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Literary Elements

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Literary Elements The foundations of literature Literary elements: Figurative language Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Literary Elements


1
Literary Elements
  • The foundations of literature

2
Literary elements Diction and Dialect
  • Dialect is variation of a given language spoken
    in a particular place or by a particular group of
    people. A dialect is distinguished by its
    vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
  • If were only talking about pronunciation, we
    usually use the term accent.
  • Dilalect is applied most often to regional speech
    patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by
    other factors, such as social class.
  • Diction involves a writers selection of
    language.
  • Diction may be described as formal or informal,
    abstract or concrete, figurative or literal.

3
Literary elements Symbolism and setting
  • Setting particular time, environment, and place
    in which events occur.
  • Symbols used in literature are objects used to
    represent other things or ideas. Setting often
    serves as a symbol.
  • Authors include symbolism in their stories to
    give the stories deeper meaning objects, people,
    places, or events that stand for something
    broader than themselves, such as an idea or
    emotion.
  • Symbols are all around us
  • Hearts symbolize love, caring.
  • The American flag symbolizes the United States of
    America.
  • The Trojan Head downstairs symbolizes pride and
    strength.

4
Literary elements Irony
  • Irony is the contrast between what is expected
    and what actually exists or happens. Three types
    of irony include
  • Situational irony the contrast between what a
    character or the reader expects to happen and
    what actually happens.
  • Verbal irony occurs when someone says one thing
    but means another (a common form is sarcasm).
  • Dramatic irony the contrast between what a
    character knows and what the reader or audience
    knows.

5
Literary elements Irony
  • Verbal irony
  • In The Lottery Old Man Warner says, The next
    thing you know people will want to go back to
    living in caves.
  • The irony in that statement is that Warner thinks
    without the lottery, people will become primitive
    even though the lottery is as primitive of a
    ritual as there is.
  • Situational irony
  • The lottery is conducted on a bright, sunny day
    by a man named Summers. However, this
    effervescent setting belies the dark task of the
    day and the dark side of human nature.
  • Dramatic irony
  • The characters know that the winner of the
    lottery is actually the loser. The reader doesnt
    know this until the first stone is thrown.

6
Literary elements Theme
  • Theme is what is revealed about human life or
    human nature. It reveals something that we can
    often relate to.
  • Although it is usually unstated, it gives a story
    meaning.
  • Theme can reveal an authors whole view of life.
  • Theme is not a storys plot or the storys
    subject It is an idea.
  • It gives us insight into some aspect of life we
    have never really thought about before, or it may
    make us understand on an emotional level.

7
Literary elements Theme
  • General guidelines for discovering theme
  • We must use at least one complete sentence to
    state a theme, rather than just a phrase, such as
    the joy of childhood.
  • A theme is not the same as a moral. So ask
    yourself, What does this story reveal? rather
    than What does this story teach?
  • One way to determine a theme is to ask how the
    main character (protagonist) changes during the
    story.
  • Also, consider the storys title. It often will
    hint at the meaning of the story.
  • A theme should not refer to specific characters
    or events in a story. It should be something
    about life or human nature that is general enough
    for the reader to relate to.
  • Theme should explain the whole story, not just a
    part of it.

8
Literary elements
  • Suspense
  • The element of plot that makes the reader want
    to read on to find out what happens. The reader
    usually experiences suspense when he or she is
    worried about whether a character will succeed in
    overcoming conflict. Setting often helps
    establish suspense.

9
Literary elements
  • Tone
  • The attitude the writer takes toward the
    subject he or she is writing about. Just as we
    reveal our attitude by our tone of voice when we
    are speaking, so writers show their attitude
    (tone) by their writing style. A tone can be
    pessimistic, optimistic, earnest, serious,
    bitter, humorous, joyful, melancholy, nostalgic,
    etc.

10
Literary elements
  • Tone can often help determine mood
  • Mood is the climate of  feeling in a literary
    work. The choice of setting, objects, details,
    images, and words all contribute toward creating
    a specific mood. For example, the moods evoked by
    the more popular short stories of Edgar Allen Poe
    tend to be gloomy, horrific, and desperate.
  • An author may create a mood of mystery around a
    character or setting but may treat that character
    or setting in an ironic, serious, or humorous
    tone.

11
Literary Elements Foreshadowing
  • Foreshadowing employs hints given by the writer
    about something that will happen later in the
    story.
  • Foreshadowing increases the readers feeling of
    suspense the excitement or tension that readers
    feel as they get involved in a story and become
    eager to know the outcome.

12
Literary elements Flashback
  • A flashback is an account of a conversation,
    episode, or event that happened before the
    beginning of a story.
  • It often interrupts the chronological flow of a
    story to give information that can help readers
    understand a characters present situation.

13
Literary elements Characterization
  • Characters The people (or animals) who take part
    in the action of a story.
  • Characterization The ways a writer develops the
    characters means of demonstrating who the
    character is.

14
Literary elements Characterization
  • In order to have a full understanding of the
    characters in a story, we may need a variety of
    information
  • Physical descriptions
  • Past history or experiences
  • Interactions with other people
  • Personality traits

15
Literary elements Characterization
  • This information can be provided in two ways
  • 1. Directly The author tells what the character
    is like, usually through description and simple
    statements.
  • 2. Indirectly The author shows what the
    character is like implies facts about the
    character through showing the character in his or
    her surroundings, allowing the character to
    demonstrate his or her characteristics.

16
Literary elements Characterization
  • In the indirect method, some devices include
  • Other characters comments and reactions to the
    main character
  • The main characters actions
  • Dialogue with other characters
  • Interaction with other characters
  • The main characters reaction to events and
    surroundings
  • Often, a combination of direct and indirect
    methods is used.

17
Literary elements Characterization
  • Whether characters in a story are real or
    imagined, they should possess certain basic
    qualities that make them believable and
    interesting.
  • Characters are not all good or all bad.
  • Characters are consistent in their actions.
  • Characters are clearly motivated, with
    understandable reasoning.
  • If there is a change in their actions, there is a
    reason behind it.

18
Literary elements Characterization
  • Characters that change
  • Generally, one or more of a storys characters
    change as a result of the events of the story.
  • A character who grows emotionally, learns a
    lesson, or alters his or her behavior is called a
    dynamic character. This fully developed character
    is a round character Jerry from Through The
    Tunnel
  • A character who is simple, who remains unchanged
    throughout a story, is known as a static
    character, or flat character Lennie from Of
    Mice and Men.

19
Literary elements Elements of storytelling
  • Plot the sequence of events in a story.
  • Conflict struggles between opposing forces.
  • Setting particular time, environment, and place
    in which events occur.
  • Point of view the vantage point from which a
    story is told. The two basic points of view are
    first-person and third-person.

20
Literary elements Plot
  • Plot is the chain of related events that take
    place in a story. A plot is almost always built
    around conflict. Most plots include these stages
    of development
  • Exposition includes background about characters,
    conflict, and setting.
  • Rising action suspense builds because
    complications arise that make the conflict more
    difficult for the main character(s) to resolve.
  • Climax the turning point of the action, when the
    readers interest reaches its highest point.
  • Falling action and resolution The conflict ends
    and loose ends are tied up.

21
Literary elements Conflict
  • Most stories are built around a central conflict
    or struggle between opposing forces.
  • The five basic forms of conflict are person
    versus person person versus self person versus
    nature person versus society person versus a
    supernatural force.

22
Literary Elements Conflict
  • Conflict is also seen as
  • Internal occurs inside the character (fear,
    doubt, confusion, guilt)
  • External the character is pitted against another
    character, outside force (such as nature) a
    physical obstacle, even a supernatural force
  • Usually, there is one central conflict in a
    story, but many stories have more than one
    struggle.

23
Literary element Point of View
  • The vantage point from which a story is told.
  • First person told by one of the characters in
    his or her own words.
  • Third person told by someone not in the story. A
    narrator who is not a character describes the
    events and characters. One version of third
    person is called third-person omniscient the
    narrator is all-knowing and can see into the
    minds of all the characters, providing the most
    information possible.

24
Literary Element Point of View
  • Effects of using different points of view
  • First person more limited (only view of one
    character) more subjective (told as one person
    sees it, which may not be as it really is) more
    personal (goes deeper into the mind and emotions
    of one specific character).
  • Third person more complete (can look into any
    characters thoughts, views, emotions) told from
    a variety of perspectives (truer picture) less
    development on one specific character
    (development of many characters)

25
Literary elements Extended metaphor
  • Review Metaphor A figure of speech which
    involves an implied comparison between two
    relatively unlike things. The comparison is not
    announced by like or as.
  • An extended metaphor carries the comparison
    another step and extends it through your writing.
    It often includes metaphors and similes.

26
Literary elements Extended metaphor
  • Lets think of one comparing writing to playing
    basketball. Start by listing all the basketball
    words you can think of to see how they could be
    used in a comparison
  • dribble jump shot three-pointer
  • foul free throw time out
  • referee camping in the lane net
  • shoot bounce pass half-time
  • warm-ups equipment rebound
  • defense offense assist
  • goal tending slam dunk swish
  • pick technical steal

27
Literary elements Extended metaphor
  • Then write
  • For me, writing is like playing basketball. As
    I prepare for practice, I gather my equipment a
    pencil, pad of paper, a dictionary, and a Diet
    Coke. My warm-ups include doodling on the edge of
    the paper while I contemplate what to write. When
    my mind is sufficiently stretched, I begin
    writing.

28
Literary elements Extended metaphor
  • The words start in my head and dribble down my
    arm, through my pencil, and onto the page. It
    isnt always smooth Sometimes, I get a fast
    break, and the words come faster than I can write
    them down. Other times, I throw the ball away,
    writing in a direction that doesnt match my
    topic. Then I take a time-out and drink my Diet
    Coke.

29
Literary elements Allusion
  • Review
  • An allusion is a brief reference to a person,
    event, place, or phrase outside of a story that
    the writer assumes the reader will recognize.
  • An allusive reference can be real or fictional.
  • A literary allusion refers to another written
    work, art piece, book, etc.

30
Literary elements Allusion
  • Two Kinds
  • Shirley Temple
  • Cinderella
  • Readers Digest Ripleys Believe It Or Not
  • Jehosaphat
  • Grieg, Beethoven, Schumann
  • Hula-Hoop
  • Madame Butterfly
  • Alakazam!
  • Stanford
  • The Ed Sullivan Show

31
Literary elements
  • Consider this passage from The Most Dangerous
    Game
  • It was General Zaroff. He made his way along
    with his eyes fixed in utmost concentration on
    the ground before him. He paused, almost beneath
    the tree, dropped to his knees, and studied the
    ground. Rainsfords impulse was to hurl himself
    down like a panther, but he saw that the
    generals right hand held something metallic a
    small, automatic pistol (70).

32
Literary elements Review
  • Diction involves a writers selection of
    language.
  • Diction may be described as formal or informal,
    abstract or concrete, figurative or literal.
  • Irony is the contrast between what is expected
    and what actually exists or happens. Three types
    of irony include
  • Situational irony the contrast between what a
    character or the reader expects to happen and
    what actually happens.
  • Verbal irony occurs when someone says one thing
    but means another (a common form is sarcasm).
  • Dramatic irony contrast between what a character
    knows and what reader or audience knows.

33
Personification
  • For each of the following objects, give a human
    characteristic or action that could be applied to
    it in description
  • An old car
  • A rocking chair
  • A turtle
  • A trampoline
  • For each of the objects listed below, write a
    sentence in which the object is personified
  • A drawer
  • A blender
  • A tree

34
Literary elements Figurative language
  • Whenever you describe something by comparing it
    with something else, you are using figurative
    language. Any language that goes beyond the
    literal meaning of words in order to furnish new
    effects or fresh insights into an idea or a
    subject. Three common figures of speech are
    personification, simile, and metaphor.

35
Literary Elements Figurative language
  • Simile A figure of speech which involves a direct
    comparison between two unlike things, usually
    with the words like or as.
  • Example He threw baseballs as if they were
    bullets.
  • The wheat field lies like liquid gold.
  • Metaphor A figure of speech which involves an
    implied comparison between two relatively unlike
    things. The comparison is not announced by like
    or as.
  • Example The road was a ribbon of moonlight.

36
Literary elements Figurative language
  • Personification A figure of speech which gives
    the qualities of a person to an animal, an
    object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the
    author uses to show something in an entirely new
    light, to communicate a certain feeling or
    attitude towards it and to control the way a
    reader perceives it.
  • Example The brave, handsome brute fell with a
    creaking rending cry (the author is giving a tree
    human qualities).

37
Literary Elements Satire
  • A text or performance that uses irony, derision,
    or wit to expose or attack human vice,
    foolishness, or stupidity.

38
Literary elements Allegory
  • Allegory an extended metaphor, especially a
    story in which fictional characters and actions
    are used to understand and express aspects of
    concepts relating to human existence.
  • It is a figurative representation conveying a
    meaning other than, and in addition to, the
    literal meaning.

39
Literary Elements Review for quiz
  • Plot Allusion
  • Setting Theme
  • Foreshadowing Conflict
  • Flashback Characterization
  • Symbolism Point of view
  • Metaphor Simile
  • Personification Protagonist
  • Antagonist
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