing
    of larger groups of people.
  • Subjects use a standing start with leading foot
    behind the starting line.
  • The starting command is "Ready"..."Go"!
  • On the command "Go", the subject sprints as fast
    as possible through to the finish line.
  • For hand-held timing the timer starts the watch
    on the arm movement of the starter and stops the
    watch as the subject's chest crosses the
    finishing line. Automatic timing lights should be
    aligned so that they are exactly 40m apart.
  • Time is measured to at least one hundredth of a
    second.
  • Subjects should have two attempts with
    approximately 2 - 5 minutes recovery period.
  • Advantages Sports specific test and easy to
    administer
  • Disadvantages Can be affected by weather
    conditions if performed outdoors. Timing
    systems can be very expensive

19
Flexibility
  • Sit and reach test
  • Aim To measure flexibility of the lower back and
    hamstrings.
  • Equipment
  • A sit and reach boxA ruler
  • Set-up
  • Rest the sit-and-reach box against a wall.
  • Advantages Easily administered with inexpensive
    equipment
  • Disadvantages Measures specific hamstring and
    lower back, and does not indicate where an
    individual may have a potential problem

20
Muscular Endurance
  • Sit-up test
  • Aim To assess the muscular endurance of the
    trunk and hip flexors.
  • Equipment
  • A gymnastic mat or carpeted floor
  • Starting position
  • Hook lying position (knees 90 degrees), fingers
    beside the ears. Feet are held to the floor by
    the tester.
  • Modified sit ups
  • Aim To assess the endurance of the hip and trunk
    flexor muscles. It is suitable for subjects who
    are unable to perform the standard sit-up test.
  • Advantages Can be performed with minimal
    equipment
  • Disadvantages Measures specific core muscles and
    this may not be sports specific

21
Muscular Endurance
  • Press up test
  • Aim To assess the muscular endurance of the
    elbow extensors and shoulder flexors.
  • This test is suitable for those aged over 15
    years old.
  • Starting position
  • Arms straight, hand directly under the shoulders,
    legs straight, feet together with toes supporting
    the legs. The body is straight from the
    shoulders, through the hips to the heels.
  • Procedure
  • Lower the nose or chin to the mat, keeping the
    straight body position. Return to the starting
    position (no other part of the body is to touch
    the floor). This counts as one repetition.
  • Count the number of repetitions performed in 60
    seconds.
  • Advantages administered with inexpensive
    equipment
  • Disadvantages Can not be performed with junior
    athletes

22
Aerobic Endurance
  • The multi-stage 20 metre shuttle run test (Beep
    Test)
  • Aim To measure endurance and maximum oxygen
    uptake
  • Equipment/facility
  • A flat non-slip surface of at least 22 metres in
    length - tennis courts are useful for this test
    Measuring tape (gt 20 metres) Masking tape
    Marker cones Stopwatch Cassette / CD player
    Multi stage fitness test tape or CD
  • Advantages Sports specific for football and easy
    to administer with large groups
  • Disadvantages Individuals need to be highly
    motivated to push themselves to exhaustion

23
Aerobic endurance
  • 2.4k run
  • Aim To measure endurance and maximal oxygen
    uptake
  • Equipment
  • A 200 to 400 metre athletic track or suitable
    firm, even running surface (preferably
    grass)Stopwatch. Several assistants may be
    required.
  • Protocol
  • The subject should complete pre-exercise
    screening questionnaire and consent forms.
  • Allow 10 minutes to warm up and include
    stretching exercises.
  • Encourage subjects to do their best but also
    watch for signs of distress, when subjects need
    to slow down and possibly walk for a while.
  • Time subjects as they complete the 2.4 km
    distance.
  • Advise subjects to keep walking for 5 minutes as
    soon as they finish the test followed by
    stretching exercises.

24
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25
Treadmill VO2 max Test
  • Objective
  • To monitor the development of the athlete's
    general endurance (VO2 max).
  • Required Resources
  • To undertake this test you will require
  • Treadmill where speed and grade of slope can be
    adjusted
  • Stop watch
  • An assistant
  • How to conduct the test
  • The athlete runs on a treadmill to exhaustion. At
    timed stages during the run the slope of the
    treadmill is increased as detailed in the table
    below.
  • Time At minute intervals during the test the
    slope of the treadmill is adjusted.
  • The assistant starts the stopwatch at the start
    of the test and stops it when the athlete is
    unable to continue - this ideally should be
    between 9 and 15 minutes.
  • "Time" is the total time of the test expressed in
    minutes and fractions of a minute.
  • Example
  • The athlete stopped the test after 13 minutes 15
    seconds of running (13.25 minutes).
  • VO2 max 42 (13.25 2)
  • Vo2 max 68.5 mls/kg/min
  • Target Group
  • This test is suitable for endurance athletes and
    players of endurance sports (e.g. football,
    rugby) but not for individuals where the test
    would be contraindicated.
  • Reliability
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